In 1997, a core set of six principles was established by ecological economist Robert Costanza for the sustainability governance of the oceans. These six principles became known as the "Lisbon Principles": together they provide basic guidelines for administering the use of common natural and social resources.[1][2]

See also


  1. ^ Costanza, R. et al. 2007. Lisbon principles of sustainable governance. In: Encyclopaedia of Earth. Ed. C. J. Cleveland. Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington D.C. Published in Encyclopaedia of the Earth August 9, 2007; retrieved February 6, 2009.[1] Archived January 29, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Costanza, R. et al. 1998. Principles for sustainable governance of the oceans. Science 281: 198-199. (also Nature 387: 253-260 (1997) see above.)