The Apiales are an order of flowering plants. The families are those recognized in the APG III system.[1] This is typical of the newer classifications, though there is some slight variation and in particular, the Torriceliaceae may be divided.[2] Under this definition, well-known members include carrots, celery, and parsley. The order Apiales is placed within the asterid group of eudicots as circumscribed by the APG III system.[1] Within the asterids, Apiales belongs to an unranked group called the campanulids,[3] and within the campanulids, it belongs to a clade known in phylogenetic nomenclature as Apiidae.[4] In 2010, a subclade of Apiidae named Dipsapiidae was defined to consist of the three orders: Apiales, Paracryphiales, and Dipsacales.[5]

The anthophytes are a grouping of plant taxa bearing flower-like reproductive structures. They were formerly thought to be a clade comprising plants bearing flower-like structures. The group contained the angiosperms - the extant flowering plants, such as roses and grasses - as well as the Gnetales and the extinct Bennettitales.[6]

23,420 species of vascular plant have been recorded in South Africa, making it the sixth most species-rich country in the world and the most species-rich country on the African continent. Of these, 153 species are considered to be threatened.[7] Nine biomes have been described in South Africa: Fynbos, Succulent Karoo, desert, Nama Karoo, grassland, savanna, Albany thickets, the Indian Ocean coastal belt, and forests.[8]

The 2018 South African National Biodiversity Institute's National Biodiversity Assessment plant checklist lists 35,130 taxa in the phyla Anthocerotophyta (hornworts (6)), Anthophyta (flowering plants (33534)), Bryophyta (mosses (685)), Cycadophyta (cycads (42)), Lycopodiophyta (Lycophytes(45)), Marchantiophyta (liverworts (376)), Pinophyta (conifers (33)), and Pteridophyta (cryptogams (408)).[9]

Three families are represented in the literature. Listed taxa include species, subspecies, varieties, and forms as recorded, some of which have subsequently been allocated to other taxa as synonyms, in which cases the accepted taxon is appended to the listing. Multiple entries under alternative names reflect taxonomic revision over time.

Apiaceae

Main article: List of Apiaceae of South Africa

Family: Apiaceae,[9] 65 genera have been recorded. Not all are necessarily currently accepted.

Araliaceae

Family: Araliaceae,[9]

Aralia

Genus Aralia:[9]

Cussonia

Genus Cussonia:[9]

Dizygotheca

Genus Dizygotheca:[9]

Hedera

Genus Hedera:[9]

Trichoneura

Genus Trichoneura:[9]

Schefflera

Genus Schefflera:[9]

Seemannaralia

Genus Seemannaralia:[9]

Pittosporaceae

Family: Pittosporaceae,[9]

Billardiera

Genus Billardiera:[9]

Hymenosporum

Genus Hymenosporum:[9]

Pittosporum

Genus Pittosporum:[9]

References

  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Archived from the original on 2017-05-25.
  2. ^ Plunkett, Gregory M.; Chandler, Gregory T.; Lowry, Porter P.; Pinney, Steven M.; Sprenkle, Taylor S. (2004). "Recent advances in understanding Apiales and a revised classification". South African Journal of Botany. 70 (3): 371–381. doi:10.1016/s0254-6299(15)30220-9.
  3. ^ Winkworth, Richard C.; Lundberg, Johannes; Donoghue, Michael J. (2008). "Toward a resolution of Campanulid phylogeny, with special reference to the placement of Dipsacales". Taxon. 57 (1): 53–65.
  4. ^ Philip D. Cantino; James A. Doyle; Sean W. Graham; Walter S. Judd; Richard G. Olmstead; Douglas E. Soltis; Pamela S. Soltis; Michael J. Donoghue (2007), "Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta" (PDF), Taxon, 56 (3): 822–846, doi:10.2307/25065865, JSTOR 25065865
  5. ^ Tank, D. C.; Donoghue, M. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and Phylogenetic Nomenclature of the Campanulidae based on an Expanded Sample of Genes and Taxa". Systematic Botany. 35 (2): 425. doi:10.1600/036364410791638306.
  6. ^ Doyle, J. A.; Donoghue, M. J. (1986). "Seed plant phylogeny and the origin of the angiosperms - an experimental cladistic approach". Botanical Review. 52 (4): 321–431. doi:10.1007/bf02861082.
  7. ^ Butler, Rhett A. (1 July 2019). "Total number of plant species by country". Mongabay. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  8. ^ "Vegetation of South Africa". PlantZAfrica.com. SA National Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca "species_checklist_20180710.csv". South African National Biodiversity Institute. Retrieved 27 September 2020.