The following list contains notable inventions and discoveries made by ethnic Armenians, including those not born or living in modern-day Armenia and those of partial Armenian ancestry.

List

Name Country/citizenship Field Invention/discovery (date)
Abram Alikhanov Soviet Union Nuclear physics First heavy water nuclear reactor in USSR and Europe[1]
Agrippina Vaganova[2] Russian Empire, Soviet Union Arts Vaganova method (1930s)[3]
Albert Zaven Kapikian[4][5] United States Medicine Rotavirus vaccine (1997)[6]
Alexander Kemurdzhian[7] Soviet Union Aerospace engineering First planetary rover, Lunokhod 1 (1970)[8][9]
Andronik Iosifyan Soviet Union Electrical engineering Electrical part of R-7 Semyorka and Soyuz spacecraft[10]
Armen Alchian[11] United States Economics New institutional economics (with Ronald Coase and Harold Demsetz)[16] (1946–84)
Armen Takhtajan[17] Soviet Union, Russia, Armenia Botany Takhtajan system (1950)[18]
Artem Mikoyan Soviet Union Aerospace engineering Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-9, the first Soviet turbo jet fighter (1946)[19]
Avedis Donabedian[20][21][22] United States Healthcare Donabedian model (1980–88)[23]
Avie Tevanian United States Computer science Mach kernel, NeXTStep, macOS[24]
Benjamin Markarian Soviet Union Astronomy Markarian's Chain (1961)[25]
Markarian galaxies (1965–80)[26]
Boris Babayan Soviet Union, Russia Computer science Elbrus supercomputer[27]
Cyrus Melikian[28] United States Electrical engineering Coffee vending machine (1947; with Lloyd Rudd)[29][30][31]
Edward Keonjian[32] United States Electrical engineering First solar-powered, pocket-sized radio transmitter (1954)[33]
Emil Artin[34][35] Austria, United States Mathematics Co-author of Moderne Algebra (1930)
Gabriel Kazanjian[36] United States Electrical engineering Hand-held hair dryer (1911)[37][38][39]
George Adomian United States Mathematics Adomian decomposition method (1980s)[40]
Gurgen Askaryan[41] Soviet Union Physics Askaryan effect (1962)[42]
Hovannes Adamian Germany, Armenia, Russia Electrical engineering Color television[43]
Ignacy Łukasiewicz[44][45] Austrian Poland Chemical engineering First kerosene lamp (1853)[46]
First oil refinery (1856)[47]
Leonid Khachiyan[48][49] Soviet Union, United States Mathematics Ellipsoid method (1979)[50][51]
Luther Simjian[52] United States Electrical engineering Prototype of automated teller machine (ATM) (1960)[53][54]
Mesrop Mashtots Kingdom of Armenia Linguistics Armenian alphabet (c. 405)[55][56]
Georgian alphabet[57][58] (c. 408;[59] disputed)
Caucasian Albanian alphabet[60][57][58] (c. 422)[59]
Michael Artin[61] United States Mathematics Artin approximation theorem (1969)[62]
Michel Ter-Pogossian[63][64] United States Medicine Positron emission tomography (PET) (1974)[65]
Mikhail Pogosyan Russia Aerospace engineering Sukhoi Su-47[66]
Raymond Vahan Damadian[67] United States Medicine Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (1977)[68][69][70]
(disputed with Paul Lauterbur)[71][72]
Rolan Martirosov [ru][73] Russia Aerospace engineering Sukhoi Su-34[74][75] (1990s)[76]
Samvel Kocharyants Soviet Union Nuclear physics First Soviet nuclear warheads for ballistic missiles[77]
Sarkis Acopian Soviet Union Electrical engineering Solar-powered radio (1957)[78][79][80]
Semyon Kirlian[81] Soviet Union Photography Kirlian photography (1939)[82]
Sergey Mergelyan[83] Soviet Union Mathematics Mergelyan's theorem (1951)[84]
Stephen Stepanian United States Industrial engineering Concrete mixer truck (1916)[85][86]
Viktor Ambartsumian Soviet Union, Armenia Astronomy Stellar association (1947)[87][88]
Yuri Oganessian[89] Soviet Union, Russia Nuclear physics Discovery of superheavy elements:[90] Flerovium (1999),[91] Livermorium (2000),[92] Oganesson (2002),[93] Moscovium (2003),[94] Nihonium (2004),[95] Tennessine (2009)[96]

See also

References

  1. ^ Biography of Abram Alikhanov on ITEP.ru (Russian)
  2. ^ Walker, Christopher J. (22 August 1981). "Dispersed. Review of The Armenians: A People in Exile David Marshall Lang (Allen and Unwin pp.203, 12.95)". The Spectator. No. 247. p. 22. Leading Armenians ... such as Agrippina Vaganova (Vahanian, in Armenian), director of the Maryinsky, later Kirov, Ballet, and author of Fundamentals of the Classic Dance;...
  3. ^ Kisselgoff, Anna (June 16, 1987). "WITH AN OPEN MIND, CLAUDE BESSY MOLDS PARIS BALLET SCHOOL'S FUTURE". The New York Times. In the Soviet Union, the curriculum developed by the teacher Agrippina Vaganova in the 1930's is applied throughout the country.
  4. ^ Langer, Emily (March 21, 2014). "Albert Z. Kapikian, prominent National Institutes of Health virologist, dies at 83". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Albert Zaven Kapikian was born May 9, 1930, in the Bronx to Armenian immigrants.
  5. ^ Morens, David M.; Fauci, Anthony S. (2015). "In Memoriam: Albert Z. Kapikian, MD, 1930–2014". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 211 (8): 1199–1201. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiv034. PMID 25737559. The second profound influence was his parents’ harrowing escapes from the 1915 Armenian genocide...
  6. ^ "Vaccine for a Global Childhood Illness Passes Last Big Hurdle". The New York Times. (via Associated Press). October 23, 1997. Dr. Kapikian is the principal creator of the rotavirus vaccine...
  7. ^ "Alexander Kemurdjian". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Alexander Kemurdjian was a pioneering scientist, of Armenian heritage...
  8. ^ Benson, Alvin K. (2010). Inventors & Inventions. Salem Press. p. 1285. ISBN 9781587655265. Kemurdzhian, Alexander (October 4, 1921 -February 25, 2003): Russian. Kemurdzhian designed Lunokhod 1, the first space-exploration rover, which roamed on the Moon in 1970.
  9. ^ Harvey, Brian (2007). Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 249. ISBN 9780387739762.
  10. ^ The first steps of domestic rocket production (Russian)
  11. ^ ""The Armenian Adam Smith": UCLA Holds Conference in Honor of Armenian Economist". Asbarez. May 26, 2006. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020.
  12. ^ Heinsohn, Gunnar; Steiger, Otto (2013). Ownership Economics: On the Foundations of Interest, Money, Markets, Business Cycles and Economic Development. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781135131906. Along with Demsetz, Armen Alchian is regarded as one of the founders of new institutional economics.
  13. ^ Read, Colin (2015). The Corporate Financiers: Williams, Modigliani, Miller, Coase, Williamson, Alchian, Demsetz, Jensen and Meckling. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-137-34128-0. Alchian [...] was also viewed as a pioneer and co-founder of the New Institutional Economics revival, of which UCLA was at the center.
  14. ^ Benjamin, Daniel (February 19, 2013). "In Memoriam: Armen Alchian (1914 – 2013)". Property and Environment Research Center. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Alchian is best known to younger economists as one of the founders of the New Institutional Economics...
  15. ^ Higgs, Robert (February 19, 2013). "Armen Alchian (April 12, 1914 – February 19, 2013)". Independent Institute. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Yet, aside from Ronald Coase, no one had a greater influence in creating and fostering what has come to be known as the New Institutional Economics, one of the most notable improvements in mainstream economics during the past half century.
  16. ^ [12][13][14][15]
  17. ^ Stevens, William K. (April 6, 1993). "SCIENTIST AT WORK: Armen Takhtajan; Botanist Plans Survey of World's Flowers". The New York Times. ...in his native Armenia.
  18. ^ Gabrielyan, Ivan; Kovar-Eder, Johanna (October 2009). "In memoriam Armen Leonovich Takhtajan" (PDF). IOP Newsletter. International Organisation of Palaeobotany (International Union of Biological Sciences). 91: 8–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-10-23.
  19. ^ Schuster, Carl O. (2015) [1999]. "Mikoyan, Artem Ivanovich". In Zabecki, David T. (ed.). World War II in Europe: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 415. The result was the MiG-9, the first Soviet jet fighter.
  20. ^ Berkowitz, Edward (April 16, 1998). "Interview with Avedis Donabedian". nlm.nih.gov. United States National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 16 September 2021.
  21. ^ Best, M.; Neuhauser, D. (2004). "Avedis Donabedian: father of quality assurance and poet". BMJ Quality & Safety. 13 (6): 472–473. doi:10.1136/qshc.2004.012591. PMC 1743903. PMID 15576711.
  22. ^ Frenk, Julio (2000). "Obituary: Avedis Donabedian" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 78 (12): 1475. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-09-16.
  23. ^ McQuestion, Michael J. (2006). "Conceptualizing Quality of Care" (PDF). jhsph.edu. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2021. The most common framework is that of Donabedian (1980, 1986, 1988) who conceptualized three quality-of-care dimensions.
  24. ^ Highlights of Avie Tevanian's interview at the Computer History Museum
  25. ^ Markarian, B.E. (1961). "Physical chain of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and its dynamic instability". Astronomical Journal. 66: 555–557. Bibcode:1961AJ.....66..555M.
  26. ^ Mickaelian, Areg M. (October 2013). "Markarian survey and Markarian galaxies". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 9: 1–10. doi:10.1017/S1743921314003147. S2CID 122731075.
  27. ^ Pioneering Architect of Soviet-era Computing
  28. ^ "K. Cyrus Melikian, an inventor with a coffee focus". The Philadelphia Inquirer. December 5, 2008. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. Mr. Melikian's parents escaped the 1919 Armenian massacre and immigrated to Philadelphia shortly before he was born.
  29. ^ Knight, Jerry (April 11, 1988). "THE ULTIMATE FRENCH FRY MACHINE". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Okay, so maybe nobody remembers that Melikian and partner Lloyd Rudd invented the coffee vending system...
  30. ^ "MACHINE TO SERVE HOT COFFEE SHOWN; Developed by Rudd-Melikian, Big Demand Seen by Schools, Factories and Cafeterias". The New York Times. September 25, 1947.
  31. ^ Hicks, James L. (January 17, 1948). "Veteran's Whirl". The Ohio State News. Columbus, Ohio. p. 14. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Take the case of Lloyd Rudd and Cyrus Melikian. They were shivering in a railroad station one day when they walked up to a vending machine which was dishing out cold drinks for a nickel. "This damn thing should be giving out hot coffee instead of cold drinks," Rudd said. "That's an idea," said Melikian, and the two men invented "Kwik Kafe" hot coffee vending machine.
  32. ^ "Obituaries: Edward Keonjian". apnews.com. Associated Press. September 11, 1999. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. In 1954, Keonjian designed the world’s first solar-powered, pocket-sized radio transmitter. ... Keonjian, an Armenian...
  33. ^ Brown, Pete (October 6, 2009). "Keonjian Distinguished Professorship Honors Life and Work of "Father of Microelectronics"". engr.arizona.edu. University of Arizona. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Keonjian was a pioneer of low-power electronics, and in 1954 designed the world's first solar-powered, pocket-sized radio transmitter...
  34. ^ Yandell, Benjamin (2001). The Honors Class: Hilbert's Problems and Their Solvers. CRC Press. p. 230. ISBN 9781439864227. Emil Artin was born on March 3, 1898, in Vienna, the son of an art dealer and grandson of an Armenian merchant of handmade rugs.
  35. ^ Faith, Carl (2004). Rings And Things And A Fine Array Of Twentieth Century Associative Algebra (Mathematical Surveys and Monographs Volume 65). American Mathematical Society. p. 353. Mike [Artin] explained to me the Armenian origin of the family name, Artinian, which had been shortened in Germany and the United States.
  36. ^ Nodjimbadem, Katie (June 15, 2016). "Amazon's Jeff Bezos Honored at Citizenship Ceremony". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. An Armenian immigrant named Gabriel Kazanjian patented the first handheld hairdryer in 1911 in Chicago.
  37. ^ "A Lot of Hot Air". The New York Times. 28 April 2016. In 1911, the Armenian-American inventor Gabriel Kazanjian received the first patent for a hand-held hair dryer....
  38. ^ "Hair dryer". maas.museum. Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. In 1911 the first hair dryer was patented by American, Gabriel Kazanjian
  39. ^ "US994259A: Hair-drier". patents.google.com. Google Patents. 1911-06-06 Application granted
  40. ^ Cano, J. A. Sánchez (2011). "Adomian Decomposition Method for a Class of Nonlinear Problems". ISRN Applied Mathematics. Hindawi. 2011: 1–10. doi:10.5402/2011/709753. S2CID 73151867.
  41. ^ Bolotovskii, Boris (November 2000). "Reminiscences of Gurgen Askaryan". RADHEP-2000: First International Workshop on Radio Detection of High-Energy Particles. University of California, Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. All his life Gurgen Ashotovich Askaryan lived and worked in Moscow. He spoke about himself: \I am an Armenian of the Moscow bottling".
  42. ^ Miller, Katrina (April 27, 2021). "Searching for the Universe's Most Energetic Particles, Astronomers Turn on the Radio". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. This phenomenon is known as the Askaryan effect, after Russian-Armenian physicist Gurgen Askaryan, who first predicted it in 1962.
  43. ^ Hovhannes Adamyan: The Innovator of Color TV
  44. ^ Ziółkowska-Boehm, Aleksandra (2013). The Polish Experience Through World War II. Lexington Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7391-7819-5. The Polish Armenians have become an integral part of our Polish culture. Armenians ancestors ... brought us many famous people, such as: Ignacy Łukasiewicz...
  45. ^ Puda-Blokesz, Magdalena (20 July 2011). "Ignacy Łukasiewicz" (PDF). chemia.zamkor.pl (in Polish). ZamKor. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2014. Ten ormiański szlachcic herbu Łada walczył w szeregach Tadeusza Kościuszki.
  46. ^ Wołkowicz, Stanisław; Graniczny, Marek; Wołkowicz, Krystyna; Urban, Halina (2016). "History of the oil industry in Poland until 1939". Special Publications. Geological Society of London. 442: 401–411. doi:10.1144/SP442.32. S2CID 132429686. ...the invention of an effective modern kerosene lamp by Ignacy Łukasiewicz in 1853.
  47. ^ Groysman, Alec (2014). "History of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products". Corrosion in Systems for Storage and Transportation of Petroleum Products and Biofuels. p. 224. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7884-9_10. ISBN 978-94-007-7884-9. ...the Polish pharmacist Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (1822–1882) residing in Lvov and who built in 1856 probably the first oil refinery in the world.
  48. ^ "World Renowned Computer Scientist Leonid G. Khachiyan Dies at 52". Rutgers University Department of Computer Science. Archived from the original on 2016-09-11. (archived PDF) "Of Armenian descent, Khachiyan was born on May 3, 1952, in St. Petersburg..."
  49. ^ Whitney, Craig R. (November 27, 1979). "Soviet Mathematician Is Obscure No More". The New York Times. Mr. Khachiyan is of Armenian background...
  50. ^ Bland, Robert G.; Goldfarb, Donald; Todd, Michael J. (1981). "The Ellipsoid Method: A Survey" (PDF). Operations Research. 29 (6): 1039–1091. doi:10.1287/opre.29.6.1039. JSTOR 170362. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-01.
  51. ^ Todd, Michael (October 2005). "Leonid Khachiyan, 1952–2005: An Appreciation". SIAG/OPT Views-and-News. SIAM Activity Group on Optimization. 16 (1–2): 4–6. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.131.3938.
  52. ^ Gilpin, Kenneth N. (November 2, 1997). "Luther Simjian Is Dead at 92; Held More Than 200 Patents". New York Times. p. 45. While he was born in Turkey, he was of Armenian descent.
  53. ^ Bandon, Alexandra (January 4, 1998). "The Lives They Lived; Make It New". The New York Times. p. 40. ...his most famous invention was a 1960 bank-deposit machine that was the basis for the now-ubiquitous A.T.M., from which he never made a penny.
  54. ^ Konheim, Alan G. (2016). "Automated teller machines: their history and authentication protocols". Journal of Cryptographic Engineering. 6: In 1962, Luther Simjian was issued a patent for an early and not-very-successful prototype of an ATM. doi:10.1007/s13389-015-0104-3. S2CID 1706990.
  55. ^ Bournoutian, George (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People (5th ed.). Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 54.
  56. ^ Sanjian, Avedis K. (1996). "The Armenian Alphabet". In Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. pp. 356-363. ISBN 9780195079937.
  57. ^ a b J. R. Russell. "Alphabets". In Bowersock, G. W.; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg (eds.). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. p. 289. Maštocʿ also created the Georgian and Caucasian-Albanian alphabets, based on the Armenian model.
  58. ^ a b Clackson, James (2015). "The languages of Christianity". Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 9780521192354. Having discovered his talent for script creation, Mesrop also invented distinctive new alphabets for the Georgians, and for the Caucasian Albanians, acts of generosity still frequently unacknowledged.
  59. ^ a b Acharian, Hrachia (1984). Հայոց գրերը [The Armenian Letters] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing. pp. 390–392.
  60. ^ Jost, Gippert (2011). "The script of the Caucasian Albanians in the light of the Sinai palimpsests". Die Entstehung der kaukasischen Alphabete als kulturhistorisches Phänomen : Referate des internationalen Symposions (Wien, 1.-4. Dezember 2005) = The creation of the Caucasian alphabets as phenomenon of cultural history. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. pp. 39–50. ISBN 9783700170884. Nevertheless, the“Armenian” basis of the alphabet seems clear enough, thus confirming the historical tradition which attributes the invention of the Albanian script to Mesrop Maštoc.
  61. ^ Robertson, Edmund; O'Connor, John. "Michael Artin". MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 30 April 2021. Emil Artin, born in Vienna, was descended from an Armenian carpet merchant.
  62. ^ Artin, Michael (1969), "Algebraic approximation of structures over complete local rings", Publications Mathématiques de l'IHÉS, 36 (36): 23–58, doi:10.1007/BF02684596, MR 0268188, S2CID 4617543
  63. ^ Wackers, Frans J. Th. (August 2018). "Michael M. Ter-Pogossian (1925-1996)". Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 25 (4): 1090–1091. doi:10.1007/s12350-018-1313-9. PMID 29869324. S2CID 46934249.
  64. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (June 21, 1996). "Michel M. Ter-Pogossian, 71; Led Research on PET Scanner". The New York Times. p. 25.
  65. ^ "Michel Ter-Pogossian Honored as Nuclear Medicine Pioneer". The Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 26 (5): 449. May 1985.
  66. ^ Su-47 Berkut
  67. ^ Edson, Lee (February 6, 1986). "Books: Beyond X-rays". The New York Times. He is Dr. Raymond Damadian, the son of an Armenian-born father and a French-Armenian mother, and the inventor of the nuclear magnetic resonance scanner...
  68. ^ "Raymond Damadian". lemelson.mit.edu. Lemelson–MIT Prize. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Developed the first MR (Magnetic Resonance) Scanning Machine
  69. ^ Macchia, Richard J.; Termine, Jack E.; Buchen, Charles D. (2007). "Raymond V. Damadian, M.D.: magnetic resonance imaging and the controversy of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". The Journal of Urology. American Urological Association. 178 (1): 783–5. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.05.019. PMID 17631325. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine can be awarded to a maximum of 3 scientists for any single discovery but in this instance was only given to 2. Excluding Doctor Damadian seems to be a serious and purposeful omission.
  70. ^ Kauffman, George (2014). "Nobel Prize for MRI Imaging Denied to Raymond V. Damadian a Decade Ago". The Chemical Educator. 19: 73–90. ISSN 1430-4171. Archived from the original on 2017-11-10. This article surveys previous contributions to nuclear magnetic resonance for which Nobel Prizes were awarded, explores Damadian’s personal and professional career, and concludes that Damadian’s seminal discovery preceded and was more fundamental than Lauterbur’s developments.
  71. ^ Wade, Nicholas (October 11, 2003). "Doctor Disputes Winners of Nobel in Medicine". The New York Times.
  72. ^ "Raymond Vahan Damadian". nationalmedals.org. National Medal of Technology. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. For their independent contributions in conceiving and developing the application of magnetic resonance technology to medical uses including whole body scanning and diagnostic imaging.
  73. ^ "Rolan Martirosov, Chief Builder of Su-34, Dead at 84". Hetq. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Martirosov, born to an Armenian family from the Karabakh village of Chardakhlu...
  74. ^ "Chief designer of Sukhoi-34 Rollan Martirosov dies at 84". TASS. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 24 April 2020. The chief designer of Russia’s multifunctional fighter-bomber Sukhoi-34... [...] He carried out technical supervision of the main solutions used in the Sukhoi-34 fighter bomber...
  75. ^ "Главный конструктор фронтового бомбардировщика Су-34 Роллан Мартиросов награжден Орденом Александра Невского" (in Russian). Sukhoi. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Под его непосредственным техническим руководством разработаны и воплощены основные технические решения Су-34.
  76. ^ "Биография Роллана Мартиросова [Biography of Rollan Martirosov]" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 8 February 2022. В 1991 году Мартиросов стал главным конструктором фронтового бомбардировщика Су- 34 (в 1999 году его должность стала называться главный конструктор-директор программы по теме 10 "В" ОАО "ОКБ Сухого").
  77. ^ Биография Самвел Кочарянц
  78. ^ "Sarkis Acopian". muhlenberg.edu. Muhlenberg College. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. In 1957, he took out a loan from a local bank and began his journey. That same year he designed and manufactured the first ever solar radio.
  79. ^ Karapetian, Alex (June 2017). "Acopian: Powering the World Behind the Scenes for 60 Years". IEEE Power Electronics Magazine. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 4 (2): 103–104. doi:10.1109/MPEL.2017.2692478. ... Sarkis Acopian ... developed something that is in wide use today—the solar radio. It was the first recorded solar-powered radio ever manufactured for commercial use.
  80. ^ Dent, Charlie. "Honoring Sarkis Acopian". govinfo.gov. United States Government Publishing Office. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. After forming the Acopian Technical Company in 1957, he designed and manufactured the first ever solar radio. Congressional Record, Volume 153, Number 21 (Monday, February 5, 2007), Pages H1173-H1174
  81. ^ Ponomarev, Fedor (26 February 2020). ""Пошёл дальше Теслы». Кем был изобретатель «эффекта Кирлиана"". kuban.aif.ru (in Russian). Argumenty i Fakty. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Семён Кирлиан появился на свет в большой армянской семье...
  82. ^ Pilkington, Mark (4 February 2004). "Bodies of light". The Guardian.
  83. ^ Arakelian, N. U.; Sahakian, A. A. (2008). "Сергей Никитович Мергелян (1928-2008) [Sergey Nikitovich Mergelyan (1928-2008)]". Proceedings of the NAS Armenia: Mathematics (in Russian). National Academy of Sciences of Armenia. 43 (6): 3–5. (archived text)
  84. ^ "Mergelyan theorem". Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Archived from the original on 19 July 2020.
  85. ^ "Stephen Stepanian portrait". Columbus Metropolitan Library. 25 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Stepanian was the inventor of the motor-truck concrete mixer and is the "father" of the ready-mixed concrete industry. Stepanian designed a self-discharging motorized concrete transit mixer in 1916.
  86. ^ "Ready Mixed Concrete". cement.org. Portland Cement Association. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. In 1916, Stephen Stepanian of Columbus, Ohio, developed a self-discharging motorized transit mixer that was the predecessor of the modern ready-mixed concrete truck.
  87. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (15 August 1996). "Viktor A. Ambartsumyan, 87, Expert on Formation of Stars". The New York Times. p. 22. In 1947 he introduced the concept of stellar association into astronomy.
  88. ^ Israelian, Garik (1997). "Obituary: Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian, 1912 [i.e. 1908] -1996". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 29 (4): 1466–1467. Bibcode:1997BAAS...29.1466I. Discovery of Stellar Associations, 1947
  89. ^ "President Armen Sarkissian hosts academician Yuri Oganessian". Armenpress. 12 July 2018. Archived from the original on 14 July 2018. President Sarkissian said he has signed a decree on July 11 on granting Yuri Oganessian a citizenship of Armenia.
  90. ^ Chapman, Kit (30 November 2016). "What it takes to make a new element". Chemistry World. Royal Society of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2021.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)()
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