Map of launch complexes on Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral
Looking east, left-right: LC-41, LC-40, (center) LC-37B, Harrison Island, Vertical Integration Facility, and the ITL Warehouse on CCAFS in 2005

Cape Canaveral and adjacent Merritt Island on Florida's Atlantic coast are home to the USA's Eastern Range, the most active rocket range and spaceport in the country. The Eastern Range hosts two groundside operators: the military Cape Canaveral Space Force Station and the civilian Kennedy Space Center. Between them are dozens of launch pads, with several currently in active service and more in planning for activation.

Kennedy Space Center

Kennedy Space Center, operated by NASA, has two launch complexes on Merritt Island comprising four pads—two active, one under lease, and one inactive. From 1967 to 1975, it was the site of 13 Saturn V launches, three crewed Skylab flights and the Apollo–Soyuz; all Space Shuttle flights from 1981 to 2011, and one Ares 1-X flight in 2009. Since 2017, SpaceX uses Launch Complex 39A to launch their launch vehicles.

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Launch Complex 39A Active
Owned by NASA,
Leased to SpaceX
Current: Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy
Future: SpaceX Starship
Prior: Saturn V, Space Shuttle
28°36′30.2″N 80°36′15.6″W / 28.608389°N 80.604333°W / 28.608389; -80.604333 (LC-39A)
Launch Complex 39B Active[1]
Owned by NASA
Current: Space Launch System
Prior: Saturn V, Saturn IB (Skylab and Apollo–Soyuz), Space Shuttle, Ares 1-X
28°37′38″N 80°37′15″W / 28.62722°N 80.62083°W / 28.62722; -80.62083 (LC-39B)
Launch Complex 48 Inactive
Owned by NASA
LC-48 is designed as a "clean pad" to support multiple launch systems with differing propellant needs. It is awaiting its first customer. 28°35′55″N 80°35′20.8″W / 28.59861°N 80.589111°W / 28.59861; -80.589111 (LC-48)
Launch Complex 49 (Planned)[2] Planned
Owned by NASA
Requested for lease by SpaceX
Planned launch use by SpaceX Starship

Cape Canaveral Space Force Station

Cape Canaveral Space Force Station (CCSFS), operated by Space Launch Delta 45 of the U.S. Space Force, was the site of all U.S. crewed launches before Apollo 8, as well as many other early Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA launches. For the DoD, it plays a secondary role to Vandenberg SFB in California, but is the launch site for many NASA uncrewed space probes, as those spacecraft are typically launched on United States Space Force launchers. Much of the support activity for CCSFS occurs at Patrick Space Force Base to the south, its reporting base.

Active launch vehicles are in bold.

Active sites

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Launch Complex 13
(Landing Zone 1 and 2)
Active - Leased to SpaceX Current: Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy first stage landing site[3]
Prior: Atlas, Atlas Agena
Future: Phantom Space, Vaya Space.[4]
28°29′09″N 80°32′40″W / 28.4859°N 80.5444°W / 28.4859; -80.5444 (LZ1 & 2 (LC-13))
Space Launch Complex 37B Active - Used by United Launch Alliance Prior: Saturn I, Saturn IB, Delta IV Medium, Delta IV Heavy
Future: Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy, SpaceX Starship
28°31′55″N 80°34′01″W / 28.531986°N 80.566821°W / 28.531986; -80.566821 (SLC-37B (LC-37))
Space Launch Complex 40 Active - Leased to SpaceX Current: Falcon 9
Prior: Titan III, Titan IV, Falcon 9 v1.0, Falcon 9 1.1
28°33′44″N 80°34′38″W / 28.562106°N 80.577180°W / 28.562106; -80.577180 (SLC-40 (LC-40))
Space Launch Complex 41 Active - Used by United Launch Alliance Current: Atlas V, Vulcan
Prior: Titan III, Titan IV
28°35′00″N 80°34′59″W / 28.58333°N 80.58306°W / 28.58333; -80.58306 (SLC-41 (LC-41))
Launch Complex 47 Active (has not been used for some time) Current: Rocketsonde Sounding Rocket and Super Loki 28°32′57″N 80°34′03″W / 28.549123°N 80.5674339°W / 28.549123; -80.5674339 (LC-47)

Sites leased for future use

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Launch Complex 11 Undergoing renovation - Leased to Blue Origin Future: BE-4 test stand area for New Glenn
To be part of larger site which includes LC-36A and LC-36B of Spaceport Florida.
Prior: Atlas
28°28′32″N 80°32′26″W / 28.47556°N 80.54056°W / 28.47556; -80.54056 (LC-11)
Launch Complex 14 Inactive - Leased to Stoke Space Future: Stoke Space[4]
Prior: Atlas, Mercury/Atlas D, Atlas Agena
The site of all four crewed Mercury/Atlas launches.
28°29′28″N 80°32′49″W / 28.49111°N 80.54694°W / 28.49111; -80.54694 (LC-14)
Launch Complex 15 Inactive - Leased to ABL Space Systems Future:RS1[4]
Prior: Titan I, Titan II
28°29′47″N 80°32′57″W / 28.4963°N 80.5493°W / 28.4963; -80.5493 (LC-15)
Launch Complex 16 Undergoing renovation - Leased to Relativity Space Future: Terran R
Prior: Titan I, Titan II, Pershing 1a, Pershing II, Terran 1
28°30′06″N 80°33′06″W / 28.5017°N 80.5518°W / 28.5017; -80.5518 (LC-16)
Launch Complex 20 Inactive - Leased to Firefly Aerospace Future: Alpha, MLV
Prior: Titan I, Titan III, Starbird, Prospector, Aries, LCLV, Super Loki
28°30′44″N 80°33′24″W / 28.51222°N 80.55667°W / 28.51222; -80.55667 (LC-20)

Spaceport Florida

Main article: Spaceport Florida

As of 2008, Air Force Space Command committed to lease Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 36 to Space Florida for future use by the Athena III launch system.[5] It is not known if the plan was subsequently implemented.[needs update] Blue Origin leased Complex 36 in 2015, with plans to launch its reusable orbital vehicle from there by 2020 though as of early 2022 the launch is planned for the end of this year.[6]

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Space Launch Complex 36A Undergoing renovation
Leased to Spaceport Florida, subleased to Blue Origin[6]
Future: New Glenn[6]
Previous: Atlas/Centaur,[5]Atlas II[7]
28°28′14″N 80°32′24″W / 28.47056°N 80.54000°W / 28.47056; -80.54000 (LC-36)
Space Launch Complex 36B Undergoing renovation
Leased to Spaceport Florida, subleased to Blue Origin[6]
Future: New Glenn[6]
Previous: Atlas, Atlas II, Atlas III
Space Launch Complex 46 Active
Leased to Spaceport Florida, subleased to Astra[8][9]
Future: Rocket 4/5[10]
Previous: Athena, Trident II,[11] Minotaur IV,[12] Rocket 3
28°27′30″N 80°31′42″W / 28.45833°N 80.52833°W / 28.45833; -80.52833 (LC-46)

Inactive and previously used sites

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Launch Complex 1 Inactive Snark, Matador, Aerostat 28°27′54″N 80°32′15″W / 28.46500°N 80.53750°W / 28.46500; -80.53750 (LC-1)
Launch Complex 2 Inactive Snark, Matador, Aerostat 28°27′56″N 80°32′13″W / 28.46556°N 80.53694°W / 28.46556; -80.53694 (LC-2)
Launch Complex 3 Inactive Bumper-WAC, BOMARC, Polaris, X-17 28°27′57″N 80°32′13″W / 28.46583°N 80.53694°W / 28.46583; -80.53694 (LC-3)
Launch Complex 4 Inactive BOMARC, Redstone, Matador, Jason, Draco 28°28′00″N 80°32′08″W / 28.466667°N 80.535669°W / 28.466667; -80.535669 (LC-4)
Launch Complex 4A Inactive BOMARC
Launch Complex 5 Inactive Jupiter, Redstone, Mercury/Redstone.
The site of all six crewed and uncrewed Mercury/Redstone launches.
28°26′22″N 80°34′24″W / 28.43944°N 80.57333°W / 28.43944; -80.57333 (LC-5)
Launch Complex 6 Inactive Redstone, Jupiter 28°26′27″N 80°34′22″W / 28.44083°N 80.57278°W / 28.44083; -80.57278 (LC-6)
Launch Complex 9 Inactive Navaho 28°27′07″N 80°33′35″W / 28.45194°N 80.55972°W / 28.45194; -80.55972 (LC-9)
Launch Complex 10 Inactive Jason, Draco, Nike Tomahawk 28°27′07″N 80°33′25″W / 28.45194°N 80.55694°W / 28.45194; -80.55694 (LC-10)
Launch Complex 12 Inactive Atlas, Atlas Agena 28°28′49″N 80°32′31″W / 28.48028°N 80.54194°W / 28.48028; -80.54194 (LC-12)
Launch Complex 17A Demolished Thor, Delta II 28°26′48″N 80°33′58″W / 28.44667°N 80.56611°W / 28.44667; -80.56611 (SLC-17)
Launch Complex 17B Demolished Delta II, Delta III, Thor
Launch Complex 18 Inactive Viking, Vanguard, Thor, Blue Scout Junior, Blue Scout 28°26′57″N 80°33′44″W / 28.4493°N 80.5623°W / 28.4493; -80.5623 (LC-18)
Launch Complex 19 Inactive Titan I, Gemini/Titan II.
The site of all ten crewed Gemini/Titan II launches.
28°30′24″N 80°33′15″W / 28.50667°N 80.55417°W / 28.50667; -80.55417 (LC-19)
Launch Complex 21 Inactive Goose, Mace 28°27′38″N 80°32′24″W / 28.46056°N 80.54000°W / 28.46056; -80.54000 (LC-21)
Launch Complex 22 Inactive Goose, Mace 28°27′40″N 80°32′23″W / 28.4610°N 80.5398°W / 28.4610; -80.5398 (LC-22)
Launch Complex 25 Inactive Polaris, X-17, Poseidon, Trident I 28°25′55″N 80°34′37″W / 28.431988°N 80.576943°W / 28.431988; -80.576943 (LC-25)
Launch Complex 26 Inactive Jupiter, Redstone
Launch site of Explorer 1 - the first successful U.S. satellite
28°26′39″N 80°34′17″W / 28.44417°N 80.57139°W / 28.44417; -80.57139 (LC-26)
Launch Complex 29 Inactive Polaris[13] 28°25′47″N 80°34′38″W / 28.42972°N 80.57722°W / 28.42972; -80.57722 (LC-29)
Launch Complex 30A Inactive Pershing 1 28°26′22″N 80°34′50″W / 28.43945°N 80.58061°W / 28.43945; -80.58061 (LC-30)
Launch Complex 31 Inactive Minuteman, Pershing 1a.
Used as a burial vault for the Space Shuttle Challenger
28°27′09″N 80°33′22″W / 28.45250°N 80.55611°W / 28.45250; -80.55611 (LC-31)
Launch Complex 32 Inactive Minuteman 28°27′09″N 80°33′22″W / 28.45250°N 80.55611°W / 28.45250; -80.55611 (LC-32)
Launch Complex 34 Inactive Saturn I, Saturn IB.
Site of Apollo 1 fire and Apollo 7 launch
28°31′19″N 80°33′41″W / 28.52194°N 80.56139°W / 28.52194; -80.56139 (LC-34)
Launch Complex 37A Demolished Saturn I, Saturn IB (unused) 28°31′55″N 80°34′01″W / 28.531986°N 80.566821°W / 28.531986; -80.566821 (LC-37A)
Launch Complex 43 Demolished Super Loki 28°27′30″N 80°31′42″W / 28.45833°N 80.52833°W / 28.45833; -80.52833 (LC-43)
Launch Complex 45 Demolished None 28°27′30″N 80°31′42″W / 28.45833°N 80.52833°W / 28.45833; -80.52833 (LC-45)

Other

Site Status Uses Coordinates
Atlantic Missile Range drop zone Inactive High Virgo, Bold Orion, Hound Dog, Skybolt
Grand Turk Auxiliary AFB, Grand Turk Island drop zone Inactive Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings)
Mobile Launch Area Inactive Lark, Matador, Snark[14]
Eastern SLBM Launch Area Active Polaris, Poseidon, Trident
Shuttle Landing Facility Active Pegasus, X-37B 28°36′54″N 80°41′40″W / 28.615°N 80.6945°W / 28.615; -80.6945 (Shuttle Landing Facility)
Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Skid Strip Active Navaho, Pegasus, Pegasus XL 28°28′05″N 80°34′01″W / 28.468°N 80.567°W / 28.468; -80.567 (Cape Canaveral Space Force Station Skid Strip)
Patrick SFB Inactive Matador

See also

References

  1. ^ Bergeron, Julia (13 July 2018). "The most recent version of the CCAFS map (Nov 2017) has made it into our history center for reference. It exciting to see the Commercial Partner landmarks mixed in with space history.pic.twitter.com/ChVhnEl1AY". Twitter.
  2. ^ "SpaceX wants NASA's LC-49 for Starship Super Heavy launches". spaceexplored.com.
  3. ^ Gruss, Mike. "SpaceX Leases Florida Launch Pad for Falcon Landings". Spacenews. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  4. ^ a b c @TGMetsFan98 (7 March 2023). "The US Space Force and @SLDelta45 have newly allocated three launch pads to four companies: SLC-15 (former Titan pad) to ABL Space Systems; SLC-14 (former Atlas pad) to Stoke Space; SLC-13 to Phantom Space and Vaya Spac. Interestingly, SLC-13 is currently LZ-1 and 2" (Tweet). Retrieved 28 March 2023 – via Twitter.
  5. ^ a b Craig Covault (27 October 2008). "Boeing Joins Commercial Athena III Program". Retrieved 23 December 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Coming to the Space Coast". Blue Origin. 15 September 2015. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  7. ^ Atkinson, Ian (11 September 2019). "Blue Origin continuing work on New Glenn launch complex, support facilities". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  8. ^ Messier, Doug (11 February 2014). "ATK to Upgrade Space Florida's Launch Complex 46". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  9. ^ Wall, Mike (26 August 2017). "Converted Missile Launches Military Satellite to Track Spacecraft and Debris". Space.com. Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Astra Announces Launch for Nasa from Cape Canaveral in January". 6 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Complex 46". robsv.com. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  12. ^ "U.S. Air Force's ORS-5 Satellite To Launch on Minotaur 4". SpaceNews. 9 July 2015.
  13. ^ "Launch Complex 29". Air Force Space and Missile Museum. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  14. ^ "HISTORIC AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD, CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION, LAUNCH COMPLEX 34 OPERATIONS SUPPORT BUILDING" (PDF). National Aeronautic and Space Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.