In the United States, the public display of Confederate monuments, memorials and symbols has been and continues to be controversial. The following is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Many monuments and memorials have been or are being removed. (See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.) Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, buildings, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public structures.[a] In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."[2]

This list does not include commemorations of pre-Civil War figures connected with the origins of the Civil War or white supremacy but not directly tied to the Confederacy, such as Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney, pro-slavery congressman Preston Brooks, North Carolina Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin,[3] or Southern politician John C. Calhoun, although Calhoun was venerated by the Confederacy and post-war segregationists, and monuments to Calhoun "have been the most consistent targets" of vandals.[4] It also does not include post-Civil War white supremacists, such as North Carolina Governor Charles Aycock and Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman.

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.[5]

History

Monument building and dedications

Memorials have been erected on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials have also been erected.

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement.[b] These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War.[c][6]
Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement.[b] These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War.[c][6]

According to Smithsonian Magazine, "Confederate monuments aren't just heirlooms, the artifacts of a bygone era. Instead, American taxpayers are still heavily investing in these tributes today."[2] The report also concluded that the monuments were constructed and are regularly maintained in promotion of Lost Cause, white supremacist mythology, and over the many decades of their establishment, African American leaders regularly protested these memorials and what they represented.[2]

A small number of memorializations were made during the war, mainly as ship and place names. After the war, Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war".[7] Nevertheless, monuments and memorials continued to be dedicated shortly after the American Civil War.[8][better source needed] Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the 20th century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95% of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[9]

Jim Crow

See also: Jim Crow Museum

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South.[10][1][11] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early 20th century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[12] According to Smithsonian Magazine, "far from simply being markers of historic events and people, as proponents argue, these memorials were created and funded by Jim Crow governments to pay homage to a slave-owning society and to serve as blunt assertions of dominance over African-Americans."[2]

Confederate Soldier Statue, in Monroe County, West Virginia, 2016
Confederate Soldier Statue, in Monroe County, West Virginia, 2016

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[13] Another historian, Karen L. Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy".[11] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[14] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[15] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[16] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[17]

In a June 2018 speech, Civil War historian James I. Robertson Jr. of Virginia Tech University said the monuments were not a "Jim Crow signal of defiance" and referred to the current trend to dismantle or destroy them as an "age of idiocy" motivated by "elements hell-bent on tearing apart unity that generations of Americans have painfully constructed."[18] Katrina Dunn Johnson, Curator of the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room and Military Museum, states that "thousands of families throughout the country were unable to reclaim their soldier's remains--many never learned their loved ones' exact fate on the battlefield or within the prison camps. The psychological impact of such a devastating loss cannot be underestimated when attempting to understand the primary motivations behind Southern memorialization."[19]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[20][21][22] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued, in Monuments to the Lost Cause, that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life."[23][24]

In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[25]

Another wave of monument construction coincided with the Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil War Centennial.[1]: 11  At least thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, including at least 7 re-dedications.[26][27][28][29]

Scholarly study

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[30][31] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".[31]

The Confederate Memorial in Fulton, Kentucky is listed on the National Register of Historic Places

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are, however, the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannonballs or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.[31]

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments: the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.[31]

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the South after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African-American Southerners. He concluded: "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[31]

The Monument Movement

The Monument Movement was a national movement of the late 19th and early 20th century. The Union and Confederate monuments were erected as community memorials. In the North and South communities came together in the time of war, contributing their men and boys (and a few documented women), then they came together again to memorialize these soldiers and their contributions to the cause as they saw it. Citizens paid subscriptions to memorials, for monument associations, taxes were issued, the GAR, Allied Orders, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the United Confederate Veterans all lead fundraisers.[32]

The monument to Confederate Colonel Francis S. Bartow was erected after First Manassas but was destroyed before or during Second Manassas. The other early monuments were Union monuments at Battle of Rowlett’s Station in Munfordville, Kentucky in January 1862 for the men of the 32nd Indiana killed. It was removed for its own protection from the elements in 2008.[33] Other early Union monuments before the war ended were the Hazen Brigade Monument in Murfreesboro and the 1865 Ladd and Whitney Monument in Lowell, Massachusetts.[34][35][36]

The Northern memorials recorded in the survey work to date lists 11 monuments erected before 1866 including the previously mentioned monuments. Another ten monuments were documented in 1866, and 11 more in 1867 by the time the first post-war Confederate monuments were erected in Romney, Hampshire County, West Virginia and Chester, Chester County, South Carolina in 1867.[32]

Blevins' "Forever in Mourning" Chart of Union and Confederate Monuments, 1860-1920
Blevins' "Forever in Mourning" Chart of Union and Confederate Monuments, 1860-1920

In addition to monuments to the Union and Confederate honorees, the Monument Movement saw the placement of Revolutionary War Monuments for the 100th of the American Revolution from 1876 to 1883. In the W.H. Mullins Company catalog, The Blue and the Gray, it notes with Union and Confederate Monuments the company’s recent installments of monuments for the Revolutionary War at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina.[37]

Vandalism

As of June 19, over 12 Confederate monuments had been vandalized in 2019, usually with paint.[38][39][needs update]

Removal

Main article: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials

The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its pedestal on May 17, 2017
The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its pedestal on May 17, 2017

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[40] At the same time, laws in various Southern states place restrictions on, or prohibit altogether, the removal of statues and memorials and the renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[41][42][43][44][45]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with whites and Republicans preferring to keep the monuments in place, while blacks and Democrats were more likely to support their removal.[46][47] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[48][49]

Support for removal increased during the George Floyd protests, with 52% in favor of removal, and 44% opposed.[50][51]

Time period Number of removals[52]
1865-2009 2
2009-2014 3
2015 (after Charleston church shooting) 4
2016 4
2017 (year of the Charlottesville car attack) 36
2018 8
2019 4
2020 (after murder of George Floyd) 94[53]
2021 16[54]

Geographic distribution

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the southern United States.[31] The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[31] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. The northern states that remained part of the Union, and the western states that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

National

See also: Civil War commemoration stamps and CSA-affinity license plates

United States Capitol

Main article: Confederate artworks in the United States Capitol

There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.
There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Arlington National Cemetery

Main article: List of memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery

Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery
Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery
The NPS describes the property as "the nation's memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."[68]

Coins and stamps

See also: Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps

US military

Bases

See also: List of U.S. Army installations named for Confederate soldiers

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[1] In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities,[72] and declined to make further comment in 2017.[73] President Donald Trump strongly opposed renaming military bases named after prominent Confederates.[74] Trump threatened to veto the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) if provisions that allow Confederate-named bases to be renamed were not removed.[75] Donald Trump ultimately vetoed the 2021 NDAA, this veto was overridden by a bi-partisan vote of Congress.[76]

Facilities

Current ships

Former ships

See also: List of ships of the Confederate States Navy

Several ships named for Confederate leaders fell into Union hands during the Civil War. The Union Navy retained the names of these ships while turning their guns against the Confederacy:

Multi-state highways

On October 16, 2018, the Board of Commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina (location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, see Silent Sam), voted unanimously to repeal the county's 1959 resolution naming for Davis the portion of U.S. 15 running through the county.[84]

Alabama

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Alabama

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 122 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[85]

Alaska

Arizona

As of 20 August 2020, only two Confederate related plaques on public property remain in Phoenix and Sierra Vista, Arizona.[85]

Further information: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Arizona

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Memorial Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[88][89]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[88]
CSA cemetery marker, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Public 1961 - 2020 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[88]
CSA monument, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Road 1943 - 2020 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[88][90]
Public 1984 - 2015 Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorated the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags. The sign was removed in 2015 due to deterioration of the wood and the plaque was moved onto the Union stone monument.[88][91][92]
Picacho-Battle of Picacho Marker.jpg

Arkansas

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Arkansas

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 65 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[85]

State capitol

Monuments

Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas
Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

Courthouse monuments

Other public monuments

See also: Camp Nelson Confederate Cemetery and Prairie Grove Battlefield State Park

Bentonville Confederate Monument
Confederate Statue, Fayetteville Confederate Cemetery
Confederate Statue, Fayetteville Confederate Cemetery
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery
Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna
Star City Confederate Memorial

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Schools

State symbols

Flag of Arkansas since 1913
Flag of Arkansas since 1913

California

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § California

As of 23 July 2020, there were at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in California.[85]

Inhabited places

Roads

Schools

Mountains and recreation

Mine

Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872

Colorado

Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.
Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Schools

Monument

Mine

Delaware

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[85]

District of Columbia

See also: List of Confederate monuments and memorials § National

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least nine public Confederate monuments in Washington, D.C., mostly in the National Statuary Hall Collection. (See above)[85]

Florida

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Florida

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 63 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[85]

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[140]

State capitol

State symbol

Flag of Florida since 1900
Flag of Florida since 1900

State holiday

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908
Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments

Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park

Private monuments

Inhabited places

Counties

Municipalities

Parks

Roads

Schools and libraries

City symbols

City holiday

County holiday

Georgia

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Georgia

As of June 24, 2020, there are at least 201 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[85]

Confederate monument in Macon, Ga on Mulberry street circa 1877
Confederate monument in Macon, Ga on Mulberry street circa 1877

Hawaii

Idaho

The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[217][218][219]

As of June 24, 2020, there are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Idaho.[85]

Inhabited places

Natural features and recreation

Illinois

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago
Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

The four memorials in Illinois are in Federal cemeteries and connected with prisoners of war.

Federal cemeteries

Federal plot within private cemetery

Indiana

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Indiana.[85]

Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis
Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis

Iowa

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[85]

Kansas

Veterans Memorial Park in Wichita, Kansas holds one Confederate and Union monument, a Reconciliation Memorial. "The intent of this memorial is to bring folks together and reconcile their differences," As Confederate Monuments Come Down Across U.S., Wichita Memorial Comes Into Question. The Memorial is a small obelisk with text honoring North and South combatants on both sides. See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials#Kansas for monuments which have been removed.

Kentucky

See also: List of Civil War Monuments of Kentucky and Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Kentucky

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 37 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[85]

Monuments

Confederate Monument, Georgetown
Confederate Monument, Georgetown
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah

Bridge

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Highways

Schools

Louisiana

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Louisiana

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 83 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[85]

State capitol

Buildings

Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans
Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Other public monuments

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
Monument at Camp Moore, Tangipahoa Parish
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Schools

Confederate flag display

Maryland

The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore
The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Maryland

As of June 27, 2020, there are at least three public homages to the Confederacy in Maryland.[85]

State symbols

Flag of Maryland since 1904
Flag of Maryland since 1904

Monuments

Public monuments

Private monuments

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland
Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland
The original monument, a bronze life-sized Confederate soldier on this pedestal, was originally donated by the UDC and the United Confederate Veterans, and built by the Washington firm of Falvey Granite Company at a cost of US$3,600 (equivalent to $98,703 in 2021). The artist is unknown.[307] The inscription says "To Our Heroes of Montgomery Co. Maryland That We Through Life May Not Forget to Love The Thin Gray Line / Erected A.D. 1913 / 1861 CSA 1865."[308] because Confederate uniforms are gray. The Rockville dedication was on June 3, 1913, Jefferson Davis's birthday,[308] and was attended by 3,000 out of a county population of 30,000.[309] It was originally located in a small triangular park[310] called Courthouse Square. In 1971, urban renewal led to the elimination of the Square, and the monument was moved to the east lawn of the Red Brick Courthouse (no longer in use as such), facing south.[311] In 1994 it was cleaned and waxed by the Maryland Military Monuments Commission.[307] The monument was defaced with "Black Lives Matter" in 2015; a wooden box was built over it to protect it.[312] The monument was removed in July 2017 from its original location outside the Old Rockville Court House to private land[310] at White's Ferry in Dickerson, Maryland.[313][314] The statue was removed from the pedestal in June 2020, but the pedestal urging people to "Love The Thin Gray Line" remains.

Inhabited places

Roads

Ferry

Gen. Jubal A. Early
Gen. Jubal A. Early
The renamed White's Ferry ferryboat
The renamed White's Ferry ferryboat

Gallery

Massachusetts

As of May 2019, all public memorials listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center[85] had been removed.[320]

Private memorials

Michigan

As of June 29, 2020, there is at least one known public monument of a confederate soldier in Michigan. It is located in Allendale, Michigan a town in Ottawa County. A part of the Veterans Garden of Honor (1998) which features nine life sized statues of soldiers from various wars, the statue in question depicts a union soldier and a confederate soldier back to back with a young slave at their feet holding a plaque reading "Freedom to Slaves," and the date January 5, 1863.[321]

Mississippi

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Mississippi

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 147 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[85]

Missouri

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Missouri

As of 24 June 2020, there were at least 19 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[85]

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri
Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri

Other public monuments

UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri
UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri
Union Confederate Monument, Kansas City, Missouri
Union Confederate Monument, Kansas City, Missouri

Inhabited places

Parks

Roads

Schools

Montana

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Montana

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 2 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Montana.[85]

Nevada

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[85]

New Jersey

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.
Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[85]

New Mexico

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in New Mexico.[85]

New York

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York
Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[85][341]

Monuments

Public monuments

Private monuments

Roads

Governor Andrew Cuomo has twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[349]

North Carolina

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in North Carolina

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 164 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[85]

Ohio

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Ohio

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 5 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Ohio.[85]

Historical marker

Monuments

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[353]
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[353]

Inhabited places

Roads

Schools

Oklahoma

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[85]

Buildings

Monuments

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol

Schools

Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma
Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

Inhabited places

Roads

Oregon

As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oregon.[85]

Pennsylvania

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[85]

Monuments

See also: List of monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield § Confederate monuments

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

Roads

Rhode Island

As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Rhode Island.[85]

South Carolina

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in South Carolina

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 194 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[85]

South Dakota

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in South Dakota.[85]

Tennessee

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Tennessee, and Nathan Bedford Forrest § Historical reputation and legacy

Further information: Tennessee in the American Civil War

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 105 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[85] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[41]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[374] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

State capitol

Buildings

Monuments

Courthouse monuments

Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
Confederate Women monument, Nashville
Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee
Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee

Private monuments

Inhabited place

Parks

Roads

Schools

Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.
Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Tourist sites

Texas

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Texas

Further information: Texas in the American Civil War

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 205 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[85][422] "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."[423]

State capitol

State symbols

Seal of Texas

State holiday

Buildings

Monuments

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[431][432]

Courthouse monuments

Denton, Texas
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Georgetown, Texas
Confederate Mothers Monument in Texarkana

Other public monuments

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Austin
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[456]
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[456]

Private monuments

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas
Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas

Inhabited places

Counties

Further information: List of counties in Texas

Municipalities

Museums

See also: Texas Confederate Museum

Parks

Roads

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools

Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas
Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas

Other memorials

Utah

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Utah

Vermont

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Vermont

Virginia

Main article: List of Confederate monuments and memorials in Virginia

Further information: Virginia in the American Civil War

See also: List of memorials and monuments at Arlington National Cemetery and Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Virginia

As of 24 June 2020, there were at least 241 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[85] more than in any other state.[524][525] Virginia also has numerous schools, highways, roads and other public infrastructure named for Confederates. Some have been removed since. Lee-Jackson Day ceased to be a State holiday in 2020.

Washington State

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Washington (state)

As of 24 June 2020, only one public space contains a Confederate connected monument in Washington.[85]

3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonnie Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018
3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonnie Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

West Virginia

As of 2020 there were 21 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[85]

State capitol

Monuments

See also: Confederate Cemetery at Lewisburg

Bronze plaque commemorating the site of Pettigrew's death.
Bronze plaque commemorating the site of Pettigrew's death.
First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia

Inhabited places

Parks and water features

Roads

Schools

Wisconsin

See also: Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials § Wisconsin

Wyoming

Natural Features

International

Brazil

Canada

Ireland

Scotland

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally, the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."[1]
  2. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."[1]
  3. ^ "The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists."[1]
  4. ^ Pair of Kentucky Historic Markers located on KY 61, near bridge crossing at Salt River, near Shepherdsville. Marker #1296, "L & N Bridge in Civil War. Destroyed three times by CSA. Partially razed on Sept. 7, 1862, by troops under Col. John Hutcheson. During the occupation of Shepherdsville, Sept. 28, Braxton Bragg's troops again destroyed it, but new bridge was up by Oct. 11. After Battle of Elizabethtown, Dec. 27, John Hunt Morgan's men moved along tracks, destroying everything on way to trestle works at Muldraugh's Hill." Marker #1413, "Morgan-on to Ohio. July 2, 1863, CSA Gen. J. H. Morgan began raid to prevent USA move to Tenn. and Va. Repulsed at Green River, July 4. Defeated a USA force at Lebanon, July 5. Moved through Bardstown, July 6. After night march, crossed here July 7. Rested troops few hours and proceeded to Brandenburg. Crossed to Indiana, July 8. He continued raid until captured in northeast Ohio, July 26." See also Morgan's Raid.[260]
  5. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker located 2 mi. N. of Somerset, KY 39. Marker #712, "March 30, 1863, USA force of 1,250 under General Q. A. Gillmore overtook 1,550 Confederate cavalry under Gen. John Pegram, here. Five-hour battle resulted. CSA driven from one position to another, withdrew during night across Cumberland. Killed, wounded, missing, CSA 200 and USA 30. On nine-day expedition into Ky., CSA had captured 750 cattle and took 537 across river.".[260]
  6. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker located Springfield, US 150, KY 55. Marker #689, erected in 1964, "CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's cavalry moved thru Springfield on raids, July 12 and December 30, 1862. On third raid, into Ohio, after battle of Lebanon, July 5, 1863, Union prisoners brought here but paroled to speed CSA movement. Confederate invasion force of 16,000 here before meeting Union Army in battle at Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. See map other side."[260]
  7. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker #625, "Morgan's Men Here" located in Winchester, Kentucky on Courthouse lawn, US 60 & KY 627. Inscribed "CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's cavalry first raided Kentucky July, 1862. Took Cynthiana but, faced by large USA forces, withdrew. Destroyed arms here on 19th and went to Richmond. On last raid, June 1864, after two battles at Mt. Sterling, they moved by here to Lexington and to Cynthiana where they met defeat on 12th and retreated to Virginia. See map on other side." Dedicated March 9, 1964. See also Battle of Cynthiana.[260]

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