This is a non-exhaustive list of copulae in the English language, i.e. words used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement).

Because many of these copulative verbs may be used non-copulatively, examples are provided. Also, there can be other copulative verbs depending on the context and the meaning of the specific verb used. Therefore, this list is not an exhaustive one.


  1. ^ "constitute verb - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes | Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at". Retrieved 2022-05-06.
  2. ^ a b c ESL.Wiki: Глагол-связка (The Linking Verb).
  3. ^ "Run as linking verb? - EnglishClub ESL Forums".