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This list of Indian inventions and discoveries details the inventions, scientific discoveries and contributions of India, including the ancient, classical and post-classical nations in the subcontinent historically referred to as India and the modern Indian state. It draws from the whole cultural and technological history of India, during which architecture, astronomy, cartography, metallurgy, logic, mathematics, metrology and mineralogy were among the branches of study pursued by its scholars.[1] During recent times science and technology in the Republic of India has also focused on automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as research into space and polar technology.

For the purpose of this list, the inventions are regarded as technological firsts developed in India, and as such does not include foreign technologies which India acquired through contact. It also does not include technologies or discoveries developed elsewhere and later invented separately in India, nor inventions by Indian emigres in other places. Changes in minor concepts of design or style and artistic innovations do not appear in the lists.

Inventions

See also: History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent, List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilisation, and Timeline of Indian innovation

Administration

Communication

Computers and programming languages

Construction, civil engineering and architecture

The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th–1st century BCE). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi (4th–1st century BCE). The dome shaped stupa was used in India as a commemorative monument associated with storing sacred relics.
Hanuman and Ravana in Tolu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of Andhra Pradesh, India
Hanuman and Ravana in Tolu Bommalata, the shadow puppet tradition of Andhra Pradesh, India

Finance and banking

Games

Main articles: Traditional games of India, Traditional games of Pakistan, and Traditional games of Bangladesh

Genetics

Metallurgy and manufacturing

Close-up of Wootz steel, pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in India
Close-up of Wootz steel, pioneering steel alloy matrix developed in India

Music

Metrology

Crescograph, Bose Institute, Kolkata
Crescograph, Bose Institute, Kolkata

Science and technology

Textile and material production

A Nepali Charkha in action
A Nepali Charkha in action
Single roller cotton gin, in use c. 1820
Single roller cotton gin, in use c. 1820

Wellbeing

Weapons

Indigenisation and improvements

Discoveries

Mathematics

See also: Indian mathematics

Number System Numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Tamil
Gurmukhi o
Odia
Bengali
Assamese
Devanagari
Gujarati
Tibetan
Brahmi
Telugu
Kannada
Malayalam
Burmese
Khmer
Thai
Lao
Balinese
Santali
Javanese
The half-chord version of the sine function was developed by the Indian mathematician Aryabhatta.
The half-chord version of the sine function was developed by the Indian mathematician Aryabhatta.
Brahmagupta's theorem (598–668) states that AF = FD.
Brahmagupta's theorem (598–668) states that AF = FD.

"It is India that gave us the ingenuous method of expressing all numbers by the means of ten symbols, each symbol receiving a value of position, as well as an absolute value; a profound and important idea which appears so simple to us now that we ignore its true merit, but its very simplicity, the great ease which it has lent to all computations, puts our arithmetic in the first rank of useful inventions, and we shall appreciate the grandeur of this achievement when we remember that it escaped the genius of Archimedes and Apollonius, two of the greatest minds produced by antiquity."

Philosophy

Medicine

A statue of Sushruta (600 BCE), author of Sushruta Samhita and the founding father of surgery, at Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) in Melbourne, Australia
A statue of Sushruta (600 BCE), author of Sushruta Samhita and the founding father of surgery, at Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) in Melbourne, Australia
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.
Cataract in the Human Eye—magnified view seen on examination with a slit lamp. Indian surgeon Susruta performed cataract surgery by the 6th century BCE.

Mining

Sciences

Bengali Chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy synthesised NH4NO2 in its pure form.
Bengali Chemist Prafulla Chandra Roy synthesised NH4NO2 in its pure form.
A Ramachandran plot generated from the protein PCNA, a human DNA clamp protein that is composed of both beta sheets and alpha helices (PDB ID 1AXC). Points that lie on the axes indicate N- and C-terminal residues for each subunit. The green regions show possible angle formations that include Glycine, while the blue areas are for formations that don't include Glycine.
A Ramachandran plot generated from the protein PCNA, a human DNA clamp protein that is composed of both beta sheets and alpha helices (PDB ID 1AXC). Points that lie on the axes indicate N- and C-terminal residues for each subunit. The green regions show possible angle formations that include Glycine, while the blue areas are for formations that don't include Glycine.

(it was already told by Greek philosopher Aristarchus of Samos )

Space

Innovations

Computer science and programming

Linguistics

Metrology

A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro, Harappa, and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights. They did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each about 1.5 m in thickness. This was evidence that strong control existed for at least a 500-year period. The 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on the binary and decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, and 68% were made of chert.[329]

Miscallenous

See also

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