This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.

This list covers the letter E. See List of Latin phrases for the main list.
Latin Translation Notes
e causa ignota of unknown cause Often used in medicine when the underlying disease causing a symptom is not known. See also idiopathic.
E pluribus unum out of many, one Literally, out of more (than one), one. The former national motto of the United States, which "In God We Trust" later replaced; therefore, it is still inscribed on many U.S. coins and on the U.S. Capitol. Also the motto of S.L. Benfica. Less commonly written as ex pluribus unum
ecce Agnus Dei behold the lamb of God John the Baptist exclaims this after seeing Jesus[1]
ecce ancilla domini behold the handmaiden of the Lord From Luke 1:38 in the Vulgate Bible. Name of an oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and motto of Bishopslea Preparatory School.
ecce homo behold the man From the Gospel of John in the Vulgate 19:5 (Douay-Rheims), where Pontius Pilate speaks these words as he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. It is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the theme music by Howard Goodall for the ITV comedy Mr. Bean, in which the full sung lyric is Ecce homo qui est faba ("Behold the man who is a bean").
ecce panis angelorum behold the bread of angels From the Catholic hymn Lauda Sion; occasionally inscribed near the altar of Catholic churches; it refers to the Eucharist, the Bread of Heaven; the Body of Christ. See also: Panis angelicus.
editio princeps first edition The first published edition of a work.
ego te absolvo I absolve you Part of the formula of Catholic sacramental absolution, i. e., spoken by a priest as part of the Sacrament of Penance (see also absolvo).
ego te provoco I challenge you Used as a challenge; "I dare you". Can also be written as te provoco.
eheu fugaces labuntur anni Alas, the fleeting years slip by From Horace's Odes, 2, 14
ejusdem generis of the same kinds, class, or nature From the canons of statutory interpretation in law. When more general descriptors follow a list of many specific descriptors, the otherwise wide meaning of the general descriptors is interpreted as restricted to the same class, if any, of the preceding specific descriptors.
eluceat omnibus lux let the light shine out from all The motto of Sidwell Friends School
emeritus veteran Retired from office. Often used to denote an office held at the time of one's retirement, as an honorary title, e. g. professor emeritus and provost emeritus. Inclusion in one's title does not necessarily denote that the honorand is inactive in the pertinent office.
emollit mores nec sinit esse feros a faithful study of the liberal arts humanizes character and permits it not to be cruel From Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto (II, 9, 48). Motto of University of South Carolina.
ens causa sui existing because of oneself Or "being one's own cause". Traditionally, a being that owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a Supreme Being (see also Primum Mobile).
ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem by the sword she seeks a serene repose under liberty Motto of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775.
entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity Occam's razor or Law of Parsimony; arguments which do not introduce extraneous variables are to be preferred in logical argumentation.
entitas ipsa involvit aptitudinem ad extorquendum certum assensum reality involves a power to compel certain assent A phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the nature of truth.
eo ipso by that very (act) Technical term in philosophy and law. Similar to ipso facto. Example: "The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think." From the Latin ablative form of id ipsum ("that thing itself").
eo nomine by that name
epicuri de grege porcum A pig from the herd (or sty) of Epicurus From Horace, Epistles
equo ne credite do not trust the horse From Virgil, Aeneid, II. 48–49; a reference to the Trojan Horse.
erga omnes in relation to everyone Used in law, especially international law, to denote a kind of universal obligation.
ergo therefore Denotes a logical conclusion (see also cogito ergo sum).
errantis voluntas nulla est the will of a mistaken party is void Roman legal principle formulated by Pomponius in the Digest of the Corpus Juris Civilis, stating that legal actions undertaken by man under the influence of error are invalid.
errare humanum est to err is human Sometimes attributed to Seneca the Younger, but not attested: Errare humanum est, perseverare autem diabolicum, et tertia non datur (To err is human; to persist [in committing such errors] is of the devil, and the third possibility is not given.) Several authors contemplated the idea before Seneca: Livy, Venia dignus error is humanus (Storie, VIII, 35) and Cicero: is Cuiusvis errare: insipientis nullius nisi, in errore perseverare (Anyone can err, but only the fool persists in his fault) (Philippicae, XII, 2, 5). Cicero, being well-versed in ancient Greek, may well have been alluding to Euripides' play Hippolytus some four centuries earlier.[2] 300 years later Saint Augustine of Hippo recycled the idea in his Sermones, 164, 14: Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in errore manere.[3] The phrase gained currency in the English language after Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism of 1711: "To err is human, to forgive divine" (line 325).
erratum error I. e., mistake. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a work are often marked with the plural errata ("errors").
eruditio et religio scholarship and duty Motto of Duke University
esse est percipi to be is to be perceived Motto of George Berkeley for his subjective idealist philosophical position that nothing exists independently of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.
esse quam videri to be, rather than to seem Truly being a thing, rather than merely seeming to be a thing. The motto of many institutions. From Cicero, De amicitia (On Friendship), Chapter 26. Prior to Cicero, Sallust used the phrase in Bellum Catilinae, 54, 6, writing that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat ("preferred to be good, rather than to seem so"). Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line 592: ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei ("he wishes not to seem the best, but to be the best"). Motto of the State of North Carolina.
est modus in rebus there is measure in things there is a middle or mean in things, there is a middle way or position; from Horace, Satires 1.1.106; see also: Golden mean (philosophy). According to Potempski and Galmarini (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9471–9489, 2009) the sentence should be translated as: "There is an optimal condition in all things", which in the original text is followed by sunt certi denique fines quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum ("There are therefore precise boundaries beyond which one cannot find the right thing").
esto perpetua may it be perpetual Said of Venice, Italy, by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo Sarpi shortly before his death. Motto of the U.S. state of Idaho, adopted in 1867; of S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka; of Sigma Phi Society.
esto quod es be what you are Motto of Wells Cathedral School
et adhuc sub iudice lis est it is still before the court From Horace, Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry) 1.78.
et alibi (et al.) and elsewhere A less common variant on et cetera ("and the rest") used at the end of a list of locations to denote unenumerated/omitted ones.
et alii, et aliae, et alia (et al.) and others Used similarly to et cetera ("and the rest") to denote names that, usually for the sake of space, are unenumerated/omitted. Alii is masculine, and therefore it can be used to refer to men, or groups of men and women; the feminine et aliae is proper when the "others" are all female, but as with many loanwords, interlingual use, such as in reference lists, is often invariable. Et alia is neuter plural and thus in Latin text is properly used only for inanimate, genderless objects, but some use it as a gender-neutral alternative.[4] APA style and MLA style uses et al. if the work cited was written by more than three authors; AMA style lists all authors if ≤6, and 3 + et al. if >6. AMA style forgoes the period (because it forgoes the period on abbreviations generally) and it forgoes the italic (as it does with other loanwords naturalized into scientific English); many journals that follow AMA style do likewise.
et cetera (etc., &c.) and the rest In modern usage, used to mean "and so on" or "and more".
et cum spiritu tuo and with your spirit The usual response to the phrase Dominus vobiscum used in Roman Catholic liturgy, for instance at several points during the Catholic Mass.[5] Also used as a general form of greeting among and towards members of Catholic organisations.
et facere et pati fortia Romanum est Acting and suffering bravely is the attribute of a Roman The words of Gaius Mucius Scaevola when Lars Porsena captured him
et facta est lux And light came to be or was made From Genesis, 1:3: "and there was light". Motto of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. See also Fiat lux.
et hoc genus omne and all that sort of thing Abbreviated as e.h.g.o. or ehgo
et in Arcadia ego and in Arcadia [am] I In other words, "I too am in Arcadia". See also memento mori.
et lux in tenebris lucet and light shines in the darkness From the Gospel of John 1.5, Vulgate. Motto of the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. See also Lux in Tenebris, 1919 play by Bertolt Brecht.
et nunc reges intelligite erudimini qui judicatis terram "And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth." From the Book of Psalms, II.x. (Vulgate) Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, 2.10 (Douay-Rheims).
et passim (et pass.) and throughout Used in citations after a page number to indicate that there is further information in other locations in the cited resource. See also passim.
et sequentes (et seq.) and the following (masculine/feminine plural) Also et sequentia ("and the following things": neut.), abbreviations: et seqq., et seq., or sqq. Commonly used in legal citations to refer to statutes that comprise several sequential sections of a code of statutes (e. g. National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 159 et seq.; New Jersey Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:25-17 et seq.).
et suppositio nil ponit in esse and a supposition puts nothing in being More usually translated as "Sayin' it don't make it so".
Et tu, Brute? And you, Brutus? Or "Even you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" Indicates betrayal by an intimate associate. From William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, based on the traditional dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were almost certainly not Caesar's true last words: Plutarch quotes Caesar as saying in Greek, the language of the Roman elite at the time, καὶ σὺ τέκνον (Kaì sù téknon?), translated as "You too, (my) child?", quoting from Menander.
et uxor (et ux.) and wife A legal term.
et vir and husband A legal term.
Etiam si omnes, ego non Even if all others, I will never Saint Peter to Jesus Christ, from the Vulgate, Gospel of Matthew 26:33; New King James Version: Matthew 26:33).
etsi deus non daretur even if God were not a given This sentence synthesizes a famous concept of Hugo Grotius (1625).
evoles ut ira breve nefas sit; regna arise, that your anger may [only] be a brief evil; control [it] A bilingual palindrome, yielding its English paraphrase, "Anger, 'tis safe never. Bar it! Use love!"
ex abundanti cautela out of an abundance of caution In law, describes someone taking precautions against a very remote contingency. "One might wear a belt in addition to braces ex abundanti cautela".[6] In banking, a loan in which the collateral is more than the loan itself. Also the basis for the term "an abundance of caution" employed by United States President Barack Obama to explain why the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court John Roberts had to re-administer the presidential oath of office, and again in reference to terrorist threats.
ex abundantia enim cordis os loquitur for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. From the Gospel of Matthew, XII.xxxiv (Vulgate), 12.34 (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel of Luke, VI.xlv (Vulgate), 6.45 (Douay-Rheims). Sometimes rendered without enim ("for").
ex aequo from the equal Denoting "on equal footing", i. e., in a tie. Used for those two (seldom more) participants of a competition who demonstrated identical performance.
ex Africa semper aliquid novi "(There is) always something new (coming) out of Africa" Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 8, 42 (unde etiam vulgare Graeciae dictum semper aliquid novi Africam adferre[7]), a translation of the Greek «Ἀεὶ Λιβύη φέρει τι καινόν».
ex amicitia pax peace from friendship Often used on internal diplomatic event invitations. A motto sometimes inscribed on flags and mission plaques of diplomatic corps.
ex animo from the soul Sincerely.
ex ante from before Denoting "beforehand", "before the event", or "based on prior assumptions"; denoting a prediction.
Ex Astris Scientia From the Stars, Knowledge The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy of Star Trek. Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn derived from ex scientia tridens.
ex cathedra from the chair A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Catholic Supreme Pontiff (Pope) when, preserved from the possibility of error by the Holy Spirit (see Papal infallibility), he solemnly declares or promulgates ("from the chair" that was the ancient symbol of the teacher and governor, in this case of the Church) a dogmatic doctrine on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority.
ex cultu robur from culture [comes] strength The motto of Cranleigh School, Surrey.
ex debito Justitia justice, which cannot be denied on King's writ, to be granted to the subject[8]
ex Deo from God
ex dolo malo from fraud "From harmful deceit"; dolus malus is the Latin legal term denoting "fraud". The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio ("an action does not arise from fraud"). When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.
ex duris gloria From suffering [comes] glory Motto of Rapha Cycling club (see also Rapha (sportswear))
ex facie from the face Idiomatically rendered "on the face of it". A legal term typically used to state that a document's explicit terms are defective absent further investigation. Also, "contempt ex facie" means contempt of court committed outside of the court, as contrasted with contempt in facie.
ex factis jus oritur the law arises from the facts
ex fide fiducia from faith [comes] confidence Motto of St George's College, Harare and Hartmann House Preparatory School
ex fide fortis from faith [comes] strength Motto of Loyola School in New York City, New York, United States.
ex glande quercus from the acorn the oak Motto of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, London, England, United Kingdom.
ex gratia from kindness More literally "from grace". Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely from kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being compelled to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or obligation.
ex hypothesi from the hypothesis Denoting "by hypothesis"
ex ignorantia ad sapientiam; ex luce ad tenebras (e.i.) from ignorance into wisdom; from light into darkness Motto of the fictional Miskatonic University in Arkham, Massachusetts, from the Cthulhu Mythos
ex infra (e.i.) "from below" Recent academic notation denoting "from below in this writing". See also ex supra.
ex juvantibus from that which helps The medical pitfall in which response to a therapeutic regimen substitutes proper diagnosis.
ex lege from the law
ex libris from the books Precedes a person's name, denoting "from the library of" the nominate; also a synonym for "bookplate".
ex luna scientia from the moon, knowledge The motto of the Apollo 13 lunar mission, derived from ex scientia tridens, the motto of Jim Lovell's alma mater, the United States Naval Academy
ex malo bonum good out of evil From Saint Augustine of Hippo, "Sermon LXI", in which he contradicts the dictum of Seneca the Younger in Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 87:22: bonum ex malo non fit ("good does not come from evil"). Also the alias of the song "Miserabile Visu" by Anberlin in the album New Surrender.
ex mea sententia in my opinion
ex merito Justitiae [8]
ex mero motu out of mere impulse, or of one's own accord
ex nihilo nihil fit nothing comes from nothing From Lucretius, and said earlier by Parmenides; in conjunction with "creation": creatio ex nihilo – "creation out of nothing"
ex novo anew something that has been newly made or made from scratch (see also de novo)
Ex Oblivione from oblivion The title of a short story by H. P. Lovecraft
ex officio from the office By virtue or right of office. Often used when someone holds one office by virtue of holding another: for example, the President of France is an ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. A common misconception is that all ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote; but in some cases they do. In law ex officio can also refer to an administrative or judicial office taking action of its own accord; in the latter case the more common term is ex proprio motu or ex meru motu, for example to invalidate a patent or prosecute infringers of copyright.[9]
ex opere operantis from the work of the one working Theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato, referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it
ex opere operato from the work worked A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the minister or the recipient of the sacrament.
ex oriente lux light from the east Originally refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. Motto of several institutions.
ex oriente pax peace comes from the east (i.e. from the Soviet Union) Shown on the logo as used by East Germany's CDU, a blue flag with two yellow stripes, a dove, and the CDU symbol in the center with the words ex oriente pax.
ex parte from a part A legal term that means "by one party" or "for one party". Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.
ex pede Herculem from his foot, so Hercules From the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know his size; from a part, the whole.
ex post from after "Afterward", "after the event". Based on knowledge of the past. Measure of past performance
ex post facto from a thing done afterward Said of a law with retroactive effect
ex professo from one declaring [an art or science] Or 'with due competence'. Said of the person who perfectly knows his art or science. Also used to mean "expressly".[10]
ex rel., or, ex relatio [arising] out of the relation/narration [of the relator] The term is a legal phrase; the legal citation guide called the Bluebook describes ex rel. as a "procedural phrase" and requires using it to abbreviate "on the relation of", "for the use of", "on behalf of", and similar expressions. An example of use is in court case titles such as Universal Health Services, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Escobar.
ex scientia tridens from knowledge, sea power The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon.
ex scientia vera from knowledge, truth The motto of the College of Graduate Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.
ex silentio from silence In general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum ex silentio ("argument from silence") is an argument based on the assumption that someone's silence on a matter suggests ("proves" when a logical fallacy) that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly.
ex situ out of position opposite of "in situ"
ex solo ad solem from the Earth to the Sun The motto of the University of Central Lancashire, Preston
ex supra (e.s.) "from above" Recent academic notation for "from above in this writing". See also ex infra.
ex tempore from [this moment of] time "This instant", "right away" or "immediately". Also written extempore
Ex turpi causa non oritur actio From a dishonorable cause an action does not arise A legal doctrine which states that a claimant will be unable to pursue a cause of action if it arises in connection with his own illegal act. Particularly relevant in the law of contract, tort and trusts.
ex umbra in solem from the shadow into the light Motto of Federico Santa María Technical University
ex undis from the waves [of the sea] motto in the coat of arms of Eemsmond
Ex Unitate Vires union is strength, or unity is strength Former motto of South Africa
ex vi termini from the force of the term Thus, "by definition"
ex vita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio, non tanquam ex domo I depart from life as from an inn, not as from home Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute (On Old Age) 23
ex vivo out of or from life Used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism.
ex voto from the vow Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow.
ex vulgus scientia from the crowd, knowledge used to describe social computing, in The Wisdom of Crowds and discourse referring to it.
excelsior higher "Ever upward!" The state motto of New York. Also a catchphrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee.
exceptio firmat (or probat) regulam in casibus non exceptis The exception confirms the rule in cases which are not excepted A juridical principle which means that the statement of a rule's exception (e.g., "no parking on Sundays") implicitly confirms the rule (i.e., that parking is allowed Monday through Saturday). Often mistranslated as "the exception that proves the rule".
excusatio non petita accusatio manifesta an excuse that has not been sought [is] an obvious accusation More loosely, "he who excuses himself, accuses himself"—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse
exeat s/he may go out A formal leave of absence
exegi monumentum aere perennius I have reared a monument more enduring than bronze Horace, Carmina III:XXX:I
exempli gratia (e.g.) for the sake of example, for example Exempli gratiā, 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e. g." or "e.g." (less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation "e.g." often is interpreted anglicised as 'example given'. The plural exemplōrum gratiā to refer to multiple examples (separated by commas) is now not in frequent use; when used, it may be seen abbreviated as "ee.g." or even "", corresponding to the practice of doubling plurals in Latin abbreviations. E.g. is not usually followed by a comma in British English, but it often is in American usage. E.g. is often confused with i.e. (id est, meaning 'that is' or 'in other words').[11] Some writing styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie and eg.[a]
Exemplum virtutis a model of virtue
exercitus sine duce corpus est sine spiritu an army without a leader is a body without a spirit On a plaque at the former military staff building of the Swedish Armed Forces
exeunt they leave Third-person plural present active indicative of the Latin verb exire; also seen in exeunt omnes, "all leave"; singular: exit. Typically used as a stage direction in plays which means that one or more actors should leave the stage.
experientia docet experience teaches This term has been used in dermatopathology to express that there is no substitute for experience in dealing with all the numerous variations that may occur with skin conditions.[28] The term has also been used in gastroenterology.[29] It is also the motto of San Francisco State University.
experimentum crucis experiment of the cross Or "crucial experiment". A decisive test of a scientific theory.
experto crede trust the expert Literally "believe one who has had experience". An author's aside to the reader.
expressio unius est exclusio alterius the expression of the one is the exclusion of the other "Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing". A principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others; e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to "lands, houses, tithes and coal mines" was held to exclude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, "the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else").
extra domum [placed] outside of the house Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part of a group like a monastery.
extra Ecclesiam nulla salus outside the Church [there is] no salvation This expression comes from the Epistle to Jubaianus, paragraph 21, written by Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century. It is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation.
extra omnes outside, all [of you] It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations before a session of the papal conclave which will elect a new pope. When spoken, all those who are not cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be present at the conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel.
extra territorium jus dicenti impune non paretur he who administers justice outside of his territory is disobeyed with impunity Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in law of the sea cases on the high seas.
extrema ratio "extreme solution", "last possibility", "last possible course of action"



  1. ^ Assertions, such as those by Bryan A. Garner in Garner's Modern English Usage,[12] that "eg" and "ie" style versus "e.g." and "i.e." style are two poles of British versus American usage are not borne out by major style guides and usage dictionaries, which demonstrate wide variation. To the extent anything approaching a consistent general conflict can be identified, it is between American and British news companies' different approaches to the balance between clarity and expediency, without complete agreement on either side of the Atlantic, and with little evidence of effects outside journalism circles, e.g. in book publishing or academic journals.

    There is no consistent British style. For example, The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e." with points (periods);[13] Fowler's Modern English Usage takes the same approach,[14] and its newest edition is especially emphatic about the points being retained.[15] The Oxford Guide to Style (also republished in Oxford Style Manual and separately as New Hart's Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e.";[16] the examples it provides are of the short and simple variety that often see the comma dropped in American usage as well. None of those works prescribe specifically for or against a comma following these abbreviations, leaving it to writers' own judgment.

    Some specific publishers, primarily in news journalism, drop one or both forms of punctuation as a matter of house style. They seem more frequently to be British than American (perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook being treated as a de facto standard across most American newspapers, without a UK counterpart). For example, The Guardian uses "eg" and "ie" with no punctuation,[17] while The Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with commas and without points,[18] as does The Times of London.[19] A 2014 revision to New Hart's Rules states that it is now "Oxford style" to not use a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which retain the points), "to avoid double punctuation".[20] This is a rationale it does not apply to anything else, and Oxford University Press has not consistently imposed this style on its publications that post-date 2014, including Garner's Modern English Usage.

    By way of US comparison, The New York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.", without a rule about a following comma – like Oxford usage in actual practice.[21] The Chicago Manual of Style requires "e.g.," and "i.e.,".[22] The AP Stylebook preserves both types of punctuation for these abbreviations.[23]

    "British" and "American" are not accurate as stand-ins for Commonwealth and North American English more broadly; actual practice varies even among national publishers. The Australian government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers preserves the points in the abbreviations, but eschews the comma after them (it similarly drops the title's serial comma before "and", which most UK and many US publishers would retain).[24] Editing Canadian English by the Editors' Association of Canada uses the periods and the comma;[25] so does A Canadian Writer's Reference.[26] The government publication The Canadian Style uses the periods but not the comma.[27]

    Style guides are generally in agreement that both abbreviations are preceded by a comma or used inside a parenthetical construction, and are best confined to the latter and to footnotes and tables, rather than used in running prose.


  1. ^ "Ecce Agnus dei".
  2. ^ Richard Rutherford (2003). Introduction. Medea and Other Plays. By Euripides. Translated by John Davie. London: Penguin Group. p. 153. ISBN 0-14-044929-9.
  3. ^ Caillau, Armand Benjamin (1838). "Sermones de Scripturis" [Conversations about the Scriptures]. Sancti Aurelii Augustini Opera [St. Augustine works] (in Latin). Vol. 4. Paris: Parent-Desbarres. p. 412. Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in errore manere.
  4. ^ "University of Minnesota Style Manual: Correct Usage". 2010-11-22. Archived from the original on 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  5. ^ "Traditional Latin Mass - MISSAL" (PDF). Retrieved 2024-02-08.
  6. ^ Gray, John (2006), "Lawyer's Latin (a vade-mecum)", Hale, London, ISBN 9780709082774.
  7. ^ "Pliny the Elder: the Natural History, Liber VIII". Retrieved 2011-01-19.
  9. ^ Law, Jonathan; Martin, Elizabeth A. (2009). "Ex proprio motu". A Dictionary of Law. Oxford University Press.
  10. ^ Entry for "expressly" in: Meltzer, Peter E. The Thinker's Thesaurus: Sophisticated Alternatives to Common Words. W. W. Norton & Company, 2015 (3rd edition). ISBN 0393338975, ISBN 9780393338973.
  11. ^ "Word Fact: What's the Difference Between i.e. and e.g.?". IAC Publishing. August 19, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  12. ^ Garner, Bryan A. (2016). "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". Garner's Modern English Usage (4th ed.). pp. 322–323, 480. This is an internationalized expansion of what was previously published as Garner's Modern American Usage.
  13. ^ Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. pp. 704, 768.. Material previously published separately as The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors.
  14. ^ Burchfield, R. W.; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2004). "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". Fowler's Modern English Usage (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 240, 376.
  15. ^ Butterfield, Jeremy; Fowler, H. W., eds. (2015). "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". Fowler's Dictionary of Modern English Usage (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 248, 393. Both should always be printed lower case roman with two points and no spaces.
  16. ^ Ritter, Robert M., ed. (2003). "3.8: e.g., i.e., etc.". Oxford Style Manual. Oxford University Press. pp. 69–70.
  17. ^ "abbreviations and acronyms". The Guardian and Observer style guide. Guardian Media Group/Scott Trust. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  18. ^ "Abbreviations". The Economist Style Guide. Economist Group. 2017. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  19. ^ "'eg,' and ', ie'". The Times Online Style Guide. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  20. ^ Waddingham, Anne, ed. (2014). "4.3.8: Other uses [of the comma]". New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 79.
  21. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connolly, William G.; Corbett, Philip B.; et al., eds. (2015). "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". The New York Times Manual of Style (2015 ed.). The New York Times Company/Three Rivers Press. E-book edition v3.1, ISBN 978-1-101-90322-3.
  22. ^ "5.250: i.e; e.g.". The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2017.
  23. ^ "'e.g.' and 'i.e.'". Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (2009 ed.). Associated Press/Basic Books. pp. 95, 136.
  24. ^ "6.73". Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers (5th ed.). Australian Government Publishing Service. 1996. p. 84.
  25. ^ "4.22: Latin Abbreviations". Editing Canadian English: The Essential Canadian Guide (Revised and Updated (2nd) ed.). McClelland & Stewart/Editors' Association of Canada. 2000. pp. 52–53.. States no rule about the comma, but illustrates use with it in §4.23 on the same page.
  26. ^ Hacker, Diana; et al. (2008). "M4-d: Be sparing in your use of Latin abbreviations". A Canadian Writer's Reference (4th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. pp. 308–309. This is a Canadian revision of an originally American publication.
  27. ^ "12.03: Words commonly misused or confused". The Canadian Style (revised and expanded 2nd ed.). Dundurn Press/Public Works and Government Services Canada Translation Bureau. 1997. pp. 233–234.
  28. ^ Rapini, Ronald P. (2005). Practical dermatopathology. Elsevier Mosby. ISBN 0-323-01198-5.
  29. ^ Webb-Johnson AE (May 1950). "Experientia docet". Rev Gastroenterol. 17 (5): 337–43. PMID 15424403.

Further reading