List of Maldivian monarchs is located in Maldives
Devvadhoo Dynasty
Devvadhoo Dynasty
Huraa Dynasty
Huraa Dynasty
Isdhoo Dynasty
Isdhoo Dynasty
Dhyamigili Dynasty
Dhyamigili Dynasty
Utheemu Dynasty
Utheemu Dynasty
Dynasty origin islands

Maldives was turned into a Sultanate in 1153 when the Buddhist King Dhovemi converted to Islam. Prior to that the Maldives was a Buddhist Kingdom, a Hindu Kingdom and before that a matriarchal society with each atoll ruled by a chief queen according to some accounts or by others, several theocratic societies ruled by priests known as Sawamias of heliolatric, selenolatric and astrolatric religions. All the rulers before King Koimala only ruled over parts of the Maldives or Deeva Maari (and Dheeva Mahal) as it was known then. Koimala was the first king to rule over all the islands of the Maldives as we know today and the island of Maliku.

The formal title of the Sultan up to 1965 was, Sultan of Land and Sea, Lord of the twelve-thousand islands and Sultan of the Maldives which came with the style Highness. After independence in 1965 the Sultan assumed the title King with the style Majesty. This style was used until 1968, when the Maldives became a republic for the second time. The main official Royal residence of the Sultan was the Etherekoilu, a palace in Malé.

The reigns of Sultans are from three sources. Taarikh by Maldivian chronicler Hasan Taj Al-Din's written in Arabic which covers 670 years of Maldives history, the loamaafaanu copper plates and the third source called Raadhavalhi which was written in 1757 using both Dhives (old script) and Thaana (new script) Maldivian languages.

Kingdom of Adeetta Vansa to Theemuge dynasty

Main article: Theemuge dynasty

Solar dynasty

Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sri Srudasarunaditya before 269 BC[1] unknown Exiled prince and son of King Sri Brahamaditya of the Kalinga Kingdom of India.[1]
Unknown number of rulers The Mapanansa,[1] the copper plates on which the history of the Kings of Solar Dynasty was written were lost quite early on.

A 4th century notice written by Ammianus Marcellinus ( 362 AD ) speaks of gifts sent to the Roman emperor Julian by a deputation from the nation of "Divi". The name "Divi" is very similar to "Dheyvi" who were the first settlers of Maldives.[1]

Srimati Damahara unknown unknown Last ruler of the Solar Dynasty. It is unclear from the records how many other rulers ruled between the reigns of King Sri Aditya and Queen Damahara. Married Prince Sri Baladitya from the Kalinga Kingdom who later became the first king of the Lunar Dynasty.

Lunar dynasty

Name Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sri Baladitya around 990 unknown Prince from Kalinga Kingdom of India. Married Queen Damahara of the Solar dynasty to become the ruler of Diva Mahal (Dheeva Maari). Early during his reign King Rajaraja I of Chola invaded the northern atolls of the Maldives. Although some sources indicate the start of the reign as 900 AD, a Chinese document from the Tang dynasty, records the visit of Maldivians to China bringing with them gifts from their king, Baladitya in 658 AD and also in 662 AD.
Sri Laukabarana unknown unknown King of the Lunar dynasty. He is son or grandson of Svasti Sri Damahara Maha Rehendi
Sri Maha Sandura unknown unknown Son of King Laukabarana. He had a daughter Princess Kamanhara (also known as Kamanara or Rehendihara) who was banished to the island then called Is-Midu (Addu Meedhoo today). With her she took the Mapanansa, the copper plates in which the history of the Kings of Solar dynasty was written. The Mapanasa were later buried by Al-Muhaddith Hasan and this is why such little information survived about the Solar dynasty.
Sri Bovana Ananda unknown unknown Son of King Laukabarana and brother of King Maha Sandura. He is the father of King Koimala.

Lunar or Homa or Theemuge Dynasty (1117-1388, 271 years)

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Notes
King Mahaabarana Adeettiya (Koimala)[3] Suvasthi Shri Theemuge Rasfireyru Mini Abaaruna Mahaaradhun[4] 24 years 1117 1141 The first king to rule over the whole of Maldives.
King Dhovemi

Later Sultan Muhammad al-Adil[5]

Siri Bavanditta Maha Radun 24 years 1141 1165 Reigned as a Buddhist until 1153. Son of Henevi Maava Kilege, sister of Koimala. A member of the Soma or Homa (Lunar) dynasty. Converted to Islam in 1153, assumed the title Sultan and founded the Theemuge dynasty. He was the famous Dharumavantha Radun[1] or the Benevolent King.
Sultan Mute Kalaminja[5] Bavana Abaruna Maha Radun 19 years 1165 1184 Mother's sister's son of Dhovemi
Sultan Ali b. Reke Hiriya[5] Dammara-nanda Maha Radun 8 years 1184 1192
Sultan Dinei Kalaminja[5] Fanaditta Maha Radun 6 years 1192 1198 The Lōmāfānu was written during Sultan Dhinei's reign.
Sultan Dihei Kalaminja[5] Dagata Abaruna Maha Radun 15 years 1198 1213 Brother of Sultan Dhinei I
Sultan Wati Kalaminha[5] Dagata Suvara Maha Radun 19 years 1213 1232 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I and Dhinei II
Sultan Valla Dio[5][3] Rada-rada Suvara Maha Radun 25 years 1232 1257 Brother of Sultans Dhinei I, Dhinei II and Wadi
Sultan Hudei Kalaminja[5] Vira Abaruna Maha Radun 6 years 1257 1263
Sultan Aima Kalaminja[5] Loka Suvara Maha Radun 2 years 1263 1265
Sultan Hiley (Ali) Kalaminja[5] Sinja Abaruna Maha Radun 2 years 1265 1267
Sultan Kalaminja b. Aydage[5] Madini Survara Maha Radun 1 year 1267 1268
Sultan Uda (Auda) Kalaminja[5] Arida Suvara Maha Radun 9 years 1268 1277 Son of Sultan Wadi
Sultan Ali Kalamnija[5] Arida Suvara Maha Radun 10 years 1277 1287 Son of Sultan Audha
Sultan Yoosuf Kalamnija[5] Bavana Aditta Maha Radun 6 years 1287 1293 Brother of Sultan Hali II
Sultan Salah al-Din b. Yusuf[5] Some Sivara Maha Radun 8 years 1293 1301 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Da'ud b. Yusuf[5] Sundura Bavana Maha Radun 5 years 1301 1306 Son of Sultan Yoosuf I
Sultan Umar Vira (Abu Fath Jalal al-Din)[5] Loka Abaruna Maha Radun 34 years 1306 1340 Son of Sultan Salis
Sultan Shihab al-Din Ahmad[5] Loka Aditta Maha Radun 7 years 1340 1347

Deposed and assassinated

Son of Sultan Omar I, deposed, banished and assassinated by sister Khadijah.[6]
Sultana Rehindi Kabadi Kilege (Khadija)[5] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 15 years 1347 1362

Deposed

Deposed by her first husband Mohamed el-Jameel.
Sultan Mohamed el-Jamil[5] Bavana Suja Maha Radun 1 year 1362 1363

Deposed and assassinated

First Husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by estranged wife Khadijah. He was nicknamed Handsome Mohamed.
Sultana Rehendi (Khadijah)[5] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 10 years 1363 1373

Deposed

Second reign on assassination of first husband Sultan Mohamed el-Jameel. Deposed for a second time by her second husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah Kilege[5] Dammaru Aaditta Maha Radun 3 years 1373 1376

Deposed and assassinated

Second husband of Sultana Khadijah. Assassinated by wife Khadijah.
Sultana Rehendi (Khadijah)[5] Rada Abaruna Maha Radun 3 years 1376 1379 Third reign
Sultana Radafati (Adafate) Kabadi Kilege[5] Soma Aburana Maha Radun 1 year 1379 1380

Deposed

Daughter of Sultan Omar I, half sister of Sultana Khadijah. Deposed by husband Mohamed.
Sultan Mohamed I[5][3] Sundura Abaruna Maha Radun 4 years 1380 1384 Husband of Sultana Raadhafathi. Son of Kaeumani Kaulhanna Kilege.[3] He is from the island of Maakurathu in Raa Atoll hence he is also known as Maakurathu Mohamed Rasgefaan.
Sultana Da'inu Kabadi Kilege[5] Natta Abaruna Maha Radun 3 years 1385 1388

Deposed

Daughter of Sultan Mohamed I. Deposed by husband Abdullah.
Sultan Abdullah[5] Soma Abaruna Maha Radun less than 1 year 1388 1388 Husband of Sultana Dhaain. Some records call him a regent (Henevi-rasge).
Sultan Uthman al-Fahandavi[5] Sundura Aditta Maha Radun less than 1 year 1388 1388 Former Imam to Raadhafathi and Dhaain

Last of the Lunar dynasty

Hilaalee dynasty (1388-1632, 244 years)

Main article: Hilaalee dynasty

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Hasan I[5] Bavana 10 years 1388 1398 First of the Hilaaly dynasty

Son of Golhaavahi Kambulo (Kalavahi Kabulo) and Kulhiveri Hilaalu Kaeulhanna Kaloge son of Muslim Abbas of Hulhule

Sultan Ibrahim I[5] Dhammaru Veeru less than 1 year 1398 1398

Deposed

Son of Sultan Hassan I

Deposed by his uncle Hussain.

Sultan Husayn I[5] Loka Veeru 11 years 1398 1409 Brother of Sultan Hassan I

Assumed the throne after deposing his nephew Sultan Ibrahim I.

Sultan Nasir al-Din al-Gulavihi[5] Veeru Abaarana 2 years 1409 1411 Introduced the Islamic penal code. Possibly a member of the Lunar dynasty
Sultan Hasan Hilali[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) less than 1 year 1411 1411

Accidental death

Drowned in a tank.
Sultan Isa[5] Bavana Sundhura less than 1 year 1411 1411 Brother of Sultan Hassan II
Sultan Ibrahim I[5] Dhammaru Veeru 10 years 1411 1421 Second reign, first reigned in 1398.
Sultan Uthman II[5] Dhammaru Loaka less than 1 year 1421 1421 Son of Sultan Osman I
Sultan Muhammad[5] Raadha Bavana less than 1 year 1421 1421 Uncle of Sultans Hassan I and Hussain I

Prime Minister to Osman I

Sultan Yusuf II[5] Loka Aananadha 22 years 1421 1443 Son of Sultan Hassan I
Sultan Abu Bakr I[5] Bavana Sooja less than 1 year 1443 1443

Killed in battle

Son of Sultan Hassan I

Half brother of Sultan Yoosuf II Killed in battle with the Portuguese who came to summon the Council of Ministers of the Maldives to Cochin.

Sultan Hasan III[5] Raadha Veeru 24 years 1443 1467 Son of Sultan Aboobakuru I Deposed by Sayyid Mohamed while abroad.
Sultan al-Sayyid Muhammad[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) less than 1 year 1467 1467

Deposed

Possible descendant of the Prophet MuhammadDeposed by Sultan Hassan III upon returning to Maldives.
Sultan Hasan III[5] Raadha Veeru 1 year 1467 1468 Second reign
Sultan Muhammadh II[5] Bavana Abaarana 12 years 1468 1480 Son of Sultan Hasan III
Sultan Hasan IV[5] Raadha Loka less than 1 year 1480 1480

Deposed

Son of Sultan Mohamed IIDeposed by Omar II.
Sultan Umar II[5] Loka Sundhura 4 years 1480 1484 Son of Sultan Yoosuf II
Sultan Hasan V[5] Raadha Aanandha 1 year 1484 1485 Son of Sultan Omar II
Sultan Hasan IV[5] Raadha Loka 6 years 1485 1491 Second reign
Sultan al-Shaykh Hasan VI[5] Raadha Fanaveeru 1 year 1491 1492 Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru I
Sultan Ibrahim II[5] Bavana Furasuddha less than 1 year 1492 1492 Son of Omar II
Sultan Kalu Muhammad[7][5] Dhammaru Bavana less than 1 year 1492 1492

Deposed

Son of Sultan Omar IIDeposed by his brother Yoosuf.
Sultan Yusuf III[5] Veeru Aanandha 1 year 1492 1493 Son of Sultan Omar II
Sultan Ali II[5] Audha Veeru 2 years 1493 1495 Grandson of Sultan Hassan I
Sultan Kalu Muhammad[7][5] Dhammaru Bavana 15 years 1495 1510

Deposed

Second reign Son of Sultan Omar II Deposed for a second time, this time by his nephew Hassan.
Sultan Hasan VII[5] Singa Veeeru 1 year 1510 1511 Son of Sultan Yoosuf III
Sultan al-Sharif Ahmad al-Makki[5] Suddha Bavana 2 years 1511 1513 An Arab from Mecca Possible descendant of Muhammad
Sultan Ali III[5] Aanandha less than 1 year 1513 1513

Killed

Killed in a duel with his sister Burecca (Buraki Raani).

Grandson of Sultan Aboobakuru ISon of Mohamed Farhana Kalo and Recca daughter of Aboobakuru I

Sultan Kalu Muhammad[7][5] Dhammaru Bavana 16 years 1513 1529 Third accession assisted by his wife Queen Burecca who killed her brother Ali III.
Sultan Hasan al-Shirazi VIII[5] Ran Mani Loka 20 years 1529 1549 Son of Sultan Kalu Mohamed and Fatuma Dio a concubine from Shiraz in Persia
Sultan Muhammad III[5] Singa Bavana 2 years 1549 1551

Assassinated

Assassinated by his brother Hassan who succeeded him. Son of Golhavahi Aysha Rani Kilege and Omar Maafaiy Kilege son of Kalu Mohamed and Aysha Rani Kilege daughter of Korari Kilege therefore grandson of Sultan Kalu Mohamed
Sultan Hasan IX[5] Dhirukusa Loka 1 year 1551 1552

Deposed

Brother of Mohamed III He was the first Maldivian and only member of its royalty to renounce Islam and convert to Christianity. He was deposed upon conversion, and known subsequently by the Lusitanian name of Dom Manoel.
Interregnum 2 years 1552 1554 Maldives ruled by a Council of Ministers.
Sultan Abu Bakr II[5] Asaalees Loka 3 years 1554 1557 Son of Ibrahim Faarhana Kilege and Sanfa Dio Former Prime Minister to Dom Manoel
Sultan Ali IV (Ali Rasgefaan)[5] Audha Siyaaka Katthiri 1 year 1557 1558

Killed in battle

Popularly known as Ali Rasgefaan He was killed in battle.[8] Son of Prime Minister Abdur Rahman Dorhimeyna Kaloge and Sitti Rani Kilege

He was married to Princess Aysha Rani Kilege aunt of Dom Manoel and daughter of Kalu Mohamed.

King Dom Manoel[3] Dhirikusa Loka (in absentia) 15 years 1558 1573 Restored as the King. Formerly known as Sultan Hassan IX

A Maldivian Catholic named Andiri Andirin acted as his regent, while Manoel lived in Goa.

Interregnum[3] less than 1 year 1573 1573 Maldives ruled by Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheemu after he assassinated Andiri Andirin, the regent of King Dom Manoel. As per a treaty he got refuge from Ali Raja of Cannanore, Mohamed Thakurufan's base of operation was Minicoy under the sovereignty of Cannanore. Keteeb Mohamed Thakurufan did not honour this promise. The Ali Raja demanded dominion over the Maldives, as promised to him by the Kateeb of Uteem.
The nature of the relationship between Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and the Ali Raja of Cannanore was outlined in a letter sent by a later Ali Raja, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, to the Sultan Mohamed Mueenuddine I of the Maldives. The letter was dated Friday 17 Jamada-el-oula Anno Hegirae 1243 (7 December AD 1827). According to the letter Mohamed Thakurufan had entered into a treaty ceding sovereignty of the Maldives to the Ali Raja of Cannanore in the event Thakurufan was established in power in Male. (refer page 294 of Divehi Tarikh).
King Dom Manoel[3] Dhirikusa Loka 10 years 1573 1583 Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan concluded a Treaty with King Dom Manoel in order to ward off the Ali Raja of Cannanore with whose help the Kateeb seized power in Male.

Under the treaty Dom Manoel was restored but remained in Goa. The co-regents were Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan of Utheem and his brother Hassan Thakurufan. The Kateeb conferred on himself the title of Sultan in 1583 upon Dom Manoel's death. This was in breach of the Treaty and was not legally binding.

King Dom João[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 20 years 1583 1603 Son of King Manoel, who remained in Goa. He had two brothers, Dom Francisco and Dom Pedro. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan and his brother Hassan Thakurufan ruled for King Dom João as co-regents. Kateeb Mohamed Thakurufan assumed the title of Sultan following the death of King Dom Manoel. He married a Portuguese Christian noblewoman, Donna Francisca Vasconelles and had two children Dom Philippe and Dona Inez. Ibrahim, also known as Kalaafaan[9] (literally "Lord") was the de facto Sultan, but legally the regent of Kings Dom João and Dom Philippe who resided in Goa. He reigned from 1585 to 1609. Son of Mohamed Thakurufan, Kateeb of Utheemu and Rehendiye Goyye daughter of Cat Fatima of Boarhi Woods in Baarah Ibrahim Kalaafaan was the regent at the time of François Pyrard de Laval's[9] detainment in the Maldives after the shipwreck.
King Dom Philippe[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 29 years 1603 1632 Son of King Dom João and Donna Francisca Vasconelles

Al-Amira Kuda Kalu Kamanafaanu acted as regent from 1607 until 1609. She was the daughter of Hassan Thakurufaan and Sitti Maryam Maavaa Kuda Kamanafaanu Rani Kilege, daughter of Sultan Ali VI, Sultan of the Maldives, by his wife, Princess Aisha Kabafa'anu, daughter of Sultan Kalu Mohamed[7]Hussain Faamuladeyri Kilege acted as regent from 1609 to 1620.Muhammad Imaduddin I acted as regent from 1620 to 1632. De-recognised in the Maldives after an abortive expedition with Portuguese assistance in order to abolish regency and assume power.

Utheemu dynasty (1632-1648, lasted 60 years)

Main article: Utheemu dynasty

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I[3] Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 16 years 1632 1648 Legally proclaimed sultan in 1632 Former regent for King Dom Philippe
Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I[3] Kula Ran Meeba Katthiri Bavana 39 years 1648 1687 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin I
Sultan Kuda Muhammad[3] Maniranna Loka 4 years 1687 1691

Accidental death

Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar I

His mother Princess Maryam acted as regent due to his age. Killed with his mother while at sea in an explosion.

Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine[3] Naakiree Sundhura 1 year 1691 1692 Re-established the Islamic penal code.

Son of Dharanboodhoo Kadida Dio and Abu Naibu Hassan Dorhimeyna Kilege son of the Regent Hussain Famuladeyri Kilege

Hamawi dynasty ( Lasted less than 1 year )

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen I[3] Mikaalha Madhaadheettha less than 1 year 1692 1692

Possibly poisoned to death

Married Mariyam Kan'baafaanu who was the widow of Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine Arab mentor of Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine He first visited Male during the reign of Ibrahim Iskandar I. He was probably poisoned to death. He coutured the re-establishment of the Islamic Penal code held by the previous Sultan Muhammad Mohyeddine and assigned Scholars to teach in Mosques. In his Sultanate Maldives was very peaceful and citizens became educated and religious. (refer page 67 to 69 of Divehi Tarikh)

Dhevvadhoo dynasty (1692-1701, lasted 9 years)

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Muhammad Ali IV (Devvadhoo Rasgefaan)[5] Kula Ran Mani 9 years 1692 1701

Possibly poisoned to death

Married Mariyam Kan'baafaanu who was the widow of Sultan Muhammad Shamsedeen I

Appointed as Sultan by request of Viziers[10]

First Sultan of the Dhevvadhoo dynasty[11] Popularly known as Dhevvadhoo Rasgefaanu,[12] son of Ali Mafahaiy Kilege of Dhevvadhoo and Kakuni Dio[3]Sultan Mohamed IV was married to Khadheeja Kanba daughter of Ibrahim Shah Bandar of Isdhoo (Isdhoo Bodu Velaanaa Thakurufaan) Devvadhoo Rasgefaan or Sultan Muahmmadh Ali V was grandson of Al Gazi Muhammad Shamsuddeen. He himself served as Chief Justice prior to Sultan. Devvadhoo Rasgefaan appointed the chronicler Hassan Thaajuddeen as his Chief Justice.[10]

Isdhoo dynasty (1701-1704, lasted 3 years)

Main article: Isdhoo dynasty

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Notes
Sultan Ali VII[5] Kula Ran Muiy less than 1 year 1701 1701 Ali Shah Bandar or Isdu 'Ali Velana Thakuru'fa'anu,[13] first Sultan of the Isdhoo dynasty

Son of Ibrahim Shah Bandar Kilege of Isdhoo and Aysha Dio

Sultan Hasan X[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) less than 1 year 1701 1701

Abdicated

Son of Sultan Ali V

Abdicated for cousin Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine He is also known as Addu Hassan Manikfan[14]

Sultan Ibrahim Muzhir al-Din[5] Muthey Ran Mani Loka 3 years 1701 1704

Deposed

Cousin of Sultan Hasan X

Deposed by his Prime Minister Muhammad Imaduddin during the regency of his spouse Fatima Kabafa'anuwhile on the Hajj pilgrimage.

Dhiyamigili dynasty (1704-1759, lasted 55 years)

Main article: Dhiyamigili dynasty

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II[3] Kula Sundhura Siyaaka Saasthura 16 years 1704 1720 Son of Sultan Ibrahim Muzhir al-Dins maternal (Athiree Kamana) aunt Amina Dio[15] Prime Minister to Sultan Ibrahim Mudzhiruddine

First of the Dhiyamigili dynasty

Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II[3] Rannava Loka 30 years 1720 1750 Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II
Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III[3] Navaranna Keerithi 7 years 1750 1757

Died in captivity by Ali Raja

Son of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin II Held captive on Kavaratti island from 1752 until his death in 1757. In 1752 he was seized by the Ali Raja of Cannanore and transported to Kavaratti island in the Laccadives. Male was occupied. The occupation was ended by Muleegey Don Hassan Maniku. The sultan died in captivity. During this time Maldives was ruled by the captive sultan's niece Amina I of Maldives and his daughter Amina II. The de facto regent was Muleegey Don Hassan Maniku.
Interregnum 2 years 1757 1759 Regency continued in expectation of the return of the deceased Sultan's heir from captivity.
Sultana Amina I 1 year 1753 1754

Abdicated

Daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II Amina assumed the role of the ruler of Maldives in 1753 after Male was recaptured from the Malabars after 17 weeks of occupation. She was the daughter of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II and Aisha Manikfan. She abdicated the throne and moved to Addu Atoll in the south. She was later banished to various islands and eventually became the Ruler of Maldives for the second time as the regent during the reign of her younger brother Sultan Mohamed Ghiyasuddin in 1773.
Sultana Amina II 2 years 1757 1759 Daughter of Sultan Muhammad Imaduddin III Amina succeeded her cousin in 1754 as nominal regent for her absent father the age of nine, while Muleegey Hassan Manikfaan managed the political affairs as de facto regent. Her father died in 1757 in Minicoy, after which she formally became monarch and queen regnant. In 1759 Sultan Hassan Izzuddin became monarch in absentia of Dhiyamigili Sultan.

Sultan in absentia until the return of Dhiyamigili heir Giyath al-Din

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din[3] Kula Ran Meeba Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 7 years 1759 1766

Abdicated

Ascended after hearing news of Sultan Muhammadh Imaduddin III's demise to fill the throne in absentia of Dhiyamigili heir to throne who was held captive by Ali Raja.[16] Abdicated throne to Sultan Muhammadh Ghiyath al-Din on his return and died in 2nd February 1767.[16] Also known as Muleegey Don Hassan Maniku or Don Bandaara

Don Bandaara was son of Amina Dio daughter of Mohamed Kateeb of island Muli of Maldives and Huraa Mohamed Faamuladeyri Thakurufan (from the island of Huraa).

Return of Giyath al-Din

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Muhammad Ghiyath al-Din[5] Kula Ranmani Keerithi 8 years 1766 1774

Assassinated after the throne was seized.

Son of Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar II of Dhiyamigili Dynasty also known as Muhammadh Manikfaan. Also known as Haajee Bandaarain

Muhammadh Shams al-Din (later Sultan Muhammadh Shams al-Din Iskandar II) seized the throne when Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was on Hajj.[5] Unaware of seizure of throne Ghiyath al-Din returned from Hajj and was killed during the reign of Huraa dynasty Sultan Muhammadh Mu'izz al-Din who is also known as Kalhu Bandaara. The last remaining heir of Dhiyamigili Prince Abdulla was banished to Fuvahmulah at the age of seven.[17]

Huraa dynasty (1774-1968, lasted 194 years)

Main article: Huraa dynasty

Name Regnal Name Duration of Reign Monarch from Monarch until Claim / relationship with predecessor(s) Notes
Sultan Muhammad Shams al-Din Iskandar II[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) less than 1 year 1774

Ascended after seizing throne from Dhiyamigili Dynasty

1774 Seized the throne when Sultan Ghiyath al-Din was on Hajj.[5][18] Ascended throne after an armed confrontation with Dhiyamigili dynasty supporters.[18][16]

After becoming the Sultan he looted and banished the aides of Sultan Ghiyath al-Din to various islands and seized the properties of Sultan Ghiyath al-Din.[18]

Uncle of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din.
Sultan Muhammad Mu'izz al-Din[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 5 years 1774 1779 Son of Sultan Hasan 'Izz ud-din who reigned in absentia for the return of Dhiyamigili heir Ghiyath al-Din.[16]Sultan Ghiyath al-Din of Dhiyamigili dynasty was killed after he returned from Hajj in October 1774 during Sultan Muhammadh Mu'izz al-Din's reign.[19] When Sultan Ghiyath al-Din of Dhiyamigili dynasty returned after Hajj during Sultan Muhammadh Mu'izz al-Din's reign, instead of bringing Sultan Ghiyath al-Din to Male', he was killed by attaching weights to his feet and throwing overboard into the sea.[19] The last remaining heir of Dhiyamigili Prince Abdulla was banished to Fuvahmulah at the age of seven.[17] Sultan Muhammadh Mu'izz al-Din is popularly known as Kalhu Bandaarain.

Sultan Muhammadh Mu'izz al-Din married Aminath Manikfaan from Addu, great-grand daughter of Isdhoo Dynasty Sultan Hassan X (Also known as Addu Hassan Manikfan[14])[20]

Sultan Hasan Nooraddeen I[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 20 years 1779 1799 Younger brother of Sultan Muhammad Mu'iz ud-din[3] Sultan Hassan Nooradeen I married Aishath Manikfaan from Addu, great-grand daughter of Isdhoo Dynasty Sultan Hassan X (Also known as Addu Hassan Manikfan[14])[20]
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I[5] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 36 years 1799 1835 Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen I
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen IV[3] Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bovana 47 years 1835 1882 Son of Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen I
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 4 years 1882 1886

Abdicated

Son of Imaaduddeen IV Abdicated in favor of his nephew Muhammad Mueenuddeen.
Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen II[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 2 years 1886 1888

Abdicated

Nephew of Sultan Ibrahm Nooraddeen On 16 December 1887, he accepted British protection and the nation became a protectorate.[21]
Sultan Ibrahim Nooraddeen[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 4 years 1888 1892 Uncle of Sultan Muhammadh Mueenuddeen II Second reign
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 1 year 1892 1893

Abdicated

His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. The regent abdicated in his name in favour of his older half brother.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) less than 1 year 1893 1893

Abdicated

Brother of Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen V His cousin Hassan Nooreddine Maandhoogey Manippulu acted as his regent due to his age. His cousin abdicated in his name and assumed the throne himself.
Sultan Muhammad Imaaduddeen VI[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 9 years 1893 1902

Deposed

Former regent for Sultans Muhammad Imaaduddeen V and Muhammad Shamsuddeen III. Deposed while in the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Muhammad Shamsuddeen III[3] Kula Sundhura Katthiri Bavana 32 years 1902 1934

Deposed

Second reign and introduced the first Constitution [19] which ended when he was deposed and exiled.
Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II[3] Kula Sudha Ira Siyaaka Saasthura Audha Keerithi Katthiri Bavana 8 years 1935 1943

Forced to abdicate

Sultan Abdul Majeed Didi Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 8 years 1944 1952 Abdul Majeed Didi was elected Sultan but continued to live in Ceylon. Maldives ruled by Council of Regency headed for a time by former Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II.
Interregnum 2 years 1952 1954 Following the death of Abdul Majeed and after a national referendum the Maldives became a republic.
King Sir Muhammad Fareed Didi[3] Keerithi Maha Radun (no coronation) 14 years 1954 1968 Grandson of Sultan Muhammad Mueenuddeen II and eldest son of Sultan Abdul Majeed Didi took the title of King Muhammad Fareed Didi in 1965 when the British protectorate of the Maldives ended. Deposed by a national referendum which decided to replace the sultanate with a republic.

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Mohamed, Naseema. "First Settlers". Note on the Early History of the Maldives.
  2. ^ "Legend of Koimala Kalou".
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Maldive Sovereigns from AD 1117".
  4. ^ Maniku, H (1986). "Conversion of Maldives to Islam". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Sri Lanka Branch. New Series. 31: 72–81. JSTOR 23731038.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu Taj al-Din, Hasan. The Maldivian chronicle Ta'rikh. p. 191.
  6. ^ "The Rehla of Ibn Battuta". Maldives. 31 October 1976.
  7. ^ a b c d M. dos Santos Alves, Jorge (2005). "Kalu Muhammad Hilali, Sultan of the Maldives (1491-1528)". Archipel. 70: 53–65. doi:10.3406/arch.2005.3972.
  8. ^ "Archivo portuguez oriental". Nova-Goa.
  9. ^ a b Francois, Payard. "The voyage of Francois Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil". The Maldives.
  10. ^ a b "އައްޑޫ ރަދުންނަކީ ކާކު؟". Addu Live.
  11. ^ "Decedents of Sultan Mudzuhiruddine - Isdhoo Dynasty". Galehiri.
  12. ^ "Coral Stone Mosques of Maldives".
  13. ^ "Sultan Ali VII".
  14. ^ a b c "Sultan Hassan X".
  15. ^ Luthufee, Mohamed Ibrahim. "Dhivehi thaareekhuge therein hoadhun : Dhiyamigilee dharikolhu. Faiythoora 91. 8(7), 5-9". Dhivehi Bahaai Thaareekhah Khidhumaiykuraa Qaumee Marukazu.
  16. ^ a b c d Abdul Razzak, Mohamed. "Huraa dharikolhuge rasraskalunnah raskan libivadaigathee viraasee usoolunthoa?". MNU Dissertations: 12.
  17. ^ a b "Feydhooroots".
  18. ^ a b c "Killed, exiled or deposed". Maldives Independent.
  19. ^ a b c "Killed, exiled or deposed".
  20. ^ a b "Feydhoo Roots".
  21. ^ Panton, Kenneth J. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 311. ISBN 978-0810875241.