Naga is an umbrella term for several indigenous communities in North-East India and Upper Burma. The word Naga originated as an exonym. Today, it covers a number of tribes that reside in Nagaland, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh states of India, and also in Myanmar.

Before the arrival of the British, the term "Naga" was used in Assam to refer to certain isolated tribes. The British adopted this term for a number of tribes in the surrounding area, based on loose linguistic and cultural associations. Nagaland became the 16th state on 1 December 1965. S. R. Tohring (2010) lists 66 Naga tribes[1] whereas Kibangwar Jamir (2016) lists 67 tribes.[2] The 1991 Census of India listed 35 Naga groups as Scheduled Tribes: 17 in Nagaland, 15 in Manipur and 3 in Arunachal Pradesh.[3]

Naga tribes

Tribe Country Recognized as Scheduled Tribe in Reference for classification as Naga Comments
Anāl India, Myanmar Manipur S.R. Tohring, 2010
Angami India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Ao India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Chakhesang India Nagaland
Chang India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Chirr India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Chiru India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Chothe India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Inpui India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Kharam (also Purum) India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Khiamniungan Myanmar, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also known as Nokow (Noko) in Myanmar.
Konyak Myanmar, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Lamkang India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Lainong Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also known as Htang ngan
Liangmai India Nagaland, Manipur Part of Zeliangrong
Lotha India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Makury (sometimes spelt Makuri) Myanmar, India S. R. Tohring, 2010 Considered part of Yimkhiung in Nagaland, India
Mao (also Ememei) India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Khrasi ][4]
Maram India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Maring India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Monsang India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Moyon Myanmar, India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Moyon Naga.[5][6][7]
Nocte (or Nokte) India Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 Part of Tangshang Naga.
Para Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010
Phom India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Pochury India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Poumai India Nagaland,

Manipur

S. R. Tohring, 2010
Rengma India Assam, Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Rongmei India Assam, Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010 Part of Zeliangrong
Sangtam India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Sümi (or Sema) India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Tangkhul India, Myanmar Manipur
Tangsa (or Tase in language coding name) India, Myanmar Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 Known as Tangshang in Myanmar
Tarao India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Thangal India Manipur S. R. Tohring, 2010
Tikhir India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Tutsa India Arunachal Pradesh Robin Tribhuwan, 2005[8] It is a sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga.
Wancho India Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 It is a sub-tribe of Tangshang Naga.
Yimkhiung Myanmar, India Nagaland S. R. Tohring, 2010
Zeme India Nagaland, Assam & Manipur S.R.Tohring Part of Zeliangrong Community

Naga tribes with limited recognition

Tribe Country State Reference for classification as Naga Comments
Khoibu India Manipur Romesh Singh, 2006[9] Also considered as a subtribe of Maring
Hemi (also Haimi) Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 Limited scope of former name of Tangshang
Pangmi Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 Limited scope of former name of Tangshang
Muklom India S. R. Tohring, 2010 subtribe of Tangsa/Tangshang Naga
Rangpang India Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 Limited scope of former name of Tangshang
Ollo (Lazu) India Arunachal Pradesh Also considered as a sub-tribe of Nocte
Koka Naga (Goga) Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 sometimes considered as a subtribe of Somra Tangkhul
Longphuri Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also considered as a subtribe of Makury
Makyam (Paung Nyuan) Myanmar S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also considered as a subtribe of Khiamniungan Naga
Tikhak India, Myanmar Arunachal Pradesh S. R. Tohring, 2010 Also considered as a subtribe of Tangsa/Tangshang Naga

Composite tribes or communities

References

  1. ^ S. R. Tohring (2010). Violence and identity in North-east India: Naga-Kuki conflict. Mittal Publications. pp. xv–xvii. ISBN 978-81-8324-344-5.
  2. ^ Jamir, Kibangwar. The Nagas with the three great nations (1st ed.). Dimapur, Nagaland.
  3. ^ a b U. A. Shimray (2007). Naga population and integration movement. Mittal Publications. pp. 25–33. ISBN 978-81-8324-181-6.
  4. ^ a b c William Nepuni (2010). Socio-cultural history of Shüpfomei Naga tribe. Mittal Publications. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-81-8324-307-0.
  5. ^ Sipra Sen (1992). Tribes and Castes of Manipur: Description and Select Bibliography. Mittal Publications. p. 58. ISBN 978-81-7099-310-0.
  6. ^ Folk tales of Moyon-Monsang. Directorate for Development of Tribals and Backward Classes, Manipur. 1982. p. 1.
  7. ^ G. K. Ghosh; Shukla Ghosh (1997). Women of Manipur. APH. p. 54. ISBN 9788170248972.
  8. ^ Robin D. Tribhuwan (1 January 2005). Tribal Housing Issues. Discovery Publishing House. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-81-7141-917-3. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  9. ^ M. Romesh Singh (1 January 2006). Tribal Development in 21st Century: An Experience from Manipur. Mittal Publications. p. 60. ISBN 978-81-8324-150-2. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  10. ^ G. K. Ghosh; Shukla Ghosh (1997). Women of Manipur (illustrated ed.). APH Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 978-81-7024-897-2.
  11. ^ "Tenyimi Day message from TPO president". The India Post. 22 February 2012.