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Current logo for the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property

The National Cultural Treasures (NCTs) declarations are authorized under the National Heritage Act of 2009 and recognized within the Cultural Properties of the Philippines by the Philippine government.

The list includes all declared National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines, including tangible and intangible heritage. Currently, out of the 106 NCTs, only three are intangible. The declarations are made by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts and other cultural agencies such as the National Museum of the Philippines, National Library of the Philippines, and National Archives of the Philippines. Any Filipino institution or person can nominate a cultural property for an NCT declaration, whether the property is private or public; if the property is private, the ownership of the property is retained by the private owner and shall not be transferred to the government.

As of May 2018, 75 NCTs are housed in Luzon, six in Mimaropa, 19 in the Visayas, and six in Mindanao. The Sulu archipelago currently houses no NCTs. Various NCTs originally from Mimaropa, the Visayas, and Mindanao, such as the Quran of Bayang, are housed in the National Museum in Manila in Luzon.


NCTs are classified into three brackets:

Declared national cultural treasures list

Official NCT Name Image Current location Period Description Ref
Alcaiceria de San Fernando Marker of 1762 (from Binondo) National Museum, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1762 Deeply carved into this piedra china (Chinese granite) marker, details among other things the then-prevailing exclusion policy for non-Christian Chinese traders during the monsoon season in the Philippines under the Spanish colonial period. [1]
Artifacts and Ecofacts from Philippine Archaeological Sites
National Museum of Anthropology, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila Pleistocene (707,000 YA) – 15th century National Cultural Treasures are as follows: (1) Manunggul Burial Jar (2) Calatagan Ritual Pot (3) Maitum Anthropomorphic Burial Jar No. 13 (4) Maitum Quadrangular Burial Jar (5) Leta-Leta Jarlet with Yawning Mouth (6) Leta-Leta Footed Jarlet (7) Leta-Leta Presentation Dish (8) Pandanan 14th Century Blue-and-White Porcelain (9) Lena Shoal Blue-and-White Dish with Flying Elephant (10) Puerto Galera Blue-and-White Jar (11) Palawan Zoomorphic Ear Pendant (12) Cabalwan Earliest Flake Tools (13) Batangas Likha Figurines (14) Mataas Shell Scoop (15) Duyong Shell Adze (16) Tabon Skull Cap (17) Tabon Mandible (18) Tabon Tibia Fragment (19) Bolinao Skull with Teeth Ornamentation (20) Gold Seal of Captain General Antonio Morga (21) Oton Death Mask (22) Butuan Paleograph (23) Laguna Copper Plate (24) San Diego Astrolabe (25) Banton Burial Cloth (26) Marinduque Celadon Jar (27) Butuan Balangay Boat (28) Butuan Crucible [1][2]
Manunggul Burial Jar
This jar was found in the early 1960s in the Manunggul Cave, Lipunn Point, Palawan. This may go back to the late Neolithic Period, which was about 890- 710 B.C. Both the upper portion and the lower portion of the jar is engraved with scroll designs. The lid of the jar is a boat with two human figures representing two souls on a voyage to the afterlife. The boatman is seated behind a figure whose hands are crossed on the chest. The position of the hands is a traditional Filipino practice observed when arranging the corpse. It is considered as the work of a master potter, signifies the belief of early Filipinos in life after death.[3]
Assassination of Governor Bustamante and His Son by: Félix Resurrección Hidalgo y Padilla
National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1884 The oil-on-canvass painting depicts the assassination of Governor Bustamante, who wanted to clean government's corrupt ways. The governor clashed with Manila archbishop and Spanish priest Francisco de la Cuesta, a known protector of corrupt officials during the Spanish era in the Philippines. This clash in ideals led to Bustamante to detain the archbishop, which irked various clergymen who rampaged in the Palacio del Gobernador. Caught by surprise, Bustamante was killed by the clergymen and de la Cuesta was freed. When the son of Bustamante heard the news, he rushed to the palace, only to be killed by the clergymen as well. The vivid depictions of the event won Hidalgo a silver medal in the 1884 Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in Madrid, Spain. [1]
Men at Work by: Ang Kiukok National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1979 [4]
National Museum, Ambangan, Libertad, Butuan 320 Balangays are huge plank boats adjoined by a carved-out plank edged through pins and dowels. It was first mentioned in the 16th century in the Chronicles of Pigafetta, and is known as the oldest watercraft found in the Philippines. The form of the boat was perfected by the Rajahnate of Butuan. The oldest known balangay has been carbon-dated to 320AD. The boats are housed and conserved in various institutions in the country. [1]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines – Parish Church of San Agustin and Liturgical Objects Therein
General Luna corner Real Streets, Intramuros, Manila 1607 The San Agustin Church, or Iglesia de la Inmaculada Concepción de María de San Agustín, is a Roman Catholic church under the auspices of The Order of St. Augustine, located inside the historic walled city of Intramuros in Manila. It was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993. [1]
Basi Revolt Paintings by: Esteban Pichay Villanueva
National Museum, Vigan, Ilocos Sur 1807 The painting depicts the Basi Revolt, also known as the Ambaristo Revolt, which was a revolt undertaken from September 16 to 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo and Salarogo Ambaristo (though some sources refer to a single person named Pedro Ambaristo), with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine. The series of 14 paintings on the Basi Revolt by Esteban Pichay Villanueva currently hangs at the National Museum in Vigan. [1]
Bonifacio National Monument
Caloocan rotunda, Caloocan, Metro Manila 1933 Known commonly as Monumento, it is a memorial monument designed by the National Artist Guillermo Tolentino to commemorate Philippine revolutionary Andrés Bonifacio, the founder and Supremo of the Katipunan. Andrés Bonifacio fought for independence from the politically and socially ruthless colonial rule by Spain. The monument 45 feet (14 m) in height with symbolic images and other features known as the "Cry of Pugad Lawin" is acclaimed as one of the best monuments in the world. [1]
Camarin de da Virgen
Parish Church of Nuestra Senora de los Desamparados, Santa Ana, Manila 1720 The Camarín de la Virgen (Dressing Room of the Virgin) is a chapel room located behind the second level of the retablo where the image of Our Lady of the Abandoned is placed. It was built around the same period as the Santa Ana Church and has retained much of its features. One can actually view the nave of the church from the octagonal vaulted niche (hornacina) where the Marian image stands. Its high arched opening is crested with a large silver corona imperial (imperial crown). Below the hornacina is a semicircular gilded platform, which is said to be a part of the galleon that brought the image of Our Lady of the Abandoned from Valencia, Spain all the way to Manila—the Santo Cristo de Burgos. Wooden steps flanked the platform, where devotees used to climb to kiss the image. [1]
Far Eastern University heritage buildings and artworks
FEU UNESCO awarded heritage buildings and campus
Nicanor Reyes Sr. Street, Sampaloc, Manila 1938-1950 Far Eastern University is renowned for its well-preserved Art Deco and International style buildings. These architectural gems, reflecting the 1920s Art Deco style, have been maintained in accordance with the FEU Conservation Program. Recognized by the UNESCO, the buildings were designed by National Artist Ar. Pablo Antonio Sr. and his son Ar. Pablo Antonio Jr. These structures include the Nicanor Reyes Sr. Hall, Administration Building, Admissions Building (formerly known as the Engineering Building or the East Asia Building), Architecture and Fine Arts Building (formerly the Law Building), and the Science Building. Additionally, the FEU Chapel was designed by Ar. Felipe M. Mendoza. Joining the recognition are several paintings and sculptures that depict important aspects of Philippine history and culture. [5][6]
Feeding the Chicken Painting by: Simon Flores
National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1890 The oil-on-canvass painting of master painter Simon Flores depicts the mother and daughter caught feeding chickens in a commonplace setting. The painting is regarded as a transition from the miniaturist school of homegrown portraitists of the nineteenth century to the idyllic tableaux of the American period academic masters. [1]
Nuestra Senora de la Soledad de Porta Vaga
Diocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Solitude of Porta Vaga, Cavite City, Cavite A framed image of the Virgin was found on the beach along Cañacao Bay by fishermen and local residents working at the Cavite Royal Arsenal, who regularly pass through the Vaga Gate. They found it near the place of her apparition in the previous night. The painting was brought to the parish priest, who temporarily installed it in the parish church. Eventually, the Ermita de Porta Vaga (Chapel of Vaga Gate) was built along the port's walls, which for three centuries served as the Shrine of Our Lady of Solitude. [1]
History of Manila Mural Painting by: Carlos V. Francisco Manila City Hall, Ermita, Manila 1968 The most prominent painting of National Artist Botong Francisco. Formally known as "Filipino Struggles Through History", the series of paintings documents the history of the Philippines from pre-colonial Tondo to the end of the American colonial period in 1946. [1]
International Rice Research Institute by: Vicente Manansala National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1962 The twin murals of National Artists Vicente Manansala are a lighthearted narration of Filipino rural life. One is a joyful, pastel-colored medley of labor; scenes of fishing and rice-planting flank the two sides, while at the center, as focal point, is a woman bathing a child. The second painting is a spectacle of small-town festivities: on the left is a game of sipa, the national sport; on the right are two men competing in a carabao race. The stretch of canvas is lined with a crowd of people watching two roosters in midair cockfight. [1]
Jose Rizal National Monument
Rizal Park, Ermita, Manila 1913 Formerly known as Motto Stella (guiding star), the monument is a memorial in Rizal Park built to commemorate the executed Filipino nationalist, José Rizal. The monument consists of a standing bronze sculpture of Rizal, with an obelisk, set on a stone base within which his remains are interred. A plaque on the pedestal's front reads: "To the memory of José Rizal, patriot and martyr, executed on Bagumbayan Field December Thirtieth 1896. This monument is dedicated by the people of the Philippine Islands". It is widely believed that Rizal's remains, or at least parts of it, are under the monument itself. [1]
Las Piñas Bamboo Organ
Las Piñas Church, Diego Cera Avenue, Las Piñas, Metro Manila 1824 The bamboo organ is a 19th-century church organ with unique organ pipes; they are made almost entirely of bamboo. It was completed in 1824 by Father Diego Cera. The organ continues to be the only successfully built bamboo organ in the world. [1]
Maradika Qur'an of Bayang (From Lanao del Sur)
National Museum of Anthropology, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila Undeclared The book is the oldest known Quran (Koran) written in the Philippines. It belonged to the Sultan of Bayang in Lanao del Sur and was copied by Saidna, one of the earliest hajji from the Philippines. The Quran of Bayang is believed to be one of the few copies translated into a non-Arabic language—that is, using a language in the Malay family and handwritten in Arabic calligraphy. The book was taken away by the government during the martial law era after the first lady took a liking on its value. It was then housed in Malacañang Palace. When the Marcos dictatorship was ousted, the book was afterwards housed in the National Museum. [1]
Metropolitan Theater Historical Landmark
Liwasang Bonifacio, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1931 Also known as Tanghalang Pangkalakhan ng Maynila, or more popularly as the MET, the theater is a Philippine Art Deco building found near the Mehan Garden near the Manila Central Post Office. It was designed by architect and National Artist Juan M. Arellano. The building was one of the main cultural structures during the American era. It is currently undergoing restoration work. [1]
Mother's Revenge Sculpture
National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1894 The Mother's Revenge sculpture in terra cotta (clay) is an allegorical representation of what was happening in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period. Shown is a mother dog trying to rescue her helpless pup from the bite of the crocodile. The mother dog represents "mother Philippines" and the patriots who are doing their best to save the defenseless countrymen – the pup – from the cruelty of the Spaniards as represented by the crocodile. It was made by revolutionary hero Jose Rizal during his exile in Dapitan. [1]
Paco Park (Cementerio Municipal De Manila y Capilla de San Pancracio)
San Marcelino Street, Paco, Manila 1822 The cemetery-park is a recreational garden and was once Manila's municipal cemetery built by the Dominicans during the Spanish colonial period. The cemetery was initially built due to a cholera epidemic in the early 19th century. Revolutionary hero Jose Rizal was first buried in the park after his execution. [1]
San Sebastian Church Historical Landmark
Plaza del Carmen, Quiapo, Manila 1891 Also known as Basílica Menor de San Sebastián, the structure is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Manila and the seat of the Parish of San Sebastian. It is a fine example of the revival of Neogothic architecture in the Philippines, as it is the only all-steel church in the Philippines. The materials used for its construction were imported from Europe through maritime trade routes in the later part of the 19th century. Although the first church was built in 1621 using wood but was burned down during a Chinese uprising. It was then rebuilt using bricks in 1851, 1863, and 1880, but were all destroyed by earthquakes and fire. Due to these experiences, the steel structure was deemed best. [1]
Santa Ana Site Museum
Santa Ana Church, Santa Ana, Manila 1725 Adjoining the Santa Ana church is the convent, which was also built on the same period as the church under the direction of Fr. Vicente Inglés. The ground floor is a stone and clay tile cloister surrounding the grassy patio. Above the cloister is a wooden corridor with capiz and glass windows and high doors leading to the priest's quarters, the choir loft and a room previously used as a library. In 1966, archaeological excavations have been conducted by the National Museum of the Philippines on the patio and the churchyard, uncovering 71 human burials dating around late 11th to 14th centuries from the associated Chinese ceramics recovered with the graves. The bulk of data gathered regarding the pre-Hispanic culture of Santa Ana (known as the ancient settlement of Namayan) led to the construction of a site museum in the patio. The Camarín de la Virgen of the church later became part of the museum as well. [1]
Santo Domingo Church
537 Quezon Avenue, Santa Mesa Heights, Quezon City, Metro Manila 1954 Also known as the National Shrine of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary of La Naval de Manila, it is the largest church in Metro Manila and one of the biggest churches in Asia. It is a massive church complex that includes the motherhouse of the Filipino Dominicans, making it the center of Dominican activities in the archipelago and the Filipino Dominicans who have been sent to other parts of the world. [1]
Spoliarium by: Juan Luna
National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1884 The oil-on-canvass painting by Filipino master painter Juan Luna was first submitted to the Exposición Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884 in Madrid, Spain, where it garnered a gold medal. In 1886, it was sold to the Diputación Provincial de Barcelona for 20,000 pesetas. It currently hangs in the main gallery at the ground floor of the National Museum of Fine Arts in Manila, and is considered by the Filipino art community as the most prized painting made by a Filipino master painter. [1]
Fortifications of Manila: Intramuros and Fort San Antonio Abad
Intramuros and Malate, Manila 16th century Intramuros is also called the Walled City, and at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrables (suburbs) located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls". It was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was also the center of religion, education and economy. The standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros (Manila) and Acapulco, Mexico. [1]
The Parisian Life by Juan Luna
National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1892 Also known as Interior d'un Cafi, it is an oil-on-canvass impressionistic painting by master painter Juan Luna.The painting exemplifies the Luna's Parisian period, a time when his style moved away from having "dark colors of the academic palette" and became "increasingly lighter in color and mood" due to his stay in Paris from 1882 to 1893. [1]
The Progress of Medicine in the Philippines by Carlos V. Francisco National Museum of Fine Arts, Padre Burgos Avenue, Ermita, Manila 1953 The Progress of Medicine in the Philippines comprises four oil paintings on canvas executed by National Artist Carlos V. Francisco in 1953, which were commissioned for the main entrance hall of the Philippine General Hospital in Manila. The paintings depict the advancement of medicine in the Philippines until the middle of the 20th century. [1]
Una Bulaqueña Painting by: Juan Luna
National Museum of Fine Arts, Manila 1895 Also known as La Bulaqueña, literally "the woman from Bulacan", the oil-on-canvass painting is a "serene portrait", of a Filipino woman wearing a Maria Clara gown, a traditional Filipino dress that is composed of four pieces, namely the camisa, the saya (long skirt), the panuelo (neck cover), and the tapis (knee-length overskirt). The name of the dress is an eponym to Maria Clara, the mestiza heroine of Filipino hero José Rizal's novel Noli Me Tangere. The woman's clothing in the painting is the reason why the masterpiece is alternately referred to as Maria Clara. [1]
University of Santo Tomas Baybayin Documents
University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, Sampaloc, Manila 1613 The UST Baybayin Documents are two 17th century land deeds written in baybayin, an ancient Philippine syllabary or suyat. The first document was written in 1613, while the second was written in 1625. It is the first document to be declared a national cultural treasure. [1]
University of Santo Tomas Main Building, Central Seminary, Arch of the Centuries and Open Spaces
University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, Sampaloc, Manila 1611 The University of Santo Tomas (UST) itself was established in 1611, possessing the oldest extant university charter in Asia. The university used to be located within Intramuros, but much of its buildings were destroyed during World War II. In 1927, the UST Main Building was re-established in its current location. The Central Seminary, established in 1933, currently houses the Santisimo Rosario Parish Church with the central seminary and the Faculties of Ecclesiastical Studies. The Arch of the Centuries, first constructed in 1680, was transferred in the new campus in 1954 using the surviving parts of the arch. Finally, the open spaces are known for the historic events that happened within its domains such as the four papal visits to the Philippines. [1]
Ifugao Rice Terraces
Banaue, Ifugao Undeclared The Ifugao Rice Terraces illustrate the remarkable ability of human culture to adapt to new social and climate pressures as well as to implement and develop new ideas and technologies. Maintenance of the living rice terraces reflects a primarily cooperative approach of the whole community which is based on detailed knowledge of the rich diversity of biological resources existing in the Ifugao agro-ecosystem, a finely tuned annual system respecting lunar cycles, zoning and planning, extensive soil conservation, and mastery of a complex pest control regime based on the processing of a variety of herbs, accompanied by religious rituals. In 1995, five rice terrace clusters were inscribed as the first cultural landscape to be inscribed in the international list. [1]
Mummy Caves
Kabayan, Benguet; Sagada and Alab, Bontoc 100 BC Various areas in the Cordillera mountain range have caves filled with mummies. The most significant of the caves are in Kabayan, Sagada, and Bontoc. [1]
Parish Church of Santa Catalina de Alejandria
Tayum, Abra 1803 Commonly known as Tayum Church, it is a 19th-century Baroque church located at Brgy. Poblacion, Tayum, Abra. The parish church, under the patronage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria, is under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bangued. [1]
Petroglyphs of Alab Bontoc, Mountain Province Undeclared The Alab petroglyphs are ancient figures carved on mountain walls by the pre-colonial people of Bontoc. The petroglyphs are the most important ancient rock art carvings in the Cordilleras and the most oldest in Northern Luzon. [1]
Stone Agricultural Calendar Dap-ay, Guiday, Besao, Mountain Province Undeclared The stone calendar is one of the most enigmatic artifacts in the Cordillera mountains. It is a testimony to the accurate scientific outlook of the ancient Agawa people in the cycle of weathers, agriculture, and heavenly bodies. [1]
The Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao Kiangan, Ifugao unknown The Hudhud consists of narrative chants traditionally performed by the Ifugao community. Within the rice sowing season, at harvest time and at funeral wakes and rituals these chants are practiced. There is not a trace of when these chants were originated. The Hudhud comprises more than 200 chants. Each chant is divided up into 40 episodes. A complete recitation may last several days. Since the Ifugao's culture is matrimonial. Within the community, the wife generally takes the main part in the chants. If the wife has a brother, then the brother occupies a higher position than her husband.[7] The language of the stories abounds in figurative expressions and repetitions and employs antonym, metaphor and onomatopoeia, rendering transcription very difficult. Thus, there are very few written expressions of this tradition. The chant tells about ancestral heroes, customary law, religious beliefs and traditional practices, and reflects the importance of rice cultivation. The epic chant was declared a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2008. [1]
Burial Caves Sitio Alabok, Barangay Cambali, Bagulin, La Union [1]
Cape Bojeador Lighthouse Historical Landmark
Burgos, Ilocos Norte 1892 [1]
Church of Nuestra Señora de Manaoag
Manaoag, Pangasinan 1701 The devotion on the Church and its celebrated icon of Our Lady of the Holy Rosary of Manaoag goes through history for more than 300 years. The historical marker celebrates the wonderful metamorphosis of the church from its inception as a church made of wood, to the beautiful brick and stone church donated by Don Gaspar de Gamboa and Dona Agata Yangta, to the current church structure, renovation of which started in 1882 and completed in 1932. [1]
La Union Watchtowers
Luna, La Union [1]
Mestizo Section, House of Father Jose Burgos and Leona Florentino
Vigan, Ilocos Sur [1]
Paoay Church
Paoay, Ilocos Norte 1710 The church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [1]
Parish Church of Saint Andrew
Bacarra, Ilocos Norte 1782 The church complex' most important structure is the leaning tower, which is the oldest section of the complex. [1]
Parish Church of Saints Peter and Paul
Calasiao, Pangasinan 1852 [1]
Parish Church of San Guillermo de Aquitania
Magsingal, Ilocos Sur [1]
Parish Church of Santa Catalina de Alejandria
Luna, La Union 1741 [1]
The Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion Church Complex
Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur 1765 The church complex is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [1]
Watchtowers of Ilocos Norte (6) Ilocos Norte Includes watchtowers in Badoc (Barangay Lingasay), Currimao (Barangas Poblacion Uno and Torre), Belfry of San Guillermo Cathedral in Laoag, Bacarra (Barangay Natba), Pasuquin (Barangay Puyupuyan) [1]
Watchtowers of Ilocos Sur (4) Ilocos Sur Includes watchtowers in Santiago (Barangay Sabangan), San Esteban (Barangay Bateria), Narvacan (Barangay Sulvec, Belfry of San Agustin Church) [1]
Church of San Mattias, Tumauini Tumauini, Isabela 1783 [1]
Parish Church of San Carlos Borromeo
Mahatao, Batanes 1873 Also known as Mahatao Church, the first church was constructed in 1787. By 1789, the wooden church was replaced by a stone church. When a typhoon hit the Batanes islands in 1872, the church was damaged and was replaced with a more sophisticated rock church in 1873, which continues to be the current church of Mahatao. An espadaña belfry is located on top of the facade's pediment with one of its bells dated 1874. The church has uneven wall thickness due to addition of step buttresses and even buttress walls. Its interiors, decorated in Baroque style, showcase floral designs sunburst ornaments painted in polychrome and gilt which lends a golden glow among the statuary. [1]
Parish Church of San Raymundo de Peñaforte
Rizal (Malaueg), Cagayan 1617 Also known as Malaueg Church and Rizal Church, the 17th-century church located at Brgy. Poblacion, Rizal, Cagayan was made in the Baroque-style. The church made mostly of fired bricks, is unique among other Spanish-era churches established by the Dominicans in the Cagayan valley region due to its smaller size and novel design. The church's brickwork has been described as "of free use" and that it exudes an earthy feel. Attention on the façade is focused on the main arched portal which is framed by a plastered white wall capped with a small triangular pediment. [1]
San Vicente Ferrer Church Complex and Dampol Bridge of Dupax Del Sur
Dupax del Sur, Nueva Vizcaya 1776 The San Vicente Ferrer Church Complex, also known as the Dupax Church and the Dupax del Sur Church, is an 18th-century Baroque church located at Brgy. Dopaj, Dupax del Sur, Nueva Vizcaya. The parish church, under the advocation of Saint Vincent Ferrer, is under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayombong [1]
Parish Church of San Andres de Masinloc
Masinloc, Zambales 18th Century The 19th-century Baroque church is located at Brgy. South Poblacion, Masinloc, Zambales. The parish church, dedicated to Saint Andrew the Apostle is under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Iba. The church structure, a standout among Spanish-era churches in the Central Luzon region for having been built with coral stone instead of adobe stone. [1]
Parish Church of Santiago Apostol, Betis
Betis, Guagua, Pampanga 1770 A baroque style church located in Betis, Guagua in Pampanga, under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Fernando. The church was established in 1607 and dedicated to Saint James, the Apostle. It was destroyed by fire and was rebuilt in its present state in 1770. [1]
Santa Monica Parish Church
Minalin, Pampanga 1834 The four-century old Minalin Parish in Barangay San Nicolas is one of the first 20 missions put up by the Augustinians when they came to the Philippines. The church's design includes motifs reflective of pre-Hispanic culture. The spires decorating the bell towers depict a Moorish architecture, hinting of the old Islamic faith of early Minaleños. None of the other 20 mission churches have similar motifs. The incipient baroque is of moderate decorative traits. There are several examples of this style in the churches built in the 18th century or before, such as those of Betis, Lipa, San Vicente, Candon, Magsingal and Sarrat. The building of the church first began in 1764, and ended in 1834. [1]
Ang Simbahan ng Tayabas (Tayabas Church)
Tayabas, Quezon 1894 The influence of Chinese architecture in Tayabas is present in the design of Tayabas Basilica. Lion statues in front of the building show a link to the influence of Chinese traders before the Spanish colonial era.[8] Cherubs in stone reliefs playing the lute, trombone, drum and trumpet can be seen in the church patio.[9] Its facade is almost eclectic, and was added during renovations to the church.[10] The unusual three-storey arrangement of the facade includes has an entrance flanked by two niches in Mudejar style. The windows of the choir loft and the central window on the second floor have capiz shells.[10] The levels are separated by horizontal bands and images of angels, and several saints including Saint Francis of Assisi, Saint Dominic and Saint Diego of Alcala.[10] On the topmost tier are stone-carved statues of archangels Michael, Gabriel and Raphael.[9] [1]
Angono Petroglyphs
Binangonan, Rizal 2000 BC The Angono Petroglyphs is located in a shallow rock shelter. It measures 63 meters wide, 8 meters deep and a maximum height of 5 meters. It has been created due to faulting and formed in volcanic soil during the Quaternary period. There are 127 drawings in the form of animate and static figures of circular or dome-like head on top of a V-shaped torso distributed on a horizontal plane on the rock wall area measuring 25 meters by 3 meters. Only 51 of the total 127 drawings are distinct. Due to the complexity and plurality of the drawings, it is suggested that the drawings on the rock were not only created by a single individual. It is widely believed that the figures drawn on the walls are for healing purposes as the site is a dambana. Researchers have argued that the figures were medicinal and religious in function as they were made by ancestors to transfer the sickness of a child onto the limestone wall, thus, curing the child from ailments.[11] [1]
Parish Church of San Gregorio Magno
Majayjay, Laguna 1649 The Romanesque church of Majayjay[12] is 60 metres (200 ft) long, 17 metres (56 ft) wide and 16.5 metres (54 ft) high. Its façade has three levels, each level scaled proportionally and topped by a triangular pediment with a circular window.[8] The central nave consists of a huge wooden door of the main portal, choir loft windows and saint's niche. The interior contains a retablo mayor and four other minor retablos with intricate designs. The floor is tiled with azulejo and the walls have been preserved with some alterations. The five-storey square belltower with a conical roof[13] and ballustrated windows on each polygonal level is connected to the langit-langitan, a cat-walk above the ceiling which leads to the crossing over the transept.[11] The belfry has arched windows each with a bell trimmed with finials and a large antique bell on top.[8] It also has a large side door on the right side of the church. [1]
Pila Archaeological Site Pila, Laguna 12th century [14]
Parish Church of San Ildefonso
Tanay, Rizal 1783 [1]
Image of Nuestra Señora dela Soledad de Porta Vaga
Cavite City, Cavite 1667 The declaration includes "the intangible properties intrinsic to the cultural significance of the painting". [14]
Parish Church of the Assumption of Our Lady
Maragondon, Cavite 1714 [1]
Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception
Balayan, Batangas 1795 [1]
Sacred Art of the Parish Church of Santiago Apostol (4 Paintings in Situ)
Paete, Laguna [1]
Tayabas Historic Bridges
Tayabas, Quezon 1793-1854 The historic bridges are unique as underneath each of them, glyphs etched by the Revolutionary Filipinos, who were forced to build the bridges under Spanish-authorized forced labor, added their marks of revolution at the stone structures. These bridges include, but not limited to: Puente de Alitao, Puente de Reina Isabel II, Puente de Don Francisco de Asis, Puente de la Princesa, Puente del Lakawan, Puente del Mate, Puente de la Ese, Puente de las Despedidas, Malagonlong Bridge. [1]
Cathedral of San Jose of Romblon
Romblon, Romblon 17th century The cathedral is one of the oldest churches in the country. It has been well-preserved by the inhabitants of the town. [1]
Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Build, Tagbanua and Pala'wan) Mindoro and Palawan The four scripts were inscribed in the UNESCO Memory of the World Programme, under the name Philippine Paleographs (Hanunoo, Buid, Tagbanua and Pala’wan) [1]
Tabon Cave Complex at lahat ng Lipuun
Lipuun Point, Quezon, Palawan The Tabon Caves is located in Quezon, Palawan. The research done within the Tabon caves was done by Robert B. Fox in the years of 1962 to 1966. The team found over 1,500 burial jars. The greatest find in the Tabon caves was the skull which was the skull cap of the Tabon Man. The archeologists findings indicate that there were living habitants from 50,000 to 70,000 years ago.[15]
Tau't Batu Petroglyphs Quezon, Palawan [1]
Twin Forts of Romblon ( Fuerza de San Antonio and Fuerza de Santiago)
Romblon, Romblon 17th century The two forts were built in the 17th century to aid the expansion of the Spanish empire in the Philippines. Both are well-preserved. [1]
Cagsawa Ruins – Church of Cagsaua
Daraga, Albay 1724 The present ruins are from the 1724 structure of the church, which was engulfed by a volcanic eruption in 1814. The original structure was built in 1587. [1]
Church of Tabaco Historical Landmark
Rizal Street, Tabaco, Albay 1879 Founded in 1664, the present church was built by the seculars in 1864 and completed in 1879. [1]
Simbahan ng Daraga
Daraga, Albay 1773 The church is known for its Churrigueresque architectural style in its façade, a fine example of Baroque architecture. The façade and its walls are made out of volcanic rocks, which are rich in the area.[16][17] The current white façade is the result of a coating of lime for protection from deterioration.[18] [1]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines – Parish Church of the Santo Tomas de Villanueva of Miagao
Barangay Tacas, Miagao, Iloilo 1797 The church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The church's over-all architectural style falls under the Baroque Romanesque architectural style. Its ochre color is due to the materials used in constructing the church: adobe, egg, coral and limestone. The church's foundation is 6 meters deep and the massive stone walls at 1.5 meters thick are intensified through the use of 4 meter thick flying buttresses as protection to the Moro invaders as stipulated under Royal Decree 111 of 1573 (Law of the Indies). [1]
Church of Santa Monica Historical Landmark
Panay, Capiz 1884 Commonly known as Panay Church, it was initially built in 1774, and was rebuilt in 1884 after the former structure was damaged by a typhoon. The church has an unusually large bell, the largest in the country. [1]
Parish Church of San Joaquin, Iloilo
San Joaquin, Iloilo 1869 The key features of the church are its three retablos of carved limestone which were formerly polychromed, the carved pediment which featured the folk portrayal of the Spanish winning over the Moors at the Battle near Tétouan, Morocco, as well as its adjacent sprawling ruins where an oven well and kilin for baking can be found. [1]
Roman Catholic Cemetery (Camposanto)
San Joaquin, Iloilo 1892 The San Joaquin Campo Santo is a Catholic cemetery situated in the town of San Joaquin in Iloilo. [1]
Santa Barbara Church and Convent Historical Landmark
Santa Barbara, Iloilo 1845 Founded in 1760, the church was completed in 1845. The overall style of the church can be viewed as neoclassical with the unembellished front facade. Dividing the front facade plane are four sets of Tuscan pilasters. The central division contains the main entrance while the end divisions contain two niches accommodating the Blessed Virgin and Sacred Heart of Jesus icons. [1]
Baclayon Church Historical Landmark
Baclayon, Bohol 1727 Initially founded in 1596, the present church was completed in 1727. The church, built out of coral stones, is a cross shaped (cruciform) church with its juncture or crossing surmounted by a pyramidal wall. It is a UNESCO tentative site. [1]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) – Church complex of Patrocinio de Maria – Boljoon Church Historical Landmark
Boljoon, Cebu 1783 Commonly known as Boljoon Church, it is a Roman Catholic church dedicated to the Our Lady of Patrocinio. Its early church was built in 1599, but was ravaged by multiple calamities. Its present structure was built in 1783. It is listed as a UNESCO tentative site. [1]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) – Church complex of San Isidro Labrador, Lazi (Siquijor)
Lazi, Siquijor 1884 Commonly known as Lazi Church, it is a Roman Catholic church in the municipality of Lazi, Siquijor. Founded in 1857, the present structure was only finished in 1884. The church is built of sea stones and wood and belongs to the neoclassical style. It has two pulpits and has retained its original retablo and wood florings. It is a UNESCO tentative site. [1]
Bohol Watchtowers
Maribojoc, Dauis, Panglao, Baclayon, Loay and Balilihan, Bohol 17th century – 18th century Six watchtowers in Bohol are designated as national cultural treasures. They include the Punta Cruz Watchtower of Maribojoc, Dauis Watchtower of Dauis, Panglao Watchtower of Panglao, Pamilacan Watchtower of Baclayon, Loay Watchtower of Loay, and Balilihan Watchtower of Balilihan. [1]
Church of the Most Holy Trinity Historical Landmark
Loay, Bohol The church is situated in Loay. Its watchtower is also a national cultural treasure, under "Bohol Watchtowers". [1]
Nuestra Señora de La Luz Parish Church Complex, Loon
Loon, Bohol 1864 The current structure was completed in 1864, although it was founded in 1753. The church forms a wide rectangular plan with an internal transept and a crossing surmounted by a quadrangular pyramid. At each side of the transept is a buttress. Unlike other Bohol churches, it does not have a portico facade. [1]
Parish Church of San Agustin
Bacong, Negros Oriental 1850 The church has the tallest belfry in the province. It has the oldest main altar with gold-leafing and painted friezes in the province as well. The altar and pipe organ were transported from Zaragoza, Spain, installed in 1898 shortly before the revolution against Spain broke out in Negros Oriental. [1]
Parish Church of San Pedro and San Pablo of Loboc
Loboc, Bohol 1734 Founded in 1596, the current structure was completed in 1734. The church is a UNESCO tentative site. [1]
Parish Church of the Holy Cross of Maribojoc
Maribojoc, Bohol Founded in 1767, the current structure was completed in 1872. The church of Maribojoc resembled a cross or cruciform with a low, four-sided pyramidical roof and octagonal cupola. Walls were consistently divided into thick and thin portions designed with finely cut coral stones on the sides. [1]
Parish Church of the Santo Niño of Cortes
Cortes, Bohol 19th century The church is made up of cut coral stone blocks. A portico is in front of an older façade and floral carving frames the doorway. It has frescoes on its ceilings. The main retablo has twisted Solomonic columns and profusely carved flanges in the baroque idiom. [1]
San Nicolas de Tolentino Parish Church Complex and Ermita Ruins
Dimiao, Bohol 19th century In front of the church building is a tower with the image of the Sacred Heart of Jesus where the "hugos" is done during dawn rites (salubong) of Easter Sunday. It is identified by its twin bell towers either side of the church's front façade, and it is dedicated to San Nicolas Tolentino. [1]
Shrine Parish of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Complex and Its Liturgical Objects Therein
Dauis, Bohol 1697 The church was built by Boholanos under forced labor imposed by the Spanish. It is constructed of solid rocks or stones and has paintings on the walls. There is a tower with a bell, outside the church another tower and also a small well. Declared as Shrine in 2004, and National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines by the National Museum of the Philippines on 2011. Collapsed in 2013 due to 2013 Bohol Earthquake, and turned - over in 2017 during fiesta. [1]
Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) – Church of La Inmaculada Concepcion, Guiuan (Samar)
Guiuan, Eastern Samar 1844 Guiuan Church is nestled inside a fort. It is well known for its extensive shell ornamentation in its interiors.[19] Studies revealed that at least eight types of seashells were used. Before its destruction, it still has two elaborately carved doors out of the original three doors. The main door on the entrance has exquisite carvings of the Twelve apostles while a side door has carved representations of angels.[20] [1]
Saint Ignatius de Loyola Parish Church (Simbahan ng Capul)
Capul, Northern Samar 1781 The church is an example of a Spanish fortress church.[21][22] It is surrounded by strong stone walls and bastions of dissimilar designs. Father Valero designed the church with a cross-shaped wall made of stone, similar to Intramuros.[23] When Moro attacked the town, the people of Capul would take refuge inside the church. The bell tower is located on the left side of the church. A stone watchtower on a huge rock is located near the church complex.[22] [1]
The Darangen Epic of the Maranao People of Lake Lanao
Lake Lanao, Lanao del Sur AD 100 The Darangen is an ancient pre-Islamic epic song that encompasses a wealth of knowledge of the Maranao people who live in the Lake Lanao region of Mindanao. Comprising 17 cycles and a total of 72,000 lines, the Darangen celebrates episodes from Maranao history and the tribulations of mythical heroes. In addition to having a compelling narrative content, the epic explores the underlying themes of life and death, courtship, love and politics through symbol, metaphor, irony and satire. The Darangen also encodes customary law, standards of social and ethical behaviour, notions of aesthetic beauty, and social values specific to the Maranao. The epic was designated as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2008. [1]
Torogan House Pompongan-a-marantao, Marawi, Lanao del Sur 1900 Commonly known as Kawayan Torogan, the specific structure declared is a traditional Maranao torogan (house) built by Sultan sa Kawayan Makaantal in Bubung Malanding, Marantao, Lanao del Sur. Being the last standing example of the house of the elite members of the Maranao tribe, and the only remaining habitable torogan. A torogan is he royal home of Maranao leaders and have been in existence since pre-Islamic times in the Philippines. The location of the structure is in Marawi City according to a 2008 declaration, however, the location was shifted into Marantao in 2015 according to another declaration. The 2018 PRECUP currently states that the Kawayan Torogan is in Marawi. [1]
Fort Pilar
Zamboanga City 1635 Formally known as Real Fuerza de Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Zaragoza, the 17th-century military defense fortress built by the Spanish colonial government in Zamboanga City was used as the main line of defense in the Zamboanga region against Muslim pirates. Through time, it has been transformed into an outdoor Roman Catholic Marian shrine after apparitions were seen in 1734 and 1897. It also hosts the National Museum's Zamboanga museum branch. [1]
Relief Map of Mindanao Dapitan, Zamboanga del Norte 1892 It has an area of more or less 900 square meters in size and located in front of the Saint James Church in Dapitan. Rizal made this map from August to September 1892 assisted by Francisco Paula de Sanchez, his favorite teacher in Ateneo de Manila. The map was based on the scientific map by Fr. Murillo Velarde a famous French Jesuit in 1734. The names of places indicated in the map are the original names from Velarde's map. It was intended as a motivating device for teaching geography and history to Rizal's pupils in Dapitan and part of Rizal's beautification project to the town plaza. The stone fence around the map was built by the Americans sometimes in the 1920s. American soldiers and educators were here in Dapitan from 1900 to the late 1920s. [1]
Parish Church of San Juan Bautista
Jimenez, Misamis Occidental 1880 Also known as Jimenez Church, the structure is a late-19th century, Baroque church located at Brgy. Poblacion, Jimenez, Misamis Occidental. It was founded in 1829. Construction of the current church began in 1862 and was finished by the 1880s. The church is predominantly made of coral stone. The parish church, under the patronage of Saint John the Baptist, is under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Ozamiz. [1]
Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception
Jasaan, Misamis Oriental 19th century The Barn-style Baroque church located in Poblacion, Jasaan in Misamis Oriental was a provincial attempt to mimic the famous San Ignacio Church of Intramuros in Manila. Originally, the church was built from 1723 to 1830, but fell into ruins. It was rebuilt in a new site under the supervision of Jesuits Francisco Rivera and Juan Cuesta. [1]
Parish of Nuestra Senora de Candelaria of Silang
Silang, Cavite 1595 It is the oldest extant church structure in the province of Cavite as its contemporaries went through the ravages of war and disaster. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure through Museum Declaration No. 20-2016.
Basilica del Santo Niño and Convent
Cebu City 18th century The foundations of the present church started on February 29, 1735, using stone.[24] The church was finished around 1739, and on January 16, 1740, the miraculous image was enthroned in the new Augustinian church. In 1965, Ildebrando Cardinal Antoniutti, Papal Legate to the Philippines, conferred the church the honorific title Basílica Menor upon the authority of Pope Paul VI. As a Minor Basilica, it is given precedence over other churches and other privileges. Philippine President Ferdinand E. Marcos also declared it a National Landmark. [25]
Magellan's Cross Pavilion
Cebu City The pavilion that houses the Magellan's Cross (Spanish: Cruz de Magallanes, Tagalog: Krus ni Magallanes), a Christian cross planted by Portuguese and Spanish explorers as ordered by Ferdinand Magellan upon arriving in Cebu in the Philippines on April 21, 1521. [25]
Calape Church
Calape, Bohol The church, commonly known as Saint Vincent Ferrer Church, was established in 1802. Originally made from with light materials, the construction of the neo-Gothic style Calape Church started in 1933 and completed in 1954. [26]
Philippine International Convention Center
Pasay, Metro Manila [27]
Quezon Memorial Shrine Quezon City, Metro Manila [28]
San Guillermo De Aquitania Church
Dalaguete, Cebu [29]
Saint Catherine's Church
Carcar, Cebu [30]
Rizal Archaeological Site Sitio Greenhills, Barangay San Pedro, Rizal, Kalinga [31]
San Pedro Macati Church
Makati, Metro Manila [32]
Old Bonbon Church ruins
Catarman, Camiguin [14]
Sunken Cemetery Catarman, Camiguin [14]
Spanish-era watchtower Guinsiliban, Camiguin [14]
San Diego de Alcala Fortress
Gumaca, Quezon [33]
Puerta Real
Pagsanjan, Laguna [34]
Church of the Immaculate Conception
Oslob, Cebu [35]
Archdiocesan Shrine of San Miguel Arcangel
Argao, Cebu [35]
Our Lady of the Pillar Parish Church
Sibonga, Cebu [35]
Fort San Pedro
Cebu City [35]
Malacañang Sa Sugbo/Aduana Building
Cebu City [35]
Narvacan-Santa viaduct Ilocos Sur [36]
Philippine Normal University
Taft Avenue, Ermita, Manila [37]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq "NCCA guidelines" (PDF). National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 28, 2018. Retrieved February 24, 2020.[failed verification]
  2. ^ "Collections". National Museum of the Philippines. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  3. ^ Barretto-Tesoro, G. 2008. Identity and Reciprocity in 15th Century Philippines. BAR International Series 1813. Oxford: John and Erica Hedges Ltd. British Archaeological Reports.
  4. ^ "Ang Kiukok painting declared 'National Cultural Treasure'". The Philippine Star. February 4, 2022. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  5. ^ admin (October 6, 2023). "6 FEU buildings are National Cultural Treasures • Far Eastern University". Far Eastern University. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  6. ^ Times, The Manila (October 12, 2023). "FEU is home to 6 national treasures". The Manila Times. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  7. ^ “UNESCO - Hudhud Chants of the Ifugao.” Unesco.Org, 2019,
  8. ^ a b c "Majayjay Church : St Gregory the Great". April 1, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  9. ^ a b Abulencia, Maria Lourdes (November 9, 2002). "Angels of Tayabas". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "26 Colonial Churches". National Commission of Culture and Arts.
  11. ^ a b "The Angono-Binangonan Petroglyphs". Artes de las Islas Filipinas. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
  12. ^ Trozado, Pablo (September 26, 2010). "Majayjay's 280-year-old angel in stone". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  13. ^ "Bells of St. Francis". OFM Philippines Archives. Order of Friar Minors in the Philippines. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Camiguin church ruins, Sunken Cemetery declared National Cultural Treasures". Inquirer Lifestyle. December 16, 2018.
  15. ^ “Tabon Caves.” Discover-Palawan, 2019, Accessed 18 Nov. 2019.
  16. ^ Bloom, Greg (2005). Philippines. Lonely Planet. p. 196. ISBN 9781742203706.
  17. ^ "Daraga Church". WOW Legazpi. Legazpi City Tourism Office. Archived from the original on September 9, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
  18. ^ Arguelles, Mar (April 20, 2011). "Makeover for church in Daraga". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 27, 2014. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  19. ^ Villaon, Augusto (November 18, 2013). "Guiuan church, a National Cultural Treasure in Samar, heavily damaged by 'Yolanda'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  20. ^ "Guiuan Parish". Panublion: Heritage Sites of the Visayan Islands in the Philippines. Archived from the original on February 11, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2015.
  21. ^ "Simbahan ng Capul". National Registry of Historic Sites and Structures in the Philippines. National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  22. ^ a b Labro, Vicente (August 9, 2011). "Ancient fortress church of Capul, Northern Samar". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  23. ^ Lee, Ma. Glaiza (September 15, 2013). "Capul: A once forgotten island". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  24. ^ "About the Basilica"
  25. ^ a b "Basilica church, Magellan’s Cross pavilion are national cultural treasures, not Sto. Niño statue"
  26. ^ Patinio, Ferdinand (May 11, 2023). "San Vicente Ferrer Parish declared 'national cultural treasure'". PNA. Retrieved May 16, 2023.
  27. ^ Severo, Jan Milo (September 28, 2022). "PICC declared a National Cultural Treasure". The Philippine Star. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  28. ^ Moaje, Marita (December 27, 2021). "Quezon Memorial Shrine declared National Cultural Treasure". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  29. ^ "Dalaguete church declared as national cultural treasure". The Freeman. February 13, 2024. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  30. ^ "Carcar church certified as national cultural treasure". The Freeman. November 27, 2023. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  31. ^ "Rizal archaeological site declared as National Cultural Treasure". Philippine Information Agency. May 17, 2023. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  32. ^ "403-year-old Makati church declared 'important cultural property'". The Philippine Star. July 3, 2023. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  33. ^ "Kutang San Diego, Recognized as a 'National Cultural Treasure' by the National Museum of the Philippines". Municipality of Gumaca. November 22, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  34. ^ "Pagsanjan's Puerta Real now officially a National Cultural Treasure". Philippines Graphic. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  35. ^ a b c d e "Cultural treasure markers for three churches pending". The Freeman. December 3, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  36. ^ "Treasures and Victories along the Northern Philippine Camino Real". Business Mirror. April 30, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  37. ^ "Buildings of 122-year-old PNU designated nat'l cultural treasures, important cultural properties". InterAksyon. April 27, 2023. Retrieved May 4, 2024.