This list of Negro league postseason games includes postseason participants of black baseball prior to the organization of any traditional Negro league and goes through to the collapse of segregated baseball after Jackie Robinson broke the baseball color line in 1946. Games include self-declared, regional and league champions, primarily in the "major league" era of Negro league baseball from 1920 to 1948. While black baseball did first play in 1867, postseason baseball can only be traced to 1913. As such, series length varied from time to time from best-of-two to best-of-five to even best-of-fourteen, and in postseason history there were thirteen ties (usually due to curfew rules). Negro baseball did continue after 1948, but it was at a quality that was considered minor by news of the time and historians. Historical research has revealed the existence of 23 years in which there was a postseason series held between Negro league teams. Box scores exist for just a fraction of the games.[1]

1913 and 1921

While the Negro leagues from 1920 to 1948 are retroactively considered "major league", black baseball had existed for several years prior, with varying levels of organization. 1913 was a matchup of two teams considered the best of their regions: the New York Lincoln Giants of the East, and the Chicago American Giants of the West (as a whole, the "West" region for baseball at any level was considered to be in the city of Chicago or St. Louis, with the actual West Coast being reserved to other interests). Of all the matchups in Negro league playoff history, this one ended up being the most comprehensive of them all, as it was played over the span of three weeks in two different cities with fourteen games played. New York won eight games while Chicago won five (game two ended in a tie).[2]

1913

1913 Championship Series: New York Lincoln Giants vs. Chicago American Giants (New York wins series 8–5–1)

Box scores

Game 1

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 11 2
New York 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 3 X 8 15 2
W: Smokey Joe Williams (1–0)  L: Charles Dougherty (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 2

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 4 4 0 0 3 0 0 11 13 2
New York 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 11 16 2
HRs: none

Game 3

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 4 12 0
New York 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 5 10 1
W: Smokey Joe Williams (2–0)  L: Bill Lindsay (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 4

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 3 6 15 5
New York 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 11 1
W: Charles Dougherty (1–1)  L: Smokey Joe Williams (2–1)
HRs: Bill Pierce (2)

Game 5

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 0 0 3 0 0 3 1 1 0 8 10 0
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 5
W: Smokey Joe Williams (3–1)  L: Bill Lindsay (0–2)
HRs: Smokey Joe Williams (1)

Game 6

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 8 2
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 7 3
W: Lee Wade (1–0)  L: Bill Gatewood (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 7

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 6 12 4
Chicago 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 7 11 3
W: Bill Lindsay (1–2)  L: Lee Wade (1–1)
HRs: none

Game 8

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 9 3
Chicago 3 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 X 9 15 3
W: Bill Gatewood (1–1)  L: Smokey Joe Williams (3–2)
HRs: none

Game 9

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 1
Chicago 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 X 2 5 2
W: Bill Lindsay (2–2)  L: Lee Wade (1–2)
HRs: none

Game 10

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 1 0 4 0 0 0 2 2 0 9 14 5
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 3 8 4
W: Smokey Joe Williams (4–2)  L: Bill Gatewood (1–2)
HRs: none

Game 11

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 0 1 3 5 0 1 1 0 0 11 14 4
Chicago 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 10 2
W: Smokey Joe Williams (5–2)  L: Bill Gatewood (1–3)
HRs: Ben Taylor (1)

Game 12

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 10 2
Chicago 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 8 2
W: Lee Wade (2–2)  L: Sam Crawford (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 13

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2
Chicago 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 X 3 8 0
W: Steel Arm Johnny Taylor (1–0)  L: Smokey Joe Williams (5–3)
HRs: none

Game 14

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
New York 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 4 11 0
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 9 0
W: Judy Gans (1–0)  L: Bill Gatewood (1–4)
HRs: none

1921

The first Negro National League formed in 1920 with eight teams, with Rube Foster leading the way with his Chicago American Giants. While the organization of a league did not mean a uniform number of games, the league pennant was generally awarded to the team with the best winning percentage, although there would be numerous occasions when a League Championship Series would be held. At the conclusion of the 1921 season, Chicago had won their second straight NNL pennant. They accepted a challenge to meet the team considered the best of the East Coast in the Hilldale Club (two years later, the team was one of the founding members of the Eastern Colored League). Six games were played over the course of eleven days in three different cities as Hilldale won the series three games to two.[4]

1921 Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Hilldale Club (Hilldale wins series 3–2–1)

Box scores

Game 1[5]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 5 7 1
Hilldale 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 2 5 4
W: Bill Holland (1–0)  L: Willis Flournoy (0–1)
HRs: Cristobal Torriente (1)

Game 2[6]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 2
Hilldale 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 X 4 9 2
W: Phil Cockrell (1–0)  L: Tom Johnson (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 3[7]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Hilldale 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 6 0
Chicago 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 X 5 7 0
W: Bill Holland (2–0)  L: Dick Whitworth (0–1)
HRs: George Dixon (1)

Game 4[8]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 5 8 1
Hilldale 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 5 11 1
HRs: George Johnson (1)

Game 5[9]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 - - 5 6 1
Hilldale 0 0 1 2 9 3 X - - 15 12 1
W: Phil Cockrell (2–0)  L: Tom Williams (0–1)
HRs: George Johnson (2); Phil Cockrell (1)

Game 6[10]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 1
Hilldale 0 4 0 1 0 2 0 0 X 7 11 2
W: Dick Whitworth (1–1)  L: Bill Holland (2–1)
HRs: none

Colored World Series era

In 1924, the Negro National League and the Eastern Colored League agreed to meet in a postseason series of the two best teams in each league, which would be called a "Colored World Series". Since its inception, the National League had done a split-season schedule with first and second halves.[11]

1924

Main article: 1924 Colored World Series

1924 Colored World Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. Hilldale Club (Monarchs wins series 5–4–1)

1925

In 1925, for the first time ever, two different teams were champions of the split-half season, necessitating a Championship Series to determine the pennant, as Kansas City won the first half and the St. Louis Stars won the second half. The two teams initially agreed to a best-of-nine series before settling to seven due to scheduling problems. Bizarrely, the Monarchs played their home games not in Kansas City but in Chicago, and the final two games of the series were played as a double-header.[12]

1925 Negro National League Championship Series: St. Louis Stars vs. Kansas City Monarchs (Kansas City wins series 4–3)

Box scores

Game 1[13]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Kansas City 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 8 10 0
St. Louis 2 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 0 6 9 3
W: Bullet Rogan (1–0)  L: Percy Miller (0–1)
HRs: Newt Allen (1), Dobie Moore (1), Frank Duncan (1), Willie Wells (1)

Game 2[14]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Kansas City 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 9 2
St. Louis 0 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 X 6 11 0
W: Roosevelt Davis (1–0)  L: Nelson Dean (0–1)  SV: Percy Miller (1)
HRs: Bill Drake (1), Mitchell Murray (1)

Game 3[15]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Kansas City 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 5 1
St. Louis 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 X 3 4 2
W: George Brown (1–0)  L: William Bell (0–1)
HRs: Dewey Creacy (1)

Game 4[16]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
St. Louis 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 7 2
Kansas City 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 11 1
W: Bullet Rogan (2–0)  L: Percy Miller (0–2)
HRs: none

Game 5[17]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
St. Louis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 3
Kansas City 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1
W: George Brown (2–0)  L: Bill Drake (0–1)
HRs: none

Game 6[18]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
St. Louis 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 7 3
Kansas City 1 0 0 0 6 1 0 1 X 9 9 2
W: William Bell (1–1)  L: Percy Miller (0–3)
HRs: none

Game 7[19]

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
St. Louis 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0 7 3
Kansas City 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 X - 4 3 0
W: Bullet Rogan (3–0)  L: George Brown (2–1)
HRs: none


1925 Colored World Series: Hilldale Club vs. Kansas City Monarchs (Hilldale wins series 5–1)

Main article: 1925 Colored World Series

1926

In 1926, the first-half champion Kansas City Monarchs played against the second-half champion Chicago American Giants in a best-of-nine series. Game 9 ended after just five innings, having been played the same day as Game 8. Bill Foster beat Bullet Rogan in both games as Chicago won the pennant.[20]

1926 Negro National League Championship Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. Chicago American Giants (Chicago wins series 5–4)

1926 Colored World Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Bacharach Giants (Chicago wins series 5–4–2)

Main article: 1926 Colored World Series

1927

In 1927, first-half champion Chicago met against second-half champion Birmingham Black Barons.[21]

1927 Negro National League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Birmingham Black Barons (Chicago wins series 4–1)

1927 Colored World Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Bacharach Giants (Chicago wins series 5–3–1)

Main article: 1927 Colored World Series

Wilderness era (1928–1941)

1928

The St. Louis Stars won the first half of the National League while the Chicago American Giants won the second half. The two-time defending league champion would play a best-of-nine series with the first four games in Chicago. However, it would be the Stars that would celebrate at the end of the series in St. Louis, as St. Louis recovered from a 4–3 series deficit by winning the final two games. They would not await the winner of the ECL, however. The ECL folded before finishing its season, thereby leaving the Stars as the lone league champion of the Negro leagues.[22] 1929 saw the creation of the American Negro League and its one champion in the Baltimore Black Sox, but the ANL did not hold a playoff before it dissolved after the season ended.

1928 Negro National League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. St. Louis Stars (St. Louis wins series 5–4)

1930

1930 is considered to have had four postseason series, as teams from the East Coast challenged both each other and the National League for who was best among black baseball. It started with two games in April between the St. Louis Stars and the Homestead Grays, which the Grays won. On August 21, they then played Detroit Stars for four games over the course of a week, winning three of them before returning to St. Louis to play them for five games. The Stars won four of the matchups, with the last one played on September 3. The Grays then played an "East Coast Championship Series" against the New York Lincoln Giants, which was a best-of-ten series that saw Homestead win that took place from 9/20-9/28. Around the same time, St. Louis and Detroit met up for the NNL Championship Series from 9/13 to 9/22, with St. Louis winning over Detroit.[23]

East-West Challenge Series: Homestead Grays vs. St. Louis Stars & Detroit Stars

1930 East Coast Championship Series: Homestead Grays vs New York Lincoln Giants (Grays win series 6–4)

1930 Negro National League Championship Series: Detroit Stars vs. St. Louis Stars (St. Louis wins series 4–3)

1932

The Negro National League would have its first incarnation run until 1931. In 1932, two leagues came and went as "major league" status in the East-West League and Negro Southern League, but only the latter ran long enough to have a playoff series. The NSL was known for most of its history as a minor league, but 1932 saw the league composed of surviving NNL teams that made it a major league for this season only. As such, the NSL had a split-season schedule that saw its first half champion in the Chicago American Giants meet up against the second half champion Nashville Elite Giants for a Championship Series matchup.[24]

1932 Negro Southern League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Nashville Elite Giants (Chicago wins series 4–3)

1934

The Negro National League re-formed in 1933. Historians dispute if there was postseason play during the year, as several teams matched up against each other in games called "playoff" or "exhibition" matchups.[25]

1934 Negro National League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Philadelphia Stars (Philadelphia wins series 4–3–1)

1935

Second half champion New York Cubans was matched against first half champion Pittsburgh Crawfords. Pittsburgh came back from a 3–1 series deficit to win three straight games (all in Pittsburgh) to win the pennant. [26]

1935 Negro National League Championship Series: New York Cubans vs. Pittsburgh Crawfords (Crawfords win series 4–3)

1936

1936 was the only year without a clear Championship Series winner. Both the first and second half champion were settled by disputes: The Washington Elite Giants played the Philadelphia Stars for the first half title, with the Giants winning 7–5 on September 17. The Pittsburgh Crawfords played the Newark Eagles in a five-game series that Pittsburgh won 3-1-(1) from 9/12-9/15. The Elite Giants and Crawfords played three games from September 21–27, but the Series was abandoned before it formerly ended, with Washington having won two games. Pittsburgh, having the best winning percentage among all teams, is generally considered the champion of the NNL.[27]

1937

While the Negro National League did not have a Championship Series in 1937, the Negro American League (formed that year) did.[28]

1937 Negro American League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Kansas City Monarchs (Kansas City wins series 4–1–1)

1938

The Negro American League attempted to hold a full-scale series for its pennant champion. The Memphis Red Sox won the first half of the season while the Atlanta Black Crackers won the second half. Two games were played in the Series but no further. The Black Crackers could not find a suitable venue to play their home games of the Series. It was decided two months later that the Red Sox were the champions of the league.[29]

1938 Negro American League Championship Series: Memphis Red Sox vs. Atlanta Black Crackers (Red Sox wins series 2–0)

1939

For the first time ever, both the Negro American League and the Negro National League held postseason series to determine their champion. In fact, the NNL went further and had a four-team playoff to determine the champion.[30]

Negro American League Championship Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. St. Louis Stars (Kansas City wins series 4–1)

Negro National League Semifinals: Baltimore Elite Giants vs. Newark Eagles (Elite Giants wins series 3–1)

Negro National League Semifinals: Homestead Grays vs. Philadelphia Stars (Grays wins series 3–2)

Negro National League Championship Series: Baltimore Elite Giants vs. Homestead Grays (Elite Giants wins series 3–1–1)

1941

The Negro National League held a Championship Series in 1941 to determine its champion after the Homestead Grays won the first half and the New York Cubans won the second half.[31]

1941 Negro National League Championship Series: Homestead Grays vs. New York Cubans (Grays win series 3–1)

Negro World Series era (1942–1948)

In 1937, the Negro American League had formed. Five years later, they would agree with the Negro National League II to a matchup of the two best teams of their leagues to a "Negro World Series", the first of its kind since the 1920s. They would meet each other for the next six years, before the dissolution of the National League in 1948 saw the demise of the World Series and "major league" Negro baseball as a whole. 1943 and 1948 were the only occasions that a League Championship Series had to be held to determine the champion of the pennant.

1942

Main article: 1942 Negro World Series

Negro World Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. Homestead Grays (Monarchs win series 4–0)[32]

1943

The first-half champion Birmingham Black Barons were tasked to face the second-half champion Chicago American Giants for the Negro American League pennant; Birmingham won in five games for their first ever league pennant. [33]

1943 Negro American League Championship Series: Chicago American Giants vs. Birmingham Black Barons (Black Barons wins series 3–2)

1943 Negro World Series: Birmingham Black Barons vs. Homestead Grays (Grays win series 4–3–1)

Main article: 1943 Negro World Series

1944

Main article: 1944 Negro World Series

Negro World Series: Homestead Grays vs. Birmingham Black Barons (Grays win series 4–1)[34]

1945

Main article: 1945 Negro World Series

Negro World Series: Cleveland Buckeyes vs. Homestead Grays (Buckeyes win series 4–0)[35]

1946

Main article: 1946 Negro World Series

1946 Negro World Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. Newark Eagles (Eagles win series 4–3)[36]

1947

Main article: 1947 Negro World Series

1947 Negro World Series: Cleveland Buckeyes vs. New York Cubans (Cubans win series 4–1–1)[37]

1948

1948 was the first time since 1939 that each League held a Championship Series to determine the pennant. The tie in Game 3 of the NNLCS proved key to the end of the Series. In the top of the 9th inning, Homestead had erased a 4–4 tie with four runs that saw them with the bases loaded. However, a curfew of 11:00pm had meant that the game would be reverted to the score of the previous inning, which was a 4–4 tie. A protest filed by the Grays came after the playing of Game 4 (a Baltimore win). The NNL ruled that Game 3 would be replayed from the point where it had stopped in the ninth inning, not the previous inning. Baltimore, rather than play to an 8–4 deficit, forfeited that game and with it the Series.[38]

1948 Negro American League Championship Series: Kansas City Monarchs vs. Birmingham Black Barons (Black Barons win series 4–3–1)

1948 Negro National League Championship Series: Homestead Grays vs. Baltimore Elite Giants (Grays win series 2–1–1)

1948 Negro World Series: Birmingham Black Barons vs. Homestead Grays (Grays win series 4–1)

Main article: 1948 Negro World Series

Negro league baseball records

Team Postseason Years Record %
New York Lincoln Giants 1913, 1930 12–11–1 .522
Chicago American Giants 1913, 1921, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1932, 1934, 1937, 1943 40–42–7 .488
Memphis Red Sox 1938 2–0 1.000
Atlanta Black Crackers 1938 0–2 .000
Nashville / Baltimore Elite Giants 1932, 1939, 1948 10–8–2 .556
Hilldale Club 1921, 1924, 1925 12–8–2 .600
St. Louis Stars 1925, 1928, 1930, 1939 13–15 .464
Detroit Stars 1930 3–4 .429
Philadelphia Stars 1934 4–3–1 .571
Pittsburgh Crawfords 1935 4–3 .571
New York Cubans 1935, 1941, 1945 8–8–1 .500
Cleveland Buckeyes 1945, 1947 5–4–1 .556
Newark Eagles 1939, 1946 5–6 .455
Birmingham Black Barons 1927, 1943, 1944, 1948 13–21–2 .382
Kansas City Monarchs 1924, 1925, 1926, 1937, 1939, 1942, 1946, 1948 36–30–3 .545
Bacharach Giants 1926, 1927 7–10–3 .412
Homestead Grays 1930, 1939, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1948 27–24–2 .529

References

  1. ^ "Negro League Playoff Series".
  2. ^ "1913 Championship Series: New York Lincoln Giants def. Chicago American Giants, 8-5-1 | Retrosheet".
  3. ^ "The Many Giants of Black Baseball". 28 October 2021.
  4. ^ "1921 Championship Series: Hilldale Club def. Chicago American Giants, 3-2-1 | Retrosheet".
  5. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Chicago American Giants (CAG) 5, Hilldale Giants (HIL) 2".
  6. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Hilldale Giants (HIL) 4, Chicago American Giants (CAG) 3".
  7. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Chicago American Giants (CAG) 5, Hilldale Giants (HIL) 2".
  8. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Chicago American Giants (CAG) 5, Hilldale Giants (HIL) 5".
  9. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Hilldale Giants (HIL)15, Chicago American Giants (CAG) 5".
  10. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Hilldale Giants (HIL) 7, Chicago American Giants (CAG) 1".
  11. ^ "1924 Negro League World Series: Kansas City Monarchs (NNL) def. Hilldale Club (ECL), 5-4-1 | Retrosheet".
  12. ^ "1925 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  13. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 8, St. Louis Stars (SSN) 6".
  14. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: St. Louis Stars (SSN) 6, Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 3".
  15. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: St. Louis Stars (SSN) 3, Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 2".
  16. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 5, St. Louis Stars (SSN) 4".
  17. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: St. Louis Stars (SSN) 2, Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 1".
  18. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 9, St. Louis Stars (SSN) 3".
  19. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Kansas City Monarchs (KCM) 4, St. Louis Stars (SSN) 0".
  20. ^ "1926 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  21. ^ "1927 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  22. ^ "1928 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  23. ^ "1930 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  24. ^ "1932 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  25. ^ "1934 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  26. ^ "1935 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  27. ^ "1936 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  28. ^ "1937 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  29. ^ "1938 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  30. ^ "1939 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  31. ^ "1941 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  32. ^ "1942 Negro League World Series: Kansas City Monarchs (NAL) def. Homestead Grays (NNL), 4-0 | Retrosheet".
  33. ^ "1943 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".
  34. ^ "1944 Negro League World Series: Homestead Grays (NNL) def. Birmingham Black Barons (NAL), 4 games to 1 | Retrosheet".
  35. ^ "1945 Negro League World Series: Cleveland Buckeyes (NAL) def. Homestead Grays (NAL), 4 games to 0 | Retrosheet".
  36. ^ "1946 Negro League World Series: Newark Eagles (NNL) def. Kansas City Monarchs (NAL), 4 games to 3 | Retrosheet".
  37. ^ "1947 Negro League World Series: New York Cubans (NNL) def. Cleveland Buckeyes (NAL), 4-1-1 | Retrosheet".
  38. ^ "1948 Negro League Postseason | Retrosheet".