This is a list of known governors of the Roman province of Asia. Created after 133 BC, the province was eventually reorganized by the emperor Augustus who assigned it to the Senate as a proconsular governorship. The province was divided by Diocletian during his reorganization of the empire during the 290s, and a small portion of the province retained the name. Eventually the province was absorbed into the Thracesian Theme sometime during the seventh century. Many of the dates listed are approximate dates for the holding of the office.

Republican governors of Asia (133–27 BC)

Unless otherwise indicated, entries for the Republican period are based on T.R.S. Broughton, Magistrates of the Roman Republic (1952), vol. II.

Imperial proconsular governors of Asia (27 BC — AD 180)

Governors under Augustus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from K.M.T. Atkinson, "The Governors of the Province Asia in the Reign of Augustus", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, 7 (1958), pp. 300–330

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Vedius Pollio[9] 31/30 BC N/A propraetor
Marcus Herennius Picens ? 28/27 BC suff. 34 BC Broughton dates his tenure to 33/32 BC[10]
Lucius Vinicius ? 27/26 BC suff. 33 BC
Lucius Volcacius Tullus ? 26/25 BC ord. 33 BC
Marcus Tullius Cicero ? 24/23 BC ord. 30 BC
Sextus Appuleius ? 23/22 BC ord. 29 BC
Gaius Junius Silanus ? 22/21 BC ord. 17 BC
Potitus Valerius Messalla ? 21-19 BC suff. 29 BC
Gaius Norbanus Flaccus ? 18/17 or 17/16 BC ord. 24 BC
Quintus Aemilius Lepidus 15/14 or 14/13 BC ord. 21 BC If the subject of the acephalous Titulus Tibertinus (ILS 918) is Gaius Sentius Saturninus (cos. 19 BC), then he was proconsul in 14/13 BC.[11]
Gaius Marcius Censorinus ? 13/12 BC ord. 8 BC Syme[12] dates Censorinus to 2/3 BC
Marcus Vinicius[13] ? 12-10 BC suff. 19 BC Claude Eilers[14] dates Vinicius to 13/12 BC
Paullus Fabius Maximus[15] 10/9 BC ord. 11 BC
Paullus Fabius Maximus ? 9/8 BC ord. 11 BC If the subject of the acephalous Titulus Tibertinus is Lucius Calpurnius Piso (cos. 15 BC), then he was proconsul in 9/8 BC[16]
Publius Cornelius Scipio ? 8/7 BC ord. 16 BC Eilers[17] dates Scipio to 12-10 BC
Iullus Antonius ? 7/6 BC ord. 10 BC
Gaius Asinius Gallus Saloninus 6/5 BC ord. 8 BC
Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Augur 2/1 BC ord. 14 BC Lentulus the Augur is often confused with his relative L. Cornelius Lentulus, cos. 15 BC
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius ? AD 1/2 ord. 12 BC If the subject of the acephalous Titulus Tibertinus is Quirnius, then he was proconsul this year.[18]
Gaius Antistius Vetus AD 2/3 or 3/4 ord. 6 BC
Marcus Plautius Silvanus AD 4/5 ord. 2 BC
Gaius Vibius Postumus ? AD 6-9 suff. AD 5 Syme[19] dates Postumus to AD 12-15
Lucius Calpurnius Piso[20] ? AD 9/10 ord. 1 BC Syme[12] dates Piso to AD 1/2
Publius Vinicius[21] ? AD 10/11 ord. AD 2 Son of the proconsul of 12-10 BC
Lucius Valerius Messalla Volesus[21] ? AD 12/13 suff. AD 5 Son of the proconsul of 21-19 BC
Lucius Volusius Saturninus[21] ? AD 13/14 suff. AD 3

Governors under Tiberius

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Ronald Syme, "Problems about Proconsuls of Asia", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 53 (1983), pp. 191–208

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Sextus Nonius Quinctilianus ? 16/17 ord. 8
Quintus Poppaeus Secundus ? 17/18 suff. 9
Gaius Junius Silanus 20/21 ord. 10
Manius Aemilius Lepidus 21/22 ord. 11
Gaius Fonteius Capito 23/24 or 22/23 ord. 12
Favonius 24/25 or 25/26 unknown Syme (1983, p. 200) identifies with Lucilius Longus, suff. 7 BC
Sextus Pompeius 24/25 or 24/26 ord. 14 Syme (History in Ovid, p. 161) suggests Pompeius was prorogued two years.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus 26-28 cos. 6 Ursula Vogel-Weidemann[22] suggests Lepidus may have been prorogued a third year.
Publius Petronius ? 29-35 suff. 19
Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus ? 35/36 ord. 20
Gaius Vibius Rufinus ? 36/37 suff. 21 or 22

Governors under Caligula

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Syme, "Problems about Proconsuls", pp. 191–208

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Gaius Calpurnius Aviola 37/38 suff. 24
Gaius Asinius Pollio ? 38/39 ord. 23
Marcus Vinicius ? 39/40 ord. 30; ord. II 45
Gaius Cassius Longinus 40/41 suff. 30

Governors under Claudius

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Syme, "Problems about Proconsuls", pp. 191–208

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Publius Cornelius Lentulus Scipio ? 41/42 suff. 24
Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus ? 42/43 suff. 27
Paullus Fabius Persicus ? 43/44 ord. 34
Publius Memmius Regulus ? 48/49 suff. 31
Aulus Didius Gallus 49/50 suff. 39
Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo 50/51 suff. 39
Publius Suillius Rufus 51/52 suff. 41
Lucius Pedanius Secundus 52/53 suff. 43
Tiberius Plautius Silvanus Aelianus 53/54 suff. 45; suff. II 74 Ursula Vogel-Weidemann dates to 55/56

Governors under Nero and the Year of Four Emperors

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Syme, "Problems about Proconsuls", pp. 191–208

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Marcus Junius Silanus 54 cos. 46 Died in office[23]
? Marius Cordus 55/56 suff. 45 or 47
? M. Vettius Niger[24] 56/57 unknown
Q. Allius Maximus 57/58 suff. 49 So Ursula Vogel-Weidemann; Syme ("Problems about Proconsuls", p. 204) is dubious
Lucius Vipstanus Poplicola 58/59 cos. 48
Quintus Marcius Barea Soranus ? 61/62 suff. 52
P. Volasenna ? 62/63 suff. c. 54
Lucius Salvius Otho Titianus 63/64 cos. 52
Lucius Antistius Vetus 64/65 cos. 55
Manius Acilius Aviola 65/66 cos. 54
Marcus Aefulanus ? 66/67 suff. 54
Marcus Aponius Saturninus ? 67/68 suff. c. 55 Eck, Chiron 1983, p. 189; p. 213: "unter Nero"
Gaius Fonteius Agrippa 69 suff. 58 Called to Moesia in Autumn, 69 (Tacitus, Histories, iii.46)
Marcus Plancius Varus 69 N/A Legatus proconsulis serving in Agrippa's absence; attested by coins from Apamea

Governors under Vespasian and Titus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 284–303

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Marcus Suillius Nerullinus 69/70 ord. 50 Appointed to complete the term
Titus Clodius Eprius Marcellus 70-73 suff. 62
Aulus Ducenius Geminus[25] 73/74 suff. 60 or 61
Marcus Vettius Bolanus 75/76 suff. 66
Tiberius Catius Asconius Silius Italicus 77/78 suff. 68
Gnaeus Arrius Antoninus 78/79 suff. 69
Marcus Ulpius Trajanus 79/80 suff. c. 70
Gaius Laecanius Bassus Caecina Paetus 80/81 suff. 70

Governors under Domitian

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", pp. 304–323

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Sextus Julius Frontinus 84/85 suff. 73
Publius Nonius Asprenas Caesius Cassianus 86/87 suff. 72 or 73
Gaius Vettulenus Civica Cerealis 87/88 suff. between 73 and 76 Removed before the completion of his term
Gaius Minicius Italus[26] 88 N/A Equestrian procurator of Asia, replaced Cerealis
Lucius Mestrius Florus 88/89 suff. between 73 and 76
Marcus Fulvius Gillo 89/90 suff. 76
Lucius Luscius Ocrea 90/91 suff. 77 or 78
Publius Calvisius Ruso Julius Frontinus 92/93 suff. c. 84
Lucius Junius Caesennius Paetus 93/94 suff. 79
Marcus Atilius Postumus Bradua 94/95 suff. 80
Rufus[27] ? 91/91 or ? 95/96 unknown Eck suggests either Quintus Corellius Rufus (suff. 78), or C. Marius Marcellus Octavius Rufus (suff. 80)[28]

Governors under Nerva and Trajan

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", pp. 324–362

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Lucius Calventius Sextus Carminius Vetus 96/97 suff. 83
Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator 98/99 suff. c. 84
Q. Julius Balbus 100/101 suff. 85
[Q. Vibius?] Secun(dus) 101/102 suff. 86
C. Aquillius Proculus 103/104 suff. 90
L. Albius Pullaienus Pollio 104/105 suff. 90
Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus 105/106 suff. 92
[L. Dasumius?] Hadrianus 106/107 unknown If identical with the suffect, his consulate was before 87
Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas 107/108 cos. 94
Marcus Lollius Paulinus Decimus Valerius Asiaticus Saturninus 108/109 suff. 94
Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus 109/110 suff. 94
Lucius Baebius Tullus 110/111 suff. 95
Quintus Fabius Postuminus 111/112 suff. 96
Cornelius Tacitus 112/113 suff. 97
Aulus Vicirius Martialis 113/114 suff. 98
M. (Ostorius) Scapula 114/115 suff. 97
Quintus Fulvius Gillo Bittius Proculus 115/116 suff. 98
Ti. Julius Ferox 116/117 suff. 99

Governors under Hadrian

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 13 (1983), pp. 147–185

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Q. Servaeus Innocens 117/118 suff. 101
Galeo Tettienus Severus Marcus Eppuleius Proculus Tiberius Caepio Hispo 118/119 suff. c. 101
Gaius Trebonius Proculus Mettius Modestus 119/120 suff. 103
Sextus Subrius Dexter Cornelius Priscus 120/121 suff. c. 104
Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus 121/122 suff. 106
Gaius Minicius Fundanus 122/123 suff. 107
Quintus Pompeius Falco 123/124 suff. 108
Marcus Peducaeus Priscinus 124/125 ord. 110
Titus Avidius Quietus 125/126 suff. 111
Publius Stertinius Quartus 126/127 suff. 112
Lucius Vipstanus Messalla[29] 127/128 ord. 115
Lucius Hedius Rufus Lollianus Avitus 128/129 suff. 114
Publius Juventius Celsus 129/130 suff. 115;
ord. II 129
Publius Afranius Flavianus 130/131 suff. 117
Lucius Fundanius Lamia Aelianus 131/132 ord. 116
Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus 132/133 suff. 116
Titus Sabinius Barbarus[29] 133/134 suff. 118
Quintus Coredius Gallus Gargilius Antiquus 134/135 suff. 119
Titus Aurelius Fulvus 135/136 ord. 120
Quintus Pomponius Marcellus Rufus 136/137 suff. 121

Governors under Antoninus Pius

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Syme "The Proconsuls of Asia under Antoninus Pius", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 51 (1983), 271-290

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Lucius Venuleius Apronianus Octavius Priscus[30] 138/139 ord. 123
Lucius Valerius Propinquus 140/141 suff. 126
? Sextus Julius Major 141/142 suff. c. 126 It is possible he was proconsul of Africa instead.
? Q. Insteius Celer 142/143 suff. c. 128
? Tiberius Julius Candidus Celsus 143/144 suff. c. 129
(Tiberius Claudius?) Julianus 144/145 suff. 129/130
Tiberius Claudius Quartinus 145/146 suff. 130
Lucius Antonius Albus 147/148 suff. c. 132
Q. Flavius Tertullus 148/149 suff. 133
Popillius Priscus 149/150 suff. c. 132
Publius Mummius Sisenna 150/151 ord. 133
Titus Vitrasius Pollio 151/152 suff. c. 137
Gaius Julius Severus 152/153 suff. c. 138
Lucius Tutilius Lupercus Pontianus[31] 153/154 ord. 135
? Marcus Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus 155/156 ord. 141
Lucius Statius Quadratus 156/157 ord. 142
Titus Statilius Maximus 157/158 ord. 144
Publius Mummius Sisenna Rutilianus 160/161 suff. 146

Governors under Marcus Aurelius

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen (Bonn: Habelt Verlag, 1977) pp. 214–217

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Quintus Cornelius Proculus 161/162 suff. 146
Gaius Popilius Carus Pedo 162/163 suff. 147
Quintus Pompeius Sosius Priscus 163/164 ord. 149
Marcus Gavius Squilla Gallicanus 164/165 ord. 150
D. Fonteius Fronto 165/166 suff. c. 150 Of Asia, per French;[32] Christol and Drew-Bear argue Fronto was one of the first proconsuls of Lycia et Pamphylia.[33]
Lucius Sergius Paullus 166/167 suff. c. 151
Titus Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius Pollio 167/168 suff. c. 151
Gaius Bruttius Praesens[34] ? 168/169 ord. 153, 180
Sextus Quintilius Valerius Maximus ? 169/170 ord. 151
Marcus Nonius Macrinus 170/171 suff. 154
Lucius Aemilius Juncus ? 171/172 suff. c. 154
M. Junius Rufinus Sabrinianus ? 172/173 ord. 155
Sextus Sulpicius Tertullus ? 173/174 ord. 158
Vibius Bassus between 155 and 175 suff. between 138 and 160

Imperial proconsular governors of Asia (180 — 285)

Governors under Commodus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 221f

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Publius Julius Geminius Marcianus c. 182 suff. 165 or 166
Novius P[riscus] between 180 and 183 suff. between 166 and 168
L. A[e]milius [Frontus] between 182 and 185 suff. between 161 and 166
Quintus Pompeius Senecio Sosius Priscus c. 184 ord. 169
Gaius Arrius Antoninus between 188 and 190 suff. c. 173
(L.?) (Ulpius?) Marcellus 189/190 suff. c. 174 perhaps the same as Ulpius Marcellus (Leunissen, pp. 221f)
Sulpicius Crassus 190/191 or 191/192 suff. c. 175/176
Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus Between 180 and 192 suff. between 165 and 175 Inge Mennen dates to 186[35]
Asellius Aemilianus 192/193 suff. c. 177 Supported Pescennius Niger in 193. (HA, "Severus", 8)

Governors under Septimus Severus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Ségolène Demougin, "Proconsuls d'Asie sous Septime Sévère, les gouverneurs de la province de 200 à 211", Bulletin de la Société Nationale des Antiquaires de France, 1994 (1996), pp. 323-333

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Lucius Albinius Saturninus[36] between 190 and 200 suff. between 175 and 182
Lucius Aemilius Iuncus[37] 193/194 suff. 179
Quintus Aurelius Polus Terentianus 200/201 suff. between 188 and 190
Quintus Hedius Rufus Lollianus Gentianus 201/202 suff. c. 186
Tarius Titianus ? 202/203 suff. between 187 and 190 Michel Christol and Thomas Drew-Bear note he might have been governor of Africa[38]
L. Calpurnius Proculus ? 203/204 between 186 and 190
Q. Licinius Nepos ? 204/205 between 180 and 191 Demougin notes[39] Nepos could have been consul at the beginning of the reign of Septimus Severus, which would require a later date.
Popilius Pedo Apronianus 205 ord. 191 Executed while proconsul
Aelius Aglaus 205/206 N/A procurator Asiae, agens uice praedisidis
Quintus Tineius Sacerdos 206/207 suff. 192 Christol and Drew-Bear date between 206 and 208[40]
[...]us 207/208 unknown Christol and Drew-Bear note he could be identified with a known proconsul[41]
Quintus Caecilius Secundus Servilianus 208/209 suff. c. 193
[Sem]pronius Senecio[41] 209/210 suff. c. 195/196 C.P Jones has shown that Ti. Manilius Fuscus was not proconsul of Asia.[42]

Governors under Caracalla

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 224f

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
T. [...] attested 211 suff. c. 195
C. Gabinius Barbarus Pompeianus ? 211/212 suff. 194
Gavius Tranquillus ? 212/213 suff. c. 197
(M.?) Junius Concessus Aemillianus ? 213/214 suff. c. 198
Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus[43] 213-215 suff. c. 199
Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus[43] 215/216 suff. c. 200

Governors under Macrinus and Elagabalus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 225f

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Gaius Julius Asper 217/218 ord. II 212 designatus
Quintus Anicius Faustus 217-219 suff. 198?
M. Aufidius Fronto between 219 and 222 ord. 199
C. Aufidius Marcellus between 219 and 222 suff. c. 205; ord. II 226
(M. Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio?) Albinus c. 221 ? ord. 206 Mentioned in the Constitutio Antoniniana; identification with the consul of 206 uncertain.

Governors under Alexander Severus

Unless otherwise stated, the following entries are taken from Paul M. M. Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), pp. 226-228

Name Date proconsul Date consul Notes
Quintus (Hedius) Lollianus Plantius Avitus c. 224 ord. 209
Q. Ai[acius Modestus Crescentianus?] between 211 and 228 suff. between 198 and 204; II ord. 228
Amicus Autumn 230 or 231 suff. 215 or 216
Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus c. 229 suff. between 193 and 217; II ord. 234
(Q. Virius Egnatius?) Sulpicius Priscus Between 222 and 235 suff. between 193 and 217
Gaius Asinius Nicomachus Julianus After 222 suff. between 193 and 235

Third-century crisis (235–285)

Imperial proconsular governors of Asia (285 — 395)

Governors under Diocletian

Governors under Constantine I

Governors under Constantius II

Governors under Julian and Jovian

Governors under Valens

Governors under Theodosius I

Imperial proconsular governors of Asia (395 — 491)

Governors under Arcadius

Governors under Theodosius II

Imperial proconsular governors of Asia (uncertain date)

Sources

References

  1. ^ Mith. 11, 17, & 24
  2. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II, p. 67
  3. ^ Broughton notes that the dates for his proconsulship depends on two disputed issues: first and foremost is the date of the outbreak of the Third Mithridatic War; second is when Asia was added to his command. (MRR, vol. II pp. 105-107)
  4. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II p. 138 n.9
  5. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II p. 297
  6. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II p. 308
  7. ^ a b Syme, Roman Revolution, p. 266 n. 3
  8. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II p. 381
  9. ^ Syme, The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), p. 208
  10. ^ Broughton, MRR, vol. II p. 415
  11. ^ Nikos Kikkinos, "The Honorand of the Titilus Tiburtinus: C. Sentius Saturninus?" Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 105 (1995), p. 21–36
  12. ^ a b Augustan Aristocracy, p. 405
  13. ^ Syme, Augustan Aristocracy, pp. 62, 405
  14. ^ Eilers, "The Proconsulship of P. Cornelius Scipio (Cos. 16 B.C.)", Classical Quarterly, 51 (2001), p. 205
  15. ^ Syme and Atkinson prorogate his term; Eilers assigns him a single year
  16. ^ Syme, "The Titulus Tiburtinus", in A.R. Birley (ed.), Ronald Syme, Roman Papers (Oxford: Clarenton Press, 1984), vol. III, pp. 869ff
  17. ^ Eilers, "Proconsulship", pp. 201-205
  18. ^ Atkinson, "Governors of the Province Asia", pp. 314f, 318f
  19. ^ Augustan Aristocracy, p. 132
  20. ^ Syme, Augustan Aristocracy, p. 337
  21. ^ a b c Atkinson notes these proconsulships "must fall within the period 10/11 to 14/15 inclusive, but the precise order is uncertain except for the indications that P. Volusius Saturninus ... is likely to be the latest."
  22. ^ Vogel-Weidemann, "Miscellanea zu den Proconsules von Africa und Asia zwischen 14 und 68 n. Chr.", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 46 (1982), p. 268
  23. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xiii.1
  24. ^ Attilio Degrassi, I fasti consolari dell'Impero Romano dal 30 avanti Cristo al 613 dopo Cristo (Rome, 1952), p. 138
  25. ^ Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", p. 208, Anh. 3
  26. ^ CIL V, 875 = ILS 1374
  27. ^ Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", p. 189
  28. ^ Eck, "Prokonsuln von Asia in der flavisch-traianischen Zeit", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 45 (1982), p. 151
  29. ^ a b Syme, "Hadrianic Proconsuls of Africa", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 37 (1980), p. 1
  30. ^ Géza Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen (Bonn: Habelt Verlag, 1977), p. 211
  31. ^ Olli Salomies, "Zu Konsuln der Jahre 115, 135, 195 n.Chr.", Arctos, 23 (1989), pp. 170-176
  32. ^ David French, "D. Fonteius Fronto, proconsul (of Asia)" Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 29 (1978), pp. 211-212
  33. ^ Michel Christol and Thomas Drew-Bear, "D. Fonteius Fronto, Proconsul de Lycie-Pamphylie", Greek Roman and Byzantine Studies, 32 (1991), pp. 397-413
  34. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 379
  35. ^ Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011), p. 122
  36. ^ Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 222
  37. ^ Cornelia Römer, "Diplom für einen Fußsoldaten aus Koptos vom 23. März 179", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 82 (1990), p. 152
  38. ^ Christol and Drew-Bear, "Le prince et ses représentants aux limites de l'Asie et de la Galatie: un nouveau questeur et un nouveau proconsul d'Asie sous Septime-Sévère", Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, 9 (1998), pp. 157f
  39. ^ "Proconsuls d'Asie sous Septime Sévère", p. 331
  40. ^ "Le prince et ses représentants", p. 160
  41. ^ a b Christol and Drew-Bear, "Le prince et ses représentants", p. 161
  42. ^ Jones, "Flavia Politta and Manilius Fuscus", Classical Philology, 84 (1989), pp. 129-136
  43. ^ a b Michel Christol, "Le Proconsulat D'Afrique de L. Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus", Cahiers du Centre Gustave Glotz, 25 (2014), p. 142
  44. ^ Inge Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011), p. 123f. May be identical to Lucius Valerius Messalla (consul 214).
  45. ^ Peter Herrmann, and Ûzmir Hasan Malay, "Statue Bases of the Mid Third Century A.D. from Smyrna", Epigraphica Anatolica, 36 (2003), pp. 6f
  46. ^ Leunissen, Konsuln und Konsulare, p. 182
  47. ^ Herrmann and Malay, "Statue Bases", pp. 1-4
  48. ^ Michael Peachin, "Prosopographic Notes from the Law Codes", Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 84 (1990), pp. 109-111
  49. ^ Herrmann and Malay, "Statue Bases", pp. 7-9
  50. ^ Herrmann and Malay, "Statue Bases", pp. 9f
  51. ^ Mennen, Power and Status, p. 117