The following is a list of usurpers in the Roman Empire. For an overview of the problem and consequences of usurpation, see Roman usurpers. In the Eastern Roman Empire (395–1453), rebellion and usurpation were so notoriously frequent (in the vision of the medieval West, where usurpation was rare) that the modern term "byzantine" became a byword for political intrigue and conspiracy. For usurpation in the Eastern Roman Empire, see List of Byzantine usurpers.
The following individuals began as usurpers, but became the legitimate emperor either by establishing uncontested control of the empire or by confirmation of their position by the Roman Senate or by the legitimate emperor.
The following individuals proclaimed themselves emperor (or were proclaimed or appointed as emperor), but are not considered as legitimate emperors because they did not oust the ruling emperor, or did not establish control of the whole empire, or were not accepted by the senate or other imperial colleagues.
They are listed here under the emperor whose rule they attempted to usurp. The noted date is the attempted year of usurpation.
Domitianus (270–271) most probably in Southern Gaul. He was probably encouraged by Aurelian's difficulties in dealing with an Alamannic incursion into Italy that occurred early in his reign. His bid for power could have been suppressed by Aurelian's Praetorian Prefect, Placidianus who was in the Rhone valley at the time or by Tetricus, the Gallic Emperor.
Felicissimus (k.271) in Rome, a civil servant involved in corruption
Unsuccessful regional usurpers after the fall of Rome (476)
Julius Nepos (476–480) ruled as emperor in exile in Dalmatia since 475, tried to reclaim imperial throne from the barbarian regime in Italy lead by Odoacer around 479-480, killed by his soldiers in the same year.