Starlink
Starlink Mission (47926144123).jpg
60 Starlink v0.9 satellites stacked together before deployment on 24 May 2019.
ManufacturerSpaceX
Country of originUnited States
OperatorSpaceX
ApplicationsInternet service
Websitestarlink.com
Specifications
Spacecraft typeSmall satellite
Launch massv 0.9: 227 kg (500 lb)
v 1.0: 260 kg (570 lb)
v 1.5: ~295 kg (650 lb)[1]-306 kg (675 lb)
v 2.0 ~1,250 kg (2,760 lb)[2]
Equipment
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Sun-synchronous orbit
Production
StatusActive
Launched
  • 3,347[3] (3,033 currently working) [3]
  • Tintin: 2
  • v 0.9: 60
  • v 1.0: 1,675
  • v 1.5: 1,610
Operational2,494[3]
Maiden launch22 February 2018
Last launch28 October 2022
Starlink Logo.svg

Starlink is a satellite internet constellation operated by SpaceX[4][5] providing satellite Internet access to most of the Earth.[6][7]

Launches

The deployment of the first 1,440 satellites will be into 72 orbital planes of 20 satellites each,[8] with a requested lower minimum elevation angle of beams to improve reception: 25° rather than the 40° of the other two orbital shells.[9]: 17  SpaceX launched the first 60 satellites of the constellation in May 2019 into a 450 km (280 mi) orbit and expected up to six launches in 2019 at that time, with 720 satellites (12 × 60) for continuous coverage in 2020.[10][11]

In August 2019, SpaceX expected four more launches in 2019[12] and at least nine launches in 2020,[13] but since January 2020 expectations had increased to 24 total launches in 2020.[14]

In March 2020, SpaceX reported producing six satellites per day.[15]

Starlink satellites are also planned to launch on Starship, an under-development rocket of SpaceX with a much larger payload capacity.[16]

In February 2021, Musk stated that the satellites are traveling on 25 orbital planes clustered between 53° north and south of the equator.[17]

Starlink launches
No. Mission Sat. Ver. COSPAR ID Date and time,
UTC
Launch site Orbit Satellites Outcome
Altitude Orbital Inclination Deployed [3] Working [3]
Tintin[18] v0.1 2018-020 22 February 2018, 14:17[19][20] VAFB, SLC-4E 514 km (319 mi) 97.5° [21] 2 0 Success
Two test satellites known as Tintin A and B[22] (MicroSat-2a and 2b) that were deployed as co-payloads to the Paz satellite. As of 1 September 2020, the orbits have decayed and both satellites have reentered the atmosphere.[23][24][25]
1 v0.9[26] v0.9 2019-029 24 May 2019, 02:30[27] CCAFS, SLC-40 440–550 km (270–340 mi) [28] 53.0° 60 0 Success[29]
First launch of 60 Starlink test satellites.[30] Said to be "production design", these are used to test various aspects of the network, including deorbiting.[31] They do not yet have the planned satellite interlink capabilities and they only communicate with antennas on Earth. A day after launch an amateur astronomer in the Netherlands was one of the first to publish a video showing the satellites flying across the sky as a "train" of bright lights.[32] By five weeks post launch, 57 of the 60 satellites had been "healthy" while 3 were non-operational and derelict derelict, but deorbited due to atmospheric drag.[33] As of 16 November 2021, only 5 failed satellites were still in orbit. All working satellites have been deorbited deliberately.[34]
2 L1[35] v1.0 2019-074 11 November 2019, 14:56[36] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 47 Success
First launch of Starlink "operational" satellites (v1.0),[36] with an increased mass of 260 kg each and included Ka-band antennas.[37] Satellites were released in a circular orbit at around 290 km altitude, from which the satellites raised their altitude by themselves.
3 L2 v1.0 2020-001 7 January 2020, 02:19:21[38] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 46 Success
One of the satellites, dubbed DarkSat,[39] has an experimental coating to make it less reflective, and to reduce the impact on ground-based astronomical observations.[40]
4 L3 v1.0 2020-006 29 January 2020, 14:06[41] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 48 Success
5 L4 v1.0 2020-012 17 February 2020, 15:05[42] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 50 Success
First time the satellites were released in an elliptical orbit (212 × 386 km).
6 L5 v1.0 2020-019 18 March 2020, 12:16:39[38] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 55 Success
7 L6 v1.0 2020-025 22 April 2020, 19:30:30[43] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 52 Success
8 L7 v1.0 2020-035 4 June 2020, 01:25:00[44] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 54 Success
One of the satellites, dubbed VisorSat, has a sunshade to reduce the impact on ground-based astronomical observations.[45]
9 L8 v1.0 2020-038 13 June 2020, 09:21:18[46] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 58 51 Success
First Starlink rideshare launch, carrying only 58 of SpaceX's satellites plus three Planet Labs, SkySats 16-18 Earth-observation satellites.[46]
10 L9 v1.0 2020-055 7 August 2020, 05:12:05[38] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 57 54 Success
BlackSky Global 7 and 8, the 5th and 6th BlackSky Global satellites, launched as rideshare payloads.[47] All of the Starlink satellites are outfitted with the sunshade visor that was tested on a single satellite on 4 June 2020 launch.[48]
11 L10 v1.0 2020-057 18 August 2020, 14:31:16 [38][49] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 58 53 Success
Rideshare satellites from Planet Labs, SkySats 19-21 Earth-observation satellites.
12 L11 v1.0 2020-062 3 September 2020, 12:46:14[8] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 52 Success
13 L12 v1.0 2020-070 6 October 2020, 11:29:34[50] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 51 Success
14 L13 v1.0 2020-073 18 October 2020, 12:25:57[38] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 48 Success
15 L14 v1.0 2020-074 24 October 2020, 15:31:34[51] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 47 Success
16 L15 v1.0 2020-088 25 November 2020, 02:13:12[52] CCAFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 43 Success
17 L16 v1.0 2021-005 20 January 2021, 13:02:00 [38] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 58 Success
Tr-1 v1.0 2021-006 24 January 2021, 15:00:00 [53] CCSFS, SLC-40 560 km (350 mi) 97.5° [53] 10 0 Success
Part of Transporter-1 (SmallSat Rideshare Mission 1).[54] First launch of production Starlink satellites to polar orbits.
18 L18 v1.0 2021-009 4 February 2021, 06:19:00[55] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 56 Success
19 L19 v1.0 2021-012 16 February 2021, 03:59:37[56] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 57 Success
SpaceX lost the Falcon 9 booster in the Atlantic Ocean.[56]
20 L17 v1.0 2021-017 4 March 2021, 08:24:54[57] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 56 Success
Second stage failed to deorbit actively, reentered March 26 over Oregon and Washington in the United States.[58]
21 L20 v1.0 2021-018 11 March 2021, 08:13:29[59] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 60 Success
22 L21 v1.0 2021-021 14 March 2021, 10:01:26[60] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 59 Success
23 L22 v1.0 2021-024 24 March 2021, 08:28:24[61] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 45 Success
24 L23 v1.0 2021-027 7 April 2021, 16:34:18[38] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 60 Success
25 L24 v1.0 2021-036 29 April 2021, 03:44:00[38] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 60 Success
26 L25 v1.0 2021-038 4 May 2021, 19:01[38] KSC, LC-39A 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 60 Success
27 L27 v1.0 2021-040 9 May 2021, 06:42[62] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi) 53.0° 60 58 Success
28 L26 v1.0 2021-041 15 May 2021, 22:56[63] KSC, LC-39A 569–582 km (354–362 mi) 53.0° 52 49 Success
Rideshare satellites: a radar Earth imaging satellite for Capella Space, and an Earth observation satellite, Tyvak 0130, for Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems.
29 L28 v1.0 2021-044 26 May 2021, 18:59 [64] CCSFS, SLC-40 550 km (340 mi)[65] 53.0° 60 60 Success
Last v1.0 and Group 1 Starlink Launch.
Tr-2 v1.5[66] 2021-059 30 June 2021, 19:31[67] CCSFS, SLC-40 560 km (350 mi) 97.5° 3 3 Success
Part of Transporter-2 (SmallSat Rideshare Mission 2).[68] Second launch of production Starlink and first launch of 3 prototype Starlink v1.5 satellites to polar orbits.
30 Group 2-1 v1.5 2021-082 14 September 2021, 03:55:50[69] VSFB, SLC-4E 570 km (350 mi) 70.0° 51 50 Success
First launch of operational Starlink satellites from Vandenberg Space Force Base, and first launch into a high-inclination, non-SSO orbit. Musk stated that the operational satellites were version 1.5 and featured "laser inter-satellite links, which are needed for high latitudes and mid-ocean coverage".[70]
31 Group 4-1 v1.5 2021-104 13 November 2021, 11:19:30[71] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 52 Success
First launch of Group 4 Starlink satellites.
32 Group 4-3 v1.5 2021-115 2 December 2021, 23:12:15[72] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 48 48 Success
Rideshare satellites: BlackSky-16 Gen-2 and BlackSky-17 Gen-2.
33 Group 4-4 v1.5 2021-125 18 December 2021, 12:41:40[73] VSFB, SLC-4E 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 52 51 Success
34 Group 4-5 v1.5 2022-001 6 January 2022, 21:49:10[74] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 49 49 Success
35 Group 4-6 v1.5 2022-005 19 January 2022, 02:02:40[75] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 49 49 Success
36 Group 4-7 v1.5 2022-010 3 February 2022, 18:13:20[76] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 49 11 Success
On 4 February 2022, the satellites deployed on this mission were significantly impacted by a G2-rated geomagnetic storm. The satellites were commanded into a safe-mode, but increased atmospheric drag prevented the satellites from leaving safe-mode to begin manoeuvering from the low deployment altitude to an operational orbit. On 8 February 2022, SpaceX confirmed that up to 40 of the 49 deployed satellites will reenter or have reentered the Earth's atmosphere.[77][78] By 12 February, 38 satellites had reentered the atmosphere while the remaining 11 continued to raise their orbits.[79]
37 Group 4-8 v1.5 2022-016 21 February 2022, 14:44:20[80] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 46 46 Success
38 Group 4-11 v1.5 2022-017 25 February 2022, 17:12:10[81] VSFB, SLC-4E 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 50 50 Success
39 Group 4-9 v1.5 2022-022 3 March 2022, 14:25[82] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 47 47 Success
40 Group 4-10 v1.5 2022-025 9 March 2022, 13:45:10[83] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 48 47 Success
41 Group 4-12 v1.5 2022-029 19 March 2022, 04:42:30[84] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 47 Success
42 Group 4-14 v1.5 2022-041 21 April 2022, 17:51:40[85] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
43 Group 4-16 v1.5 2022-045 29 April 2022, 21:27:10[86] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
44 Group 4-17 v1.5 2022-049 6 May 2022, 09:42[87] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
45 Group 4-13 v1.5 2022-051 13 May 2022, 22:07:50[88] VSFB, SLC-4E 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
46 Group 4-15 v1.5 2022-052 14 May 2022, 20:40:50[89] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
First Starlink launch on a new Falcon first stage booster (All prior flights were with reused boosters).
47 Group 4-18 v1.5 2022-053 18 May 2022, 10:59:40[90] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
48 Group 4-19 v1.5 2022-062 17 June 2022, 16:09:20[91] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
49 Group 4-21 v1.5 2022-076 7 July 2022, 13:11:10[92] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
50 Group 3-1 v1.5 2022-077 11 July 2022, 01:39:40[93] CCSFS, SLC-40 560 km (350 mi) 97.6° 46 46 Success
50th dedicated Starlink launch.
51 Group 4-22 v1.5 2022-083 17 July 2022, 14:20[94] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
52 Group 3-2 v1.5 2022-084 22 July 2022, 17:39:40[95] VSFB, SLC-4E 560 km (350 mi) 97.6° 46 46 Success
53 Group 4-25 v1.5 2022-086 24 July 2022, 13:38:20[96] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 51 Success
54 Group 4-26 v1.5 2022-097 10 August 2022, 02:14:40[97] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 52 51 Success
55 Group 3-3 v1.5 2022-099 12 August 2022, 21:40:20[98] VSFB, SLC-4E 560 km (350 mi) 97.6° 46 46 Success
56 Group 4-27 v1.5 2022-101 19 August 2022, 19:21:20[99] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
57 Group 4-23 v1.5 2022-104 28 August 2022, 03:41[100] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 54 53 Success
Heaviest Falcon 9 launch carrying a east-coast Starlink network launch for 53.2° inclination orbit located at 540 km altitude. This flight, Group 4-23, was moved from 39A to 40 to de-conflict with Artemis I operations at 39B, and booster B1069.2 from the 4-20 mission was swapped with B1067.6.[100]
58 Group 3-4 v1.5 2022-105 31 August 2022, 05:40:10[101] VSFB, SLC-4E 560 km (350 mi) 97.6° 46 46 Success
59 Group 4-20 v1.5 2022-107 5 September 2022, 02:09:40[102] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 51 51 Success
Rideshare satellites: Sherpa-LTC2 carried a sole hosted payload will be Boeing's Varuna Technology Demonstration Mission, a pathfinder for a planned constellation of broadband satellites.
60 Group 4-2 v1.5 2022-111 11 September 2022, 01:20[103] KSC, LC-39A 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 34 34 Success
Rideshare satellites: BlueWalker-3 was released into a 513 km circular orbit.[103]
61 Group 4-34 v1.5 2022-114 19 September 2022, 00:18:40[104] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 54 54 Success
62 Group 4-35 v1.5 2022-119 24 September 2022, 23:32:10[105] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 52 52 Success
63 Group 4-29 v1.5 2022-125 5 October 2022, 23:10:30[106] VSFB, SLC-4E 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 52 52 Success
Set a new record for the shortest time between two Falcon 9 launches at 7 hours and 10 minutes.
64 Group 4-36 v1.5 2022-136 20 October 2022, 14:50:40[107] CCSFS, SLC-40 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 54 54 Success
65 Group 4-31 v1.5 2022-141 28 October 2022, 01:14 VSFB, SLC-4E 540 km (340 mi) 53.2° 53 53 Success
Starlink satellites in orbit from May 2019 to April 2021
Starlink satellites in orbit from May 2019 to April 2021

See also

Notes

References

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