This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Needs clear inclusion and exclusion guidelines; Remove trivia / trivial. Please help improve this article if you can. (June 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
1855 J. H. Colton Company map of Virginia that predates the West Virginia partition by seven years.
1855 J. H. Colton Company map of Virginia that predates the West Virginia partition by seven years.

Numerous state partition proposals have been put forward since the 1776 establishment of the United States that would partition an existing U.S. state or states so that a particular region might either join another state or create a new state. Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, often called the New States Clause, grants to the United States Congress the authority to admit new states into the United States beyond the thirteen that existed when the Constitution went into effect (June 21, 1788, after ratification by nine of the thirteen states).[1] It also includes a stipulation originally designed to give Eastern states that still had Western land claims, which included Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia, a veto over whether their western counties could become states.[2]

New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress.[3]

The clause has served the same function since then whenever a proposal to partition an existing state or states has come before Congress. New breakaway states are permitted to join the Union only with the proper consents.[4] Of the 37 states admitted to the Union by Congress, three were set off from an already existing state:

Another state that may fit into this category is Vermont, which existed as a de facto but unrecognized sovereign state from 1777 to 1791. The region had been a subject of a territorial dispute between New York and New Hampshire during the colonial period, which royal authorities had resolved in favor of New York. As State of New York continued to claim Vermont's territory under that ruling after independence, the Continental Congress never recognized Vermont as an independent state. In 1790, after negotiating the common boundary between the two states and Vermont had agreed to pay New York $30,000, New York relinquished its land grant claim and consented to Vermont becoming part of the Union. Vasan Kesavan and Michael Stokes Paulsen assert that "although Vermont was admitted into the Union with New York's consent, it is not at all clear that New York's consent was constitutionally necessary. While Vermont was within the territory claimed by New York, the preponderance of evidence suggests that Vermont was not within the jurisdiction of New York."[4]

The following is a list of substantive proposals, both successful and unsuccessful, put forward since the nation's founding to partition or set off a portion of an existing U.S. state or states so that the region might either join another state or create a new state. Proposals to secede from the Union and proposals to create states from either organized incorporated or unorganized U.S. territories are not included. Land cessions made by several individual states to the federal government in the 18th and the 19th centuries also are not listed.

Arizona

California

Main article: Partition and secession in California

Colorado

2013 election results: counties in orange voted to separate from Colorado, while counties in blue rejected the idea.
2013 election results: counties in orange voted to separate from Colorado, while counties in blue rejected the idea.

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Kansas

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

During the American Civil War of 1861–65, in Jones County, Mississippi, Newton Knight, a deserter from the Confederate army, organized a militia of fellow deserters and escaped slaves and declared Jones County to be the Free State of Jones. They successfully prevented Confederate authorities from enforcing conscription, taxation, and slavery within the county, and hoped for admission to the United States as a new state.

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

Main article: Partition and secession in New York

Proposed map of an independent Long Island and New York City
Proposed map of an independent Long Island and New York City

North Carolina

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Main article: Texas divisionism

Utah

Vermont

Main article: Killington, Vermont secession movement

Virginia

Washington

Wisconsin

Wyoming

See also

References

  1. ^ Maier, Pauline (2010). Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787–1788. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 361.
  2. ^ Forte, David F. "Essays on Article IV: New States Clause". The Heritage Guide to the Constitution. The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  3. ^ "The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Centennial Edition, Interim Edition: Analysis of Cases Decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 26, 2013" (PDF). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2013. pp. 16–17. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Kesavan, Vasan; Paulsen, Michael Stokes (2002). "Is West Virginia Unconstitutional?". California Law Review. California Law Review at Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository. 90 (2): 395. doi:10.15779/Z384B06. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  5. ^ Harrison, Lowell H. (1992). Kentucky's Road to Statehood. The University of Kentucky Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8131-1782-8. Archived from the original on February 21, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
  6. ^ "Today in History: March 15". loc.gov. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
  7. ^ Michael P. Riccards, "Lincoln and the Political Question: The Creation of the State of West Virginia" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997 online edition Archived June 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Bodfield, Rhonda; Kelly, Andrea (February 5, 2011). "Could Baja Arizona be 51st state in US?". Arizona Daily Star. Archived from the original on April 3, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2011.
  9. ^ Poole, Brad (May 10, 2011). "Liberals in southern Arizona seek to form new state". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  10. ^ Robbins, Ted (May 9, 2011). "A 51st State? Some In Arizona Want A Split". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on October 24, 2013. Retrieved June 9, 2013.
  11. ^ "Huerfano County: Land of Legend & J. F. Coss". Archived from the original on May 29, 2005. Retrieved April 11, 2005.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ Colorado Joint Legislative Library. "Legislator Record for Taylor, Samuel Tesitore". Archived from the original on May 18, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
  13. ^ Rabson, Diane. "NCAR and UCAR: History in short, Part II". NCAR/UCAR - University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
  14. ^ Quillen, Ed (September 1999). "San Luis Valley, 2nd edition, by Virginia McConnell Simmons - Review". Colorado Central Magazine (67): 37. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007.
  15. ^ Monte Whaley (June 9, 2013). "Weld County Floats Secession". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  16. ^ Dylan Stableford (July 11, 2013). "Northern Colorado wants to secede from Colorado". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on July 12, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  17. ^ "Effort To Create New State Called 'North Colorado' Grows". CBS Denver. July 9, 2013. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  18. ^ Romano, Analisa (June 6, 2013). "Weld County commissioners propose formation of new state, North Colorado". The Greeley Tribune. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  19. ^ Alan Silverleib and Ashley Killough (November 6, 2013). "Election Results 2013: Gov. Christie And More". CNN. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  20. ^ Victoria A.F. Camron and Monte Whaley (November 5, 2013). "Weld County voters like Colorado, reject secessionist proposal". Longmont Times-Call. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  21. ^ Huriash, Lisa J. (May 6, 2008). "North Lauderdale wants to split Florida into two states". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
  22. ^ Cutway, Adrienne (October 21, 2014). "Officials want South Florida to break off into its own state". Sun-Sentinel.com. Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  23. ^ In Pierce County, hard times and a push to “secede” from Georgia Archived December 6, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, Atlanta Journal-Constitution
  24. ^ Merle W. Wells. "Territorial Government in the Inland Empire: The Movement to Create Columbia Territory, 1864-69." Archived October 18, 2020, at the Wayback Machine The Pacific Northwest Quarterly. Vol. 44, No. 2 (April 1953), pp. 80-87.
  25. ^ "North Idaho People Want a New State Called Lincoln". The Spokesman Review. Spokane, Washington. February 22, 1913. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
  26. ^ Trinklein, Michael J. (2010). Lost States: True Stories of Texlahoma, Transylvania, and Other States That Never Made It. Quirk Books. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-59474-410-5.
  27. ^ "Some Oregonians Want To Leave And Take Part Of The State To Idaho With Them". NPR. Washington, D.C. February 24, 2020. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  28. ^ "Ballot-initiative effort to move eastern Oregon counties to Idaho gains momentum; leader calls it 'peaceful revolution'". The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon. February 17, 2020. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  29. ^ Merzbach, Hanna (November 9, 2020). "Movement to form 'Greater Idaho' gains steam as two rural Oregon counties vote to consider joining Idaho". KGW8 News. Archived from the original on November 10, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  30. ^ Sahakian, Teny (November 18, 2020). "Rural Oregon counties vote to discuss seceding from state to join 'Greater Idaho'". Fox News. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  31. ^ "Idaho lawmakers hear pitch to absorb three-fourths of Oregon". The Oregonian. Associated Press. April 12, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  32. ^ a b Oregonian/OregonLive, Douglas Perry | The (May 19, 2021). "More Oregon counties vote to consider joining Idaho, part of rural effort to 'gain political refuge from blue states'". oregonlive. Retrieved May 20, 2021.
  33. ^ Wyman, Mark (December 24, 2011). "Moving the borders: Goodbye Chicago | The Illinois North-South split". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
  34. ^ Lowry, Thomas Power (1997). "General Logan Can Kiss My Ass - Colonel Frank L. Rhodes". Tarnished eagles: The Court-Martial of Fifty Union Colonels and Lieutenant Colonels. Stackpole Books. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8117-1597-3. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  35. ^ "The History of Southern Illinois - The Civil War and Late 19th Century". Egyptian Area Agency on Aging. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012.
  36. ^ Lupton, John. "June 23–29, 2003". Illinois Political Journal.
  37. ^ Erwin 2007, p. 51
  38. ^ "2 GOP legislators propose separating Cook County from Illinois". The State Journal-Register. November 22, 2011. Archived from the original on November 26, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
  39. ^ "HR0101 - CHICAGO-51ST STATE". Illinois General Assembly. February 7, 2019. Archived from the original on February 13, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  40. ^ Vasilogambros, Matt (May 14, 2019). "Behind the Movement to Kick Chicago Out of Illinois". Stateline. The Pew Charitable Trusts. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  41. ^ Overby, Peter (December 1992). "We're outta here!". Common Cause Magazine. 18 (4): 23. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  42. ^ Kauffman, Bill (March 1995). "Smaller Is Beautifuller". The American Enterprise. p. 37. Archived from the original on February 14, 2007.
  43. ^ Carrier, Paul (March 2, 2005). "Bill calls for close look at secession". Maine Today. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007.
  44. ^ a b Michael J. Trinklein (May 2, 2010). "Altered states: The strange history of efforts to redraw the New England map". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  45. ^ Partlow, Joshua (April 18, 2005). "Academic Quest Puts Credibility on Line". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
  46. ^ Gosier, Chris (February 20, 1998). "Would-be Secessionists Dream Up the State of Delmarva". Capital News Service. Archived from the original on March 10, 2014.
  47. ^ Lincoln, Taylor (March 5, 1998). "Officials On Both Side Of D.C. Border Shun Retrocession". Capital News Service. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved January 9, 2006.
  48. ^ Stern, Nicholas C. (March 17, 2010). "Commissioners reject proposal to secede from state". The Frederick News-Post. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  49. ^ Bubala, Mary (February 10, 2014). "Some Western Maryland Residents Want To Form Their Own State". CBS Local. Baltimore: CBS Radio. Archived from the original on February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  50. ^ ((cite news |https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/22/us/politics/maryland-counties-west-virginia-request.html
  51. ^ a b "History of Several States and U.S. Territories". TheGreenPapers.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  52. ^ Woodard, Colin (August 31, 2010). "Parallel 44: Origins of the Mass Effect". The Working Waterfront. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  53. ^ Woodard, Colin (2004). The Lobster Coast: Rebels, Rusticators and the Forgotten Frontier. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-670-03324-3.
  54. ^ "Maine History (Statehood)". www.maine.gov. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
  55. ^ Tuttleton, James W. (February 1994). "The many lives of Frederick Douglass". The New Criterion. 12 (6). Archived from the original on December 17, 2005.
  56. ^ Seccombe, Mike (September–October 2007). "Talkin' About a Revolution". Martha's Vineyard Magazine. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011.
  57. ^ Regan, Eulalie (ed.). "Statehood". Vineyard Gazette Online. Archived from the original on March 28, 2006.
  58. ^ "51st State". NBC Evening News. August 8, 1975. NBC. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010 – via Vanderbilt Television News Archive.
  59. ^ "Cass Commission Head Backs Linkup with Indiana". South Bend Tribune. October 25, 1979. Retrieved June 26, 2021 – via Newspapers.com.
  60. ^ "New state convention". Superior Chronicle. August 3, 1858. p. 3.
  61. ^ "A new state: Ontonagon". The New York Times. April 6, 1858. p. 4. Archived from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  62. ^ "HF 2423 as introduced - 92nd Legislature (2021 - 2022)". Office of the Revisor of Statutes. March 25, 2021.
  63. ^ "Join SD, ND, WI or IA".
  64. ^ @govkristinoem (March 25, 2021). "In South Dakota, we roll out the red..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  65. ^ Forster, Louis. "MacDonald Territory". Archived from the original on July 17, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
  66. ^ "Missouri County in "Secession" Move". Oshkosh Daily Northwestern. April 11, 1961.
  67. ^ a b c d Trinklein, Michael J. (2010). Lost States: True Stories of Texlahoma, Transylvania, and Other States That Never Made It. Quirk Books. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-59474-410-5.
  68. ^ a b Johnson, Kirk (July 24, 2008). "A State That Never Was in Wyoming". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  69. ^ a b Florence, Mason; Gierlich, Marisa; Nystrom, Andrew Dean, eds. (2001). Lonely Planet Rocky Mountains: Colorado, Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. p. 413. ISBN 9781864503272. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  70. ^ "Series III, Box 4: Artifacts, circa 1917-circa 1939". Inventory of the H.H. Horton papers, 1897-1960. University of Wyoming. American Heritage Center. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  71. ^ Manley, Robert, ed. (May 1999). "A Divided Nebraska - from Thinking About The Future". Buffalo Commons Storytelling. Archived from the original on July 20, 2006.
  72. ^ Williams, Jordan (December 11, 2020). "Pseudo states 'New California' and 'New Nevada' back Texas election lawsuit". The Hill. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
  73. ^ Daniell, Jere (1976). "The American Republic: 1760-1870 - The Western Rebellion". New Hampshire Profile. The Flow of History (Special Issue). Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved April 11, 2005.
  74. ^ "Troublesome Grants" (PDF). New Hampshire Minute Man. Derry, New Hampshire. March 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2007.
  75. ^ "Newington Archives - News 2001 - Courts Divided on Shaheen Statewide Property Tax". Newington official website. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  76. ^ "South Jersey voted to secede from NJ". Asbury Park Press. March 5, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  77. ^ Roberts, Sam (November 14, 2007). "Podcast: Remembering Mailer for Mayor". City Room weblog. The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  78. ^ Breslin, Jimmy (May 5, 1969). "I Run to Win" (PDF). New York. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
  79. ^ "James Day, 89". Current. May 12, 2008. Archived from the original on April 3, 2010.
  80. ^ Tierney, John (May 24, 1999). "The Big City; The Moochers From Upstate? Cut 'Em Loose". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 19, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  81. ^ Brand, Rick (March 27, 2007). "Long Island: The 51st state?". Newsday. Archived from the original on March 31, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2008.
  82. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (September 22, 2007). "What Has the Hamptons, 4 Airports and a Hankering for Independence?". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  83. ^ Goldstein, David (September 22, 2007). "Staking a claim for the .ILI TLD". DomainPulse.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  84. ^ Haberman, Clyde (April 30, 2009). "Trying Again and Again to Secede". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  85. ^ Tagliaferro, Linda (May 6, 2009). "Should Long Island Become A State?". About.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  86. ^ Yashlavsky, Andrey (May 6, 2009). "Разъединенные Штаты Америки" [The Disunited States of America]. Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian). Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  87. ^ Terreri, Jill (November 28, 2009). "Split New York state? Robach wants to know what counties think". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  88. ^ McCarthy, Jimmy (February 20, 2015). Another bill aims to divide state Archived February 22, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. The Post-Journal (online version paywalled), page A-1. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  89. ^ Barrett, Wayne (October 14, 2010). "How Does Carl Paladino Get the 'Tea Party' Tag After Teabagging the Tea Partiers?". The Village Voice. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  90. ^ George, Eli (March 30, 2010). "Will former Bill make a run for office?". WIVB-TV. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  91. ^ Goggin, Caroline (February 18, 2015). "Southern Tier towns looking to cut NY ties". WBNG. Binghamton, New York. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  92. ^ "Some Oregonians Want To Leave And Take Part Of The State To Idaho With Them". NPR. Washington, D.C. February 24, 2020. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  93. ^ "Ballot-initiative effort to move eastern Oregon counties to Idaho gains momentum; leader calls it 'peaceful revolution'". The Oregonian. Portland, Oregon. February 17, 2020. Archived from the original on February 26, 2020. Retrieved February 26, 2020.
  94. ^ Mathis, Joel (July 1, 2013). "Philadelphia, Let's Secede from Pennsylvania". Philadelphia Magazine. Archived from the original on December 25, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  95. ^ Sonnenfeld, Marc J. (December 27, 1989). "Philadelphia Should Secede from Pennsylvania and Join New Jersey". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 28, 2015. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
  96. ^ "Block Islanders ride Great Moped Battle to brink of secession". Providence Journal. October 31, 1999. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011.
  97. ^ Erwin 2007, pp. 16–17
  98. ^ "Series III, Box 4: Artifacts, circa 1917-circa 1939". Inventory of the H.H. Horton papers, 1897-1960. University of Wyoming. American Heritage Center. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  99. ^ "Scott County, TN - History - Historical Landmarks: Scott County Veterans Memorial". Scott County, TN. Southern Appalachian Economic Development Partnership. Archived from the original on February 5, 2005.
  100. ^ Erwin, James L. "Footnotes to History - U to Z - Van Zandt, Free State Of". Footnotes to History. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012.
  101. ^ "Home - History - American - The Great Divide". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  102. ^ Eddington, Mark (November 23, 2002), "Wendovers' Leaders Will Consider Next Move", The Salt Lake Tribune
  103. ^ Eddington, Mark (November 27, 2002), "Wendovers Press Ahead on Annexation", The Salt Lake Tribune
  104. ^ Burr, Thomas (April 2, 2005), "Reid: Yucca should be junked", The Salt Lake Tribune, archived from the original on September 13, 2014, retrieved September 13, 2014
  105. ^ "Utah Legislature HJR006". Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  106. ^ "Residents In More Than 30 States File Secession Petitions". The Huffington Post. November 13, 2012. Archived from the original on September 13, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  107. ^ Tim McCahill (March 2, 2004). "Killington Votes to Join New Hampshire". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 3, 2018. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  108. ^ "Killington residents vote to leave Vermont". United Press International. March 2, 2005. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  109. ^ Keese, Susan (March 1, 2005). "Winhall rejects secession, still unhappy with Vermont". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on March 3, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  110. ^ "Constitution Square Historic Site". Danville/Boyle County Convention and Visitors Bureau.[permanent dead link]
  111. ^ "A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia, Chapter Twelve, Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation". Wvculture.org. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  112. ^ Curry, Richard O. Curry, A House Divided, A Study of the Statehood Politics and The Copperhead Movement in West Virginia, map on p. 49
  113. ^ Formation of West Virginia Archived March 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; West Virginia Encyclopedia online; accessed September 2014.
  114. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 30, 2013. Retrieved May 28, 2015.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) The Civil War in West Virginia: Conclusion
  115. ^ "Virginia v. West Virginia 78 U.S. 39 (1870)". Justia.com. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  116. ^ "Will Northern Virginia Become the 51st State?". Washingtonian. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  117. ^ John M. McClelland Jr. (Summer 1988). "Almost Columbia, Triumphantly Washington". Columbia Magazine. 2 (2). Archived from the original on April 26, 2012.
  118. ^ John K. Wiley, 'Cascade Curtain' Symbol of a State's Split Personality Archived September 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press in Los Angeles Times, February 2, 1992.
  119. ^ Keith Eldridge, State-Splitting Measure Gets Its Day In The Legislature Archived August 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, KOMO News, February 22, 2005.
  120. ^ "HB 1818, 64th Legislature, 2015 Regular Session". Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  121. ^ "HB 1832, 64th Legislature, 2015 Regular Session". Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  122. ^ "HJM 4000, 65th Legislature, 2017 Regular Session". Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  123. ^ "Eastern Washington is threatening to split from state". MyNorthwest.com. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 8, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  124. ^ "HB 1509, 66th Legislature, 2019 Regular Session". Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  125. ^ "HJM 4003, 66th Legislature, 2019 Regular Session". Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on October 3, 2020. Retrieved May 8, 2019.
  126. ^ "The History of The Sovereign State of Winneconne - Map Makers Napping When They Should Have Been Mapping". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.
  127. ^ "The History of The Sovereign State of Winneconne - Sue for Peace". Sovereign State of Winneconne website. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved September 13, 2014.

Further reading