Flag of an Armylieutenant general
Flag of an Army
lieutenant general

This is a list of lieutenant generals in the United States Army from 1990 to 1999. The rank of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is the second-highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Army, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above major general (two-star general) and below general (four-star general).

There have been 146 lieutenant generals in the United States Army from 1990 to 1999, 28 of whom were promoted to four-star general. All 146 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army. Lieutenant generals entered the Army via several paths: 67 were commissioned via Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university, 42 via the U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 19 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 15 via ROTC at a senior military college, 2 via direct commission (direct), and one via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA).

List of generals

Entries in the following list of lieutenant generals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army or was promoted to four-star rank while on active duty in the U.S. Army. Each entry lists the general's name, date of rank,[a] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[b] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[c] year commissioned and source of commission,[d] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[e] and other biographical notes.[f]

List of U.S. Army lieutenant generals from 1990 to 1999
# Name Photo Date of rank[a] Position[b] Yrs[c] Commission[d] YC[e] Notes[f]
1 Charles P. Otstott
Lt Gen Charles Otstott.jpg
27 Jan 1990   2 1960 (USMA) 30 (1937–        )
2 James W. Crysel
Lt. Gen. James W. Crysel.jpg
27 Feb 1990   2 1959 (ROTC) 31 (1937–        )
3 Marvin D. Brailsford
Lt. Gen. Marvin D. Brailsford.jpg
11 Jun 1990   2 1959 (ROTC) 31 (1939–        )
* Dennis J. Reimer
Lt. Gen. Dennis J. Reimer.jpg
1 Jul 1990   1 1962 (USMA) 28 (1939–        )[g][h][i] Promoted to general, 21 Jun 1991.
4 Alonzo E. Short Jr.
Short-DA-SC-07-43885.jpeg
1 Jul 1990   4 1962 (ROTC) 28 (1939–        )
5 Michael F. Spigelmire
Lt. Gen. Michael F. Spigelmire.jpg
1 Jul 1990   2 1960 (ROTC)[1] 30 (1938–        ) Deputy Director of Operations, Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, 1996.[2]
6 Billy M. Thomas
Lt. Gen. Billy M. Thomas (2).jpg
9 Jul 1990   2 1962 (ROTC) 28 (1940–2016)[3]
7 William H. Reno
Reno-DA-SC-07-43810.jpeg
1 Aug 1990   2 1961 (USMA) 29 (1936–        )
8 Teddy G. Allen
Lieutenant General Teddy G. Allen, USA.jpg
1 Sep 1990   3 1958 (ROTC) 32 (1936–        )
* David M. Maddox
David M Maddox.jpg
9 Nov 1990  
  • Commanding General, V Corps, 1990–1992.
2 1960 (VMI) 30 (1938–        )[g] Promoted to general, 9 Jul 1992.
9 Robert D. Chelberg
MGEN Robert D. Chelberg, USA (uncovered).jpg
1 Jan 1991   2 1961 (USMA) 30 (1938–        )
10 William G. Pagonis
William Pagonis.jpg
7 Feb 1991   2 1964 (ROTC) 27 (1941–        )
11 James H. Johnson Jr.
James H. Johnson Jr., LTG, US Army (1992).jpg
30 May 1991   2 1960 (USMA) 31 (1937–        )
12 Harold T. Fields Jr.
Harold T. Fields.jpeg
5 Jun 1991   3 1960 (Citadel) 31 (1938–        )
13 James D. Starling
Lt. Gen. James D. Starling.jpg
17 Jun 1991   2 1960 (USMA) 31 (1936–2009)[4]
* J. H. Binford Peay III
General Binford Peay, official military photo, 1991.jpg
24 Jun 1991   2 1962 (VMI) 29 (1940–        )[h][g] Promoted to general, 26 Mar 1993. Superintendent, Virginia Military Institute, 2003–2020.
14 Merle Freitag
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Merle Freitag.jpg
1 Jul 1991   3 1962 (ROTC) 29 (1940–        )
* Ronald H. Griffith
Ronald H. Griffith.jpg
1 Aug 1991   4 1960 (ROTC) 31 (1936–2018)[h] Promoted to general, 6 Jun 1995.
15 Joseph S. Laposata
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Joseph S. Laposata.jpg
1 Aug 1991   2 1960 (ROTC) 31 (1938–2018)[5]
16 Horace G. Taylor
Horace G. Taylor.jpg
1 Aug 1991   2 1960 (ROTC) 31 (1937–        )[6]
* Wayne A. Downing
Wayne A. Downing MG 1988.jpg
5 Aug 1991   2 1962 (USMA) 29 (1940–2007)[g] Promoted to general, 20 May 1993. Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism, 2001–2002.
17 Wilson A. Shoffner Sr.
Lt. Gen. Wilson A. Shoffner, Sr. (full length).jpg
16 Aug 1991   2 1961 (ROTC) 30 (1938–2014) Father of Army major general Wilson A. Shoffner Jr.
18 Peter A. Kind
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Peter A. Kind.jpg
21 Aug 1991  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Army Information Systems Command (CG USAISEC), 1991–1992.
  • Director, Information Systems for Command, Control, Communications and Computers (DISC4), 1992–1994.
3 1957 (ROTC) 34 (1939–        )
19 Paul G. Cerjan
Lt Gen Paul G. Cerjan.jpg
1 Oct 1991   3 1960 (USMA) 31 (1938–2011)[7] Commandant, U.S. Army War College, 1989–1991; President, Regent University, 1998–2000.
20 Glynn C. Mallory Jr.
LTG Glynn C. Mallory Jr (cropped).jpg
1 Oct 1991   4 1961 (USMA) 30 (1939–2020)
21 Ira C. Owens
Ira C Owens.jpg
1 Dec 1991  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Army Staff (DCSINT), 1991–1995.
4 1960 (OCS) 31 (1936–        )
22 Neal T. Jaco
Lt. Gen. Neal T. Jaco.jpg
1 Dec 1991   3 1959 (ROTC) 32 (1937–        )
23 Carmen J. Cavezza
Cavezza-DA-SC-07-26242.jpeg
1 Dec 1991   3 1961 (Citadel) 30 (1937–        )
24 Samuel N. Wakefield
Lt. Gen. Samuel N. Wakefield.png
9 Jan 1992   2 1960 (Citadel) 32 (1938–        )
25 Charles E. Dominy
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Charles E. Dominy.jpg
1 Feb 1992   3 1962 (USMA)[8] 30 (1940–        )
26 Jerome H. Granrud
Granrud-DA-SC-07-25682.jpeg
1 Feb 1992   2 1960 (ROTC) 32 (1937–2020)
27 Thomas P. Carney
Carney-DA-SC-07-26244.jpeg
3 Mar 1992   2 1963 (USMA) 29 (1941–2019)
* Barry R. McCaffrey
Barry McCaffrey, official military photo as lieutenant general.jpg
19 Jun 1992   2 1964 (USMA) 28 (1942–        )[g] Promoted to general, 17 Feb 1994. Director, National Drug Control Policy, 1996–2001.
* William W. Crouch
William W Crouch.jpg
3 Jul 1992   3 1963 (ROTC) 29 (1941–        )[g][h] Promoted to general, 1 Jan 1995.
28 Jerry R. Rutherford Jr.
LTG Jerry R. Rutherford.jpg
3 Jul 1992  
  • Commanding General, V Corps, 1992–1995.
3 1962 (ROTC) 30 (c. 1943        )
29 James R. Ellis
LTG James R. Ellis Jr.jpg
17 Jul 1992   2 1962 (USMA) 30 (1937–        )
30 Alfred J. Mallette
Lt. Gen. Alfred J. Mallette.jpg
22 Jul 1992   2 1961 (ROTC) 31 (1938–1994)[9] Died in office.
31 Samuel E. Ebbesen
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Samuel E. Ebbesen.jpg
3 Aug 1992  
  • Commanding General, Second U.S. Army, 1992–1994.
  • Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Personnel Policy, 1994–1997.
5 1961 (ROTC) 31 (1938–        )
32 Leo J. Pigaty
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. Leo A. Pigaty Commander, Defense Industrial Supply Center (Uncovered) (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Russell F. Roederer) (Released) (PC-191987).jpg
13 Aug 1992   2 1961 (ROTC) 31 (1940–        )
33 Daniel R. Schroeder
Brig. Gen. Daniel R. Schroeder, USA.jpg
16 Aug 1992   3 1961 (USNA) 31 (1938–        )
34 Donald M. Lionetti [de]
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Donald M. Lionetti.jpg
24 Aug 1992   2 1961 (USMA) 31 (1940–2019)
35 William H. Forster Sr.
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. William H. Forster.jpg
28 Aug 1992   3 1960 (ROTC) 32 (1939–        )
36 Arthur E. Williams
Arthur E. Williams.JPEG
1 Sep 1992   4 1960 (ROTC) 32 (1938–        )
37 Alcide M. Lanoue
AMLanoue.jpeg
8 Sep 1992   4 1957 (ROTC) 35 (1934–2021)[10]
* John H. Tilelli Jr.
LT. GEN. John H. Tilelli Jr., USA (uncovered).jpg
26 Mar 1993   1 1963 (PMC)[j] 30 (1941–        )[h][g] Promoted to general, 19 Jul 1994.
38 Marvin L. Covault
Lt. Gen. Marvin L. Covault.jpg
21 May 1993   2 1962 (ROTC) 31 (1940–        )
39 James T. Scott
Lt. Gen. James T. Scott.jpg
1 Jun 1993   3 1964 (Texas A&M) 29 (1942–        )
* H. Hugh Shelton
General Henry Shelton, official military photo, 1987.JPEG
7 Jun 1993   3 1964 (ROTC) 29 (1942–        )[g][k] Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1996. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 2002.
40 Richard F. Keller
Portrait of U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Richard F. Keller, USA.jpg
1 Jul 1993   3 1961 (ROTC) 32 (c. 1942        )
41 John E. Miller
LTG John E. Miller.jpg
1 Aug 1993   4 1963 (ROTC) 30 (1941–        )
* William W. Hartzog
Lt. Gen. William W. Hartzog.jpg
6 Aug 1993[11] 1 1963 (Citadel) 30 (1941–2020) Promoted to general, 1 Dec 1994.
42 Thomas G. Rhame
Portrait of Maj. Gen. Thomas G. Rhame, USA.jpg
1 Sep 1993   4 1963 (ROTC) 30 (1941–        )
43 Kenneth R. Wykle
Kenneth R Wykle.png
1 Oct 1993   2 1963 (ROTC) 30 (1941–        ) Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, 1997–2001.
44 Daniel W. Christman
Lt. Gen. Daniel W. Christman (USMA).gif
1 Oct 1993   8 1965 (USMA) 28 (1943–        )
45 John P. Otjen
John P. Otjen (U.S. Army General) 2.jpg
1 Oct 1993   2 1964 (USMA) 29 (1942–        )
46 Paul E. Funk
Portrait of U.S. Army Maj. Gen. Paul E. Funk.jpg
1 Nov 1993   2 1961 (ROTC) 32 (1940–        ) Father of Army four-star general Paul E. Funk II.
47 Robert L. Ord III
57-ord l.jpg
19 Nov 1993   3 1962 (USMA) 31 (1940–        )
48 Malcolm R. O'Neill
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Malcolm R. O
1 Dec 1993   3 1962 (ROTC) 31 (1940–        ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology, 2010–2011.
* Johnnie E. Wilson
LT. GEN. Johnnie E. Wilson, USA (uncovered).jpg
9 Feb 1994  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Logistics, Army Staff (DCSLOG), 1994–1996.
2 1967 (OCS) 27 (1944–        ) Promoted to general, 1 May 1996.
49 Marc A. Cisneros
Lt. Gen. Marc A. Cisneros.png
1 Mar 1994   2 1961 (ROTC) 33 (1939–        )
* Wesley K. Clark
General Wesley Clark, official military photo, 1996.JPEG
4 Apr 1994   2 1966 (USMA) 28 (1944–        )[g][l] Promoted to general, 21 Jun 1996. Candidate for Democratic Party nomination for U.S. President, 2004. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2000.
* John G. Coburn
Portrait of US Army Lieutenant General John G. Coburn (uncovered).jpg
15 Jul 1994   5 1963 (ROTC) 31 (1941–        ) Promoted to general, 14 May 1999.
50 Steven L. Arnold
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Steven L. Arnold.jpg
19 Jul 1994   3 1962 (USMA) 32 (1940–        )
51 Paul E. Blackwell Sr.
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Paul E. Blackwell.jpg
1 Aug 1994   2 1965 (ROTC)[m] 29 (1941–        )
52 Caryl G. Marsh
C. G. Marsh (US Army lieutenant general).jpg
1 Aug 1994   2 1962 (ROTC) 32 (1939–2013)[12]
* David A. Bramlett
David A Bramlett.jpg
23 Sep 1994   2 1964 (USMA) 30 (1941–        ) Promoted to general, 1 Sep 1996.
53 Theodore G. Stroup Jr.
Stroup-DA-SC-07-39750.jpeg
26 Sep 1994   2 1962 (USMA) 32 (1940–        )
54 Jay M. Garner
Portrait of U. S. Army Lt. Gen. Jay M. Garner.jpg
26 Sep 1994   3 1962 (ROTC) 32 (1938–        ) Director, Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, 2003.
55 Thomas M. Montgomery
Portrait-of-us-army-lt-gen-thomas-m-montgomery-uncovered-united-states-military-849f34 (1).jpg
7 Oct 1994   3 1963 (ROTC) 31 (1941–        )
56 Richard F. Timmons
U.S. Army LT. Gen. Richard F. Timmons Commander, 7th Infantry Division (Uncovered).jpg
19 Oct 1994   3 1965 (VMI) 29 (1942–        )
57 Edward D. Baca
Edward D. Baca.JPEG
1 Nov 1994   4 1962 (OCS) 32 (1938–2020) First Hispanic to be chief of the National Guard Bureau.
58 Otto J. Guenther
Lt. Gen. Otto J. Guenther (2).jpg
1 Jan 1995  
  • Director, Information Systems for Command, Control, Communications and Computers (DISC4), 1995–1997.
2 1963 (ROTC) 32 (1941–2021)[13]
59 Paul E. Menoher Jr.
Paul E Menoher.jpg
10 Feb 1995  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Army Staff (DCSINT), 1995–1997.
2 1961 (ROTC) 34 (1939–2020)
* John N. Abrams
John N. Abrams.JPEG
6 Apr 1995   3 1967 (OCS) 28 (1946–2018) Promoted to general, 14 Sep 1998. Son of Army four-star general Creighton Abrams and brother of Army four-star general Robert B. Abrams.
60 Guy A. J. LaBoa
Guy A. J. LaBoa (US Army Lieutenant General).png
12 May 1995   2 1962 (ROTC) 33 (1939–        )
61 Robert E. Gray
LTG Robert E. Gray.jpg
25 May 1995   2 1966 (OCS) 29 (1941–2011)[14]
62 Ronald V. Hite
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. Ronald V. Hite, (Uncovered), (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Scott Davis) (Released) (PC-192487) - DPLA - 218aac94e075f3c232c705194b431020.jpg
26 May 1995   2 1964 (ROTC) 31 (1943–        )
63 George A. Fisher Jr.
George A. Fisher, Jr. (MG).png
9 Jun 1995   4 1964 (USMA) 31 (1942–        )
64 William G. Carter III
Lt. Gen. William G. Carter III.jpg
15 Jun 1995   2 1965 (OCS) 30 (c. 1946        )
65 Leonard D. Holder Jr.
Leonard D. Holder, Jr.jpg
19 Jul 1995   2 1966 (Texas A&M) 29 (1944–        )
66 John A. Dubia
Lt. Gen. John A. Dubia (2).jpg
8 Aug 1995   4 1966 (USMA) 29 (1943–        )
67 Jared L. Bates
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. Jared L. Bates, (Uncovered), (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Scott Davis) (Released) (PC-192893).jpg
8 Aug 1995   2 1964 (ROTC) 31 Coordinator of Operations, Office for Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance, 2003.
68 Hubert G. Smith
Lt. Gen. Hubert G. Smith.jpg
1 Sep 1995   2 1962 (ROTC) 33 (1941–        )
* Thomas A. Schwartz
General Thomas A. Schwartz (1998).jpg
6 Dec 1995   3 1967 (USMA) 28 (1945–        )[g] Promoted to general, 31 Aug 1998.
69 Patrick M. Hughes
Patrick M Hughes.jpg
12 Feb 1996   3 1968 (ROTC) 28 (1942–        ) U.S. Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for Information Analysis, 2003–2005.
* John M. Keane
Lt. Gen. John M. Keane.gif
23 Feb 1996   3 1966 (ROTC) 30 (1943–        )[h] Promoted to general, 22 Jan 1999. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2020.
70 John J. Cusick
John Cusick.JPG
22 Apr 1996   2 1964 (ROTC) 32 (1942–        )
71 Dennis L. Benchoff
LTG Dennis L. Benchoff.jpg
1 Jul 1996   2 1962 (USMA) 34 (1939–        )
72 William M. Steele
William M Steele.jpg
11 Jul 1996   5 1967 (Citadel) 29 (1945–        )
73 Joseph E. DeFrancisco
Portrait of U.S. Army Brig. Gen. Joseph E. DeFrancisco.jpg
15 Jul 1996   2 1965 (USMA) 31 (1942–        )
74 Joseph W. Kinzer
Lt. Gen. Joseph W. Kinzer.jpg
17 Jul 1996   2 1964 (OCS) 32 (1939–        )
* Eric K. Shinseki
MAJ. GEN. Eric K. Shinseki, USA (uncovered).jpg
5 Aug 1996  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations and Plans, Army Staff (DCSOPS), 1996–1997.
1 1965 (USMA) 31 (1942–        )[h][i] Promoted to general, 5 Aug 1997. U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs, 2009–2014. First Asian-American to achieve the rank of general in the Army.
75 David L. Benton III
Portrait of U.S. Army Brig. Gen. David L. Benton, USA.jpg
9 Aug 1996   2 1961 (USMA) 35 (c. 1942        )
* Peter J. Schoomaker
Lt. Gen. Peter J. Schoomaker.jpg
22 Aug 1996   1 1969 (ROTC) 27 (1946–        )[g][i][n] Promoted to general, 4 Oct 1997. Brother of Army lieutenant general Eric Schoomaker.
76 Joe N. Ballard
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Joe N. Ballard, Chief of Engineers and Commander, US Army Corps of Engineers.jpg
20 Sep 1996   4 1965 (ROTC) 31 (1942–        ) First African-American to serve as Chief of Engineers.
77 Edward G. Anderson III
LTG Edward G. Anderson III (2).jpg
1 Oct 1996   7 1966 (USMA) 30 (c. 1947        )
78 Ronald R. Blanck
Lt. Gen. Ronald R. Blanck.jpg
1 Oct 1996   4 1968 (direct) 28 (1941–        ) President, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 2002–2006.
79 Douglas D. Buchholz
Lt. Gen. Douglas D. Buchholz.jpg
14 Oct 1996  
  • Director, Command, Control, Communications and Computers, Joint Staff, J6, 1996–1998.
2 1968 (ROTC) 28 (1946–2003)
80 Frederick E. Vollrath
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Frederick E. Vollrath.jpg
1 Nov 1996   2 1962 (ROTC) 34 (1940–2017) U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Readiness and Force Management, 2012–2014.
81 George A. Crocker
Lt. Gen. George A. Crocker.jpg
1 Dec 1996   3 1966 (USMA) 30 (1943–        )
* Tommy R. Franks
Gen. Tommy Franks CENTCOM.jpg
30 May 1997   3 1967 (OCS) 30 (1945–        )[g] Promoted to general, 6 Jul 2000. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2004.
82 Claudia J. Kennedy
Claudia J Kennedy.jpg
30 May 1997  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Intelligence, Army Staff (DCSINT), 1997–2000.
3 1969 (direct) 28 (1947–        ) Chair, Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services, 2010–2011. First woman to achieve the rank of lieutenant general in the Army.
* Montgomery C. Meigs
Montgomery Meigs.jpg
1 Jun 1997   1 1967 (USMA) 30 (1945–2021) Promoted to general, 10 Nov 1998. Director, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, 2005–2007. Distant cousin of Navy four-star admiral Montgomery M. Taylor and great-great-great grandnephew of Montgomery C. Meigs.
83 David J. Kelley
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. David J. Kelley, (Uncovered), (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Scott Davis) (Released) (PC-192858).jpg
27 Jun 1997   3 1966 (USMA) 31 (1943–2021)
84 Henry T. Glisson
Lt. Gen. Henry T. Glisson.jpg
27 Jun 1997   3 1966 (ROTC) 31 (1944–        )
* Paul J. Kern
Paul J. Kern, official military photo portrait, 1997.JPEG
1 Jul 1997   4 1967 (USMA) 30 (1945–        ) Promoted to general, 30 Oct 2001.
85 David K. Heebner
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. David K. Heebner.jpg
1 Jul 1997  
  • Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (AVCSA), 1997–1999.
2 1967 (ROTC) 30 (1945–        )
86 Richard A. Chilcoat
Lt. Gen. Richard A. Chilcoat.jpg
25 Jul 1997   3 1964 (USMA) 33 (1938–2010) Commandant, U.S. Army War College, 1994–1997; Dean, Bush School of Government and Public Service, 2002–2010.
* John W. Hendrix
Portrait of U.S. Army MAJ. Gen. John W. Hendrix (Uncovered).jpg
31 Jul 1997  
  • Commanding General, V Corps, 1997–1999.
2 1965 (ROTC) 32 (1942–        ) Promoted to general, 23 Nov 1999.
87 William H. Campbell
Lt. Gen. William H. Campbell.jpg
1 Aug 1997  
  • Army Chief Information Officer/G-6/Military Deputy to the Army Acquisition Executive/Director, Information Systems for Command, Control, Communications and Computers (CIO/G-6/MILDEP-AAC/DISC4), 1997–2000.
3 1962 (ROTC) 35 (1940–        )
88 Robert S. Coffey
LTG Robert S. Coffey.jpg
1 Aug 1997   2 1966 (ROTC) 31 (c. 1947        )
89 Randolph W. House
Randolph W. House (US Army Portrait).jpeg
1 Aug 1997   3 1968 (Texas A&M) 29 (c. 1949        )
90 Michael S. Davison Jr.
LT. Gen. Michael S. Davison, Jr., PC-192890.jpg
22 Aug 1997   3 1964 (USMA) 33 (c. 1947        ) Son of Army four-star general Michael S. Davison; great-aunt married Navy four-star admiral Arthur W. Radford.
91 Roger G. Thompson Jr.
Portrait of U.S. Army Maj. Gen. Roger G. Thompson Jr.jpg
30 Aug 1997   2 1966 (USMA) 31 (1942–        )
92 John M. Pickler
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. John M. Pickler CHIEF of STAFF, United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) (Uncovered).jpg
1 Oct 1997   4 1965 (USMA) 32 (1943–        )
93 William J. Bolt
Portrait of U.S. Army Maj. Gen. William J. Bolt (Uncovered).jpg
1 Oct 1997   2 1962 (ROTC) 35 (1940–        )
94 Thomas N. Burnette Jr.
Lt. Gen. Thomas N. Burnette promotion (Burnette portrait).jpg
1 Nov 1997   3 1968 (USMA) 29 (1944–2019)
95 Larry R. Jordan
LTG Larry R Jordan.jpg
1 Nov 1997   2 1968 (USMA) 29 (1946–        )
96 Jack P. Nix Jr.
BG Jack Nix (cropped).jpg
5 Nov 1997   3 1969 (ROTC) 28 (1947–        )[16]
97 John M. McDuffie
Lt. Gen. John M. McDuffie.jpg
2 Mar 1998   3 1970 (OCS) 28 (c. 1945        )
98 William P. Tangney
Lt. Gen. William P. Tangney.jpg
3 Mar 1998   4 1967 (Citadel) 31 (1945–        )
* William F. Kernan
Lt. Gen. William F. Kernan.gif
12 Mar 1998   2 1968 (OCS) 30 (1946–        )[g] Promoted to general, Jul 2000.
99 James M. Link
Lt. Gen. James M. Link.jpg
30 Jul 1998   2 1967 (OCS) 31 (1942–        )
100 Robert F. Foley
Lt. Gen. Robert F. Foley.jpg
30 Jul 1998   2 1963 (USMA) 35 (1941–        ) President, Marion Military Institute, 2000–2004. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1968.
* Leon J. LaPorte
Leon J. LaPorte - official portrait, 1998.JPEG
7 Aug 1998[17] 4 1968 (ROTC) 30 (1946–        )[g] Promoted to general, 1 May 2002.
101 David S. Weisman
Portrait of U.S. Army LT. Gen. David S. Weisman, U.S. Military Representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Military Committee (Uncovered).jpg
25 Sep 1998   3 1967 (OCS) 31 (1946–        )
102 Daniel J. Petrosky
Daniel J. Petrosky (US Army general).jpg
25 Sep 1998   4 1967 (OCS) 31 (1944–        )
103 David H. Ohle
Ohle-DA-SC-07-34002.jpeg
27 Sep 1998   2 1968 (USMA) 30 (1944–        )
104 John P. Costello
LTG John P. Costello.jpg
1 Oct 1998[18] 3 1969 (Citadel) 29 (1947–2010)
105 Edwin P. Smith
Edwin P Smith.jpg
1 Oct 1998   4 1967 (USMA) 31 (1945–        ) Director, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2005–2011.
106 Ronald E. Adams
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Ronald E. Adams.jpg
10 Oct 1998   4 1965 (ROTC) 33 (1943–        )
107 James C. King
Portrait of U.S. Army Lt. Gen. James C. King.jpg
10 Oct 1998   3 1968 (ROTC) 30 (1946–        )
108 Michael L. Dodson
Lt. Gen. Michael L. Dodson.jpg
10 Oct 1998   5 1968 (OCS) 30 (1945–        ) Member of the Kansas House of Representatives from the 67th District, 2021–present.
109 Randall L. Rigby Jr.
Lt. Gen. Randall L. Rigby, Jr. (cropped).jpg
10 Oct 1998   2 1968 (ROTC) 30 (1945–        )
110 Michael A. Canavan
Lt. Gen. Michael Canavan (cropped 2).jpg
1 Nov 1998   3 1967 (OCS)[19] 31 Associate Administrator for Aviation Safety, 2000–2001. Husband of former diplomat Katherine Canavan.
111 Michael W. Ackerman
LTG Michael Ackerman.jpg
30 Jul 1999   3 1966 (OCS) 33 (c. 1944        )
112 Lawson W. Magruder III
Lt. Gen. Lawson W. Magruder III (2).jpg
30 Jul 1999   2 1969 (ROTC) 30 (1947–        )
113 Donald L. Kerrick
Lt. Gen. Donald L. Kerrick (1).jpg
1 Aug 1999   2 1971 (ROTC) 28 (1948–        )
114 John M. Riggs
Lt. Gen. John M. Riggs.jpg
1 Aug 1999  
  • Commanding General, First U.S. Army (CG FUSA), 1999–2001.
  • Director, Objective Force Task Force, 2001–2005.
6 1969 (OCS) 30 (1946–        )[p]
* Larry R. Ellis
Larry R Ellis.jpg
5 Aug 1999  
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations and Plans, Army Staff (DCSOPS), 1999–2001.
2 1969 (ROTC) 30 (1946–        ) Promoted to general, 19 Nov 2001.
115 Billy K. Solomon
BillySolomon.jpg
15 Sep 1999   3 1966 (ROTC) 33 (1944–        )
* James T. Hill
Lt. Gen. James T. Hill.jpg
30 Sep 1999[20] 3 1968 (ROTC) 31 (1946–        )[g] Promoted to general, 18 Aug 2002.
116 Daniel G. Brown
Lt. Gen. Daniel G. Brown.jpg
3 Oct 1999[21] 3 1968 (ROTC) 31 (c. 1949        )
* Kevin P. Byrnes
Kevin P. Byrnes.JPEG
1 Nov 1999   3 1969 (OCS) 30 (1950–        )[q] Promoted to general, 7 Nov 2002.
117 John A. Van Alstyne
Lt. Gen. John A. Van Alstyne (2).jpg
2 Nov 1999  
  • Deputy Commanding General, Initial Entry Training, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (DCG-IET TRADOC), 1999–2001.
  • Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Personnel Policy, 2001–2002.
3 1966 (Texas A&M) 33 (1946–        ) Commandant of the Corps of Cadets, Texas A&M University, 2002–2010.
118 James C. Riley
Portrait of U.S. Army Brig. Gen. James C. Riley (Uncovered) (U.S. Army photo by Mr. Russell F. Roederer) (Released) (PC-192015) - DPLA - 24f49e434a5c41c948387e56a805b2c8.jpeg
16 Nov 1999   4 1966 (OCS) 33 (c. 1948        )

Timeline

1990–1999

James C. RileyJohn A. Van AlstyneKevin P. ByrnesDaniel G. BrownJames T. HillBilly K. SolomonLarry R. EllisJohn M. RiggsDonald L. KerrickLawson W. Magruder IIIMichael W. AckermanMichael CanavanRandall L. Rigby Jr.Mike DodsonJames C. KingRonald E. AdamsEdwin P. SmithJohn P. CostelloDavid H. OhleDaniel J. PetroskyDavid S. WeismanLeon J. LaPorteRobert F. FoleyJames M. LinkWilliam F. KernanWilliam P. TangneyJohn M. McDuffieJack P. Nix Jr.Larry R. JordanThomas N. Burnette Jr.William J. BoltJohn M. PicklerRoger G. Thompson Jr.Michael S. Davison Jr.Randolph W. HouseRobert S. CoffeyWilliam H. Campbell (general)John W. HendrixRichard A. ChilcoatDavid K. HeebnerPaul J. KernHenry T. GlissonDavid J. KelleyMontgomery Meigs (born 1945)Claudia J. KennedyTommy FranksGeorge A. CrockerFrederick E. VollrathDouglas D. BuchholzRonald R. BlanckEdward G. Anderson IIIJoe N. BallardPeter SchoomakerDavid L. Benton IIIEric ShinsekiJoseph W. KinzerJoseph E. DeFranciscoWilliam M. SteeleDennis L. BenchoffJohn J. CusickJack KeanePatrick M. HughesThomas A. SchwartzHubert G. SmithJared L. BatesJohn A. DubiaLeonard D. Holder Jr.William G. Carter IIIGeorge A. Fisher Jr.Ronald V. HiteRobert E. GrayGuy A. J. LaBoaJohn N. AbramsPaul E. MenoherOtto J. GuentherEdward D. BacaRichard F. TimmonsThomas M. MontgomeryJay GarnerTheodore G. Stroup Jr.David A. BramlettCaryl G. MarshPaul E. BlackwellSteven L. ArnoldJohn G. CoburnWesley ClarkMarc A. CisnerosJohnnie E. WilsonMalcolm Ross O'NeillRobert L. Ord IIIPaul E. FunkJohn P. OtjenDaniel W. ChristmanKenneth R. WykleThomas G. RhameWilliam W. HartzogJohn E. Miller (general)Richard F. KellerHugh SheltonJames T. ScottMarvin L. CovaultJohn H. Tilelli Jr.Alcide M. LanoueArthur E. WilliamsWilliam H. ForsterDonald M. LionettiDaniel R. SchroederLeo J. PigatySamuel E. EbbesenAlfred J. MalletteJames R. EllisJerry R. RutherfordWilliam W. CrouchBarry R. McCaffreyThomas P. CarneyJerome H. GranrudCharles E. DominySamuel N. WakefieldCarmen J. CavezzaNeal T. JacoIra C. OwensGlynn MalloryPaul G. CerjanPeter A. KindWilson Allen ShoffnerWayne A. DowningHorace G. TaylorJoseph S. LaposataRonald H. GriffithMerle FreitagJ. H. Binford Peay IIIJames D. StarlingHarold T. Fields Jr.James H. Johnson Jr.William G. PagonisRobert D. ChelbergDavid M. MaddoxTeddy G. AllenWilliam H. RenoBilly M. ThomasMichael F. SpigelmireAlonzo E. Short Jr.Dennis ReimerMarvin D. BrailsfordJames W. CryselCharles P. OtstottIraq WarKosovo WarBosnian WarGulf WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)Cold War

History

See also: List of lieutenant generals in the United States Army before 1960

Quasi-War

George Washington

The rank of lieutenant general in the United States Army was established in 1798 when President John Adams commissioned George Washington in that grade to command the armies of the United States during the Quasi-War with France. The next year, Congress replaced the office of lieutenant general with that of General of the Armies of the United States but Washington died before accepting the new commission, remaining a lieutenant general until posthumously promoted to General of the Armies in 1976.[22]

Mexican War

Winfield Scott

In 1855 Congress rewarded the Mexican War service of Major General Winfield Scott by authorizing his promotion to brevet lieutenant general, to rank from March 29, 1847, the date of the Mexican surrender at the Siege of Veracruz.[23] As a lieutenant general only by brevet, Scott remained in the permanent grade of major general but was entitled to be paid as a lieutenant general from the date of his brevet commission, resulting in a public tussle with Secretary of War Jefferson Davis over the amount of backpay Scott was owed. Congress resolved all issues in Scott's favor once Davis left office in 1857, and allowed Scott to retire at full pay in 1861.[24]

Civil War

John M. Schofield

The grade of lieutenant general was revived in February 1864 to allow President Abraham Lincoln to promote Major General Ulysses S. Grant to command the armies of the United States during the American Civil War. After the war, Grant was promoted to general and his vacant lieutenant general grade was filled by Major General William T. Sherman. When Grant became President in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as general and Major General Philip H. Sheridan succeeded Sherman as lieutenant general. Congress suspended further promotions to general and lieutenant general in 1870, but made an exception in 1888 to promote Sheridan on his deathbed by discontinuing the grade of lieutenant general and merging it with the grade of general.[25]

In 1895 Congress briefly revived the grade of lieutenant general to promote Sheridan's successor as commanding general of the Army, Major General John M. Schofield. Schofield had lobbied for the grade to be permanently reestablished in order to cement the primacy of all future commanding generals over the Army's other major generals. However, Congress regarded the lieutenant generalcy as the penultimate military accolade, second only to promotion to full general, and refused to devalue the title's significance by conferring it on any future commanding general less eminent than previous recipients. Instead, Schofield himself was promoted to lieutenant general as a one-time personal honor eight months before he retired.[26] In retirement Schofield argued that the rank of lieutenant general ought to be permanently associated with the office of commanding general, not the individual officers occupying it, and that an officer serving as commanding general should hold the ex officio rank of lieutenant general while so detailed but revert to his permanent grade of major general upon leaving office. Over the next five decades, Schofield's concept of lieutenant general as temporary ex officio rank would slowly prevail over the concept of lieutenant general as permanent personal grade.[27]

Spanish–American War

Henry C. Corbin

The question of whether the lieutenant generalcy should be a permanent personal grade or a temporary ex officio rank was phrased in terms of the line of the Army, whose officers commanded combat formations, and its staff, whose officers performed specialized support functions. Permanent personal promotions to general officer grades were only available in the line, but staff officers could temporarily acquire general officer rank while detailed to an office bearing that statutory rank, so officers holding the permanent grade of general officer were called general officers of the line and ex officio general officers were called general officers of the staff.[28]

Arthur MacArthur Jr.

In June 1900 Schofield's successor as commanding general, Major General Nelson A. Miles, was made a lieutenant general of the staff by an amendment to the United States Military Academy appropriations bill that granted the rank of lieutenant general to the senior major general of the line commanding the Army.[29] Eight months later, the 1901 Army reorganization bill replaced this ex officio rank with the permanent grade of lieutenant general of the line.[30] When Miles retired in 1903, the senior major general was Adjutant General Henry C. Corbin, but as a staff corps officer Corbin was ineligible to command the Army, so the lieutenant generalcy went instead to the senior major general of the line, Samuel B. M. Young. Young reached the statutory retirement age five months later and was succeeded by Adna R. Chaffee. Seniority and scheduled retirements suggested that Chaffee would be succeeded in 1906 by Arthur MacArthur Jr., but both Corbin and Major General John C. Bates were scheduled to retire for age that year and it was decided that MacArthur's ascension would not be materially delayed by first promoting Bates and Corbin to lieutenant general for the few months of active duty remaining to them.[31]

Corbin's promotion became controversial when he declined to be detailed as chief of staff of the Army. Corbin felt the chief of staff should be a younger officer with the time and energy to enact a long-range program, not a superannuated placeholder on the cusp of retirement, so when Bates retired Corbin became lieutenant general but Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell became chief of staff.[32] However, by divorcing the Army's highest grade from its highest office, Corbin had again reduced the lieutenant generalcy to a personal honor. Many in Congress believed Corbin was not in the same class as Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and pressed to abolish the lieutenant generalcy immediately, but after a heated debate MacArthur's supporters managed to preserve the grade until after MacArthur's promotion.[33]

MacArthur was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1906. Since he was the last Civil War officer expected to succeed to the grade, Congress stopped further promotions to lieutenant general in March 1907 and stated that the active-duty grade would be abolished when MacArthur retired.[34] Later that month, MacArthur asked to be relieved of his duties, disgruntled at his anomalous position of being the ranking officer of the Army yet consigned to the command of a mere division and subject to orders from an officer he outranked, Chief of Staff Bell, whose four-year term extended beyond MacArthur's statutory retirement date. MacArthur returned home to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he marked time writing up travel reports until he retired in 1909.[35]

World War I

Hunter Liggett

In October 1917, Congress authorized the President to appoint as generals the chief of staff of the Army and the commander of the United States forces in France, and as lieutenant generals the commanders of the field armies and army corps, so that they would not be outranked by their counterparts in allied European armies. Unlike previous incarnations, these new grades were time-limited, authorized only for the duration of the World War I emergency, after which their bearers would revert to their lower permanent grades. The commander of the American Expeditionary Force, Major General John J. Pershing, was immediately appointed emergency general, as were two successive Army chiefs of staff, but no emergency lieutenant generals were named for over a year because the armies they would command had not yet been organized.[36]

On October 21, 1918, Major Generals Hunter Liggett, commander of the First Army, and Robert L. Bullard, commander of the Second Army, were nominated to be emergency lieutenant generals, less than three weeks before the Armistice.[37] With victory imminent, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker sought legislation to reward the Army's high commanders by making their emergency grades permanent. However, Army Chief of Staff Peyton C. March had alienated many members of Congress by unilaterally reorganizing the Army without their input and his enemies blocked every effort to honor any officer but Pershing with higher rank. In the end, Pershing was promoted to permanent General of the Armies, but March, Liggett, and Bullard reverted to their permanent grades of major general when their emergency grades expired on July 1, 1920.[38]

Edgar Jadwin

After the war, there were a number of unsuccessful attempts to retire as lieutenant generals a list of officers that variously included Major Generals March, Liggett, Bullard, Enoch H. Crowder, Joseph T. Dickman, Leonard Wood, John F. Morrison, James G. Harbord, James W. McAndrew, Henry P. McCain, Charles P. Summerall, Ernest Hinds, Harry F. Hodges, William Campbell Langfitt, and George W. Goethals; Surgeon General Merritte W. Ireland; and Colonel William L. Kenly.[39] Finally, on August 7, 1929, the Army chief of engineers, Major General Edgar Jadwin, was retired as a lieutenant general by a 1915 law that automatically promoted officers one grade upon retirement if they had helped build the Panama Canal.[40] There was some consternation that a peacetime staff corps officer had secured more or less by chance a promotion deliberately withheld from the victorious field commanders of World War I, so the year after Jadwin's promotion all World War I officers were advanced to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list, including Liggett and Bullard.[41]

In 1942, Congress allowed retired Army generals to be advanced one grade on the retired list or posthumously if they had been recommended in writing during World War I for promotion to a higher rank which they had not since received, provided they had also been awarded the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, or the Distinguished Service Medal; retired Major Generals James G. Harbord and William M. Wright were both advanced to lieutenant general under this provision.[42]

Interwar

Walter C. Short

After Pershing retired in 1924, the rank of the Army chief of staff reverted to major general, the highest permanent grade in the peacetime Army. However, the Navy continued to maintain three ex officio vice admirals and four ex officio admirals, including the chief of naval operations, so in 1929 Congress raised the ex officio rank of the Army chief of staff to full general.[43] In 1939 Congress also assigned the ex officio rank of lieutenant general to the major generals of the Regular Army specifically assigned to command each of the four field armies, allowing President Franklin D. Roosevelt to appoint the first new active-duty lieutenant generals since World War I: First Army commander Hugh A. Drum, Second Army commander Stanley H. Ford, Third Army commander Stanley D. Embick, and Fourth Army commander Albert J. Bowley. Congress extended similar rank in July 1940 to the major generals commanding the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.[44]

As general officers of the staff, these new lieutenant generals bore three-star rank only while actually commanding a field army or department, and reverted to their permanent two-star rank upon being reassigned or retired. However, during World War II most lieutenant generals of the staff received concurrent personal appointments as temporary lieutenant generals in the Army of the United States so that they could be reassigned without loss of rank. Postwar legislation allowed officers to retire in their highest temporary grades, so most lieutenant generals of the staff eventually retired at that rank.[45] Of the lieutenant generals of the staff who were never appointed temporary lieutenant generals, Albert J. Bowley, Stanley H. Ford, Charles D. Herron, Daniel Van Voorhis, Herbert J. Brees, and Walter C. Short retired as major generals upon reaching the statutory retirement age; and Lloyd R. Fredendall qualified to retire in grade due to physical disability incurred during his term as lieutenant general. After the war, Brees and Short both applied to be advanced to lieutenant general on the retired list under a 1948 law; Brees was promoted but the administration specifically declined to advance Short, who had been relieved of command of the Hawaiian Department a few days after the defeat at Pearl Harbor.[46]

World War II

Delos C. Emmons

In September 1940, Congress authorized the President to appoint Regular Army officers to temporary higher grades in the Army of the United States during time of war or national emergency. The first temporary lieutenant general appointed under this authority was Major General Delos C. Emmons, Commander, General Headquarters Air Force; followed by Major General Lesley J. McNair, Chief of Staff, General Headquarters, U.S. Army. In July 1941, retired four-star general Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and appointed temporary lieutenant general as Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East.[47]

Dozens of officers were promoted to temporary lieutenant general during World War II. Lieutenant generals typically commanded one of the numbered field armies or air forces; served as deputy theater commanders; or headed major headquarters staffs, administrative commands, or support organizations. Officers were only allowed to retire in their temporary grades if they were retired due to disability incurred in the line of duty, but those compelled by good health to retire in a lower grade were eventually restored to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list.[48]

Subject to Senate approval, anyone could be appointed temporary lieutenant general, even a civilian. In January 1942, the outgoing Director General of the Office of Production Management, William S. Knudsen, was commissioned temporary lieutenant general in the Army of the United States, the only civilian ever to join the Army at such a high initial rank.[49]

Postwar

John W. O'Daniel

The modern office of lieutenant general was established by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, which authorized the President to designate certain positions of importance and responsibility to carry the ex officio rank of general or lieutenant general, to be filled by officers holding the permanent or temporary grade of major general or higher. Officers could retire in their highest active-duty rank, subject to Senate approval. The total number of positions allowed to carry such rank was capped at 15 percent of the total number of general officers, which worked out initially to nine generals and thirty-five lieutenant generals, of whom four generals and seventeen lieutenant generals were required to be in the Air Corps. All Air Corps personnel were transferred in grade to the United States Air Force by the National Security Act of 1947.[50]

Lieutenant generals typically headed divisions of the General Staff in Washington, D.C.; field armies in Europe, Japan, and the continental United States; the Army command in the Pacific; the unified command in the Caribbean; the occupation force in Austria; and senior educational institutions such as the National War College, the Army War College, and the Armed Forces Staff College. During the Korean War, the commanding general of the Eighth Army was elevated to full general, and the Eighth Army deputy commanding general and subordinate corps commanders were elevated to lieutenant general.

Senator John C. Stennis
Senator John C. Stennis

By mid-1952, the number of active-duty general officers had swelled to nearly twice its World War II peak. In response, Congress enacted the Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954, which tied the maximum number of generals to the total number of officers. However, the real limit was the so-called Stennis ceiling imposed by Mississippi Senator John C. Stennis, whose Senate Armed Services Committee refused to confirm general or flag officer nominations beyond what he considered to be a reasonable total, which typically was much lower than the statutory limit. The Stennis ceiling remained in effect from the mid-1950s until the post-Vietnam War drawdown.[51]

Unlike the temporary general and flag officer ranks of World War II, the 1947 ranks were attached to offices, not individuals, and were lost if an officer was reassigned to a lesser job.[52] Army generals almost always preferred to retire rather than revert to a lower permanent grade. A rare exception was Lt. Gen. John W. O'Daniel, who temporarily relinquished his third star upon becoming chief of the Military Assistance Advisory Group in French Indochina so that he would not outrank the theater commander in chief, French lieutenant general Henri Navarre. O'Daniel got his star back five months later when France withdrew from Indochina following Navarre's defeat at Dien Bien Phu.[53]

The rules dictating appointment of lieutenant generals, including the role of the Senate in confirming nominees, have remained largely consistent since the passing of the 1947 act, only changing periodically with congressionally dictated amendments to general and flag officer distributions.[54] Section 526 of the United States Code codifies the limits placed on general and flag officer appointments, specifying further for appointments above two-star grade.[55]

The formation of a series of new agencies directly under the Department of Defense in the 1960s and succeeding decades due to interservice deficiencies between the military departments necessitated an increase in joint duty three-star appointments.[56] The same became true for the two-star chiefs of service reserve commands in 2001[57] and service judge advocates general in 2008,[58] courtesy of the annually passed National Defense Authorization Acts.

See also

References

  1. ^ "US Army Lieutenant General Michael F. Spigelmire Uniform". PicClick. Archived from the original on November 4, 2021. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  2. ^ Howitt, Arnold; Leonard, Herman; Giles, David (2009). Managing Crises: Responses to Large-Scale Emergencies. Washington, D. C.: CQ Press. ISBN 9780872895706. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  3. ^ "Obituary of Lieutenant General Billy Marshal Thomas". obits.gazette.com. Retrieved December 3, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "JAMES D. STARLING, 1960". West Point Association of Graduates. Archived from the original on October 27, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  5. ^ "Obituary for Lieutenant General Joseph S. Laposata, U.S. Army (Ret)". Beckman-Williamson Funeral Homes and Crematory. Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  6. ^ "U.S. Army Register, Volume 1". Google Books. U.S. Department of the Army. 1969. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  7. ^ "Obituary of Lieutenant General (ret.) Paul G. Cerjan, U.S. Army". Nunn and Harper Funeral Home Inc. Archived from the original on December 5, 2021. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
  8. ^ "Army Executive Biographies". Google Books. 1985. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved October 27, 2021.
  9. ^ "Obituary of LTG Alfred J. Mallette, retired Army officer". newspapers.com. August 20, 1994. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  10. ^ "Obituary: LTG Alcide "Cid" M LaNoue (RET) 38th Surgeon General, U.S. Army". Dignity Memorial. Tampa, Florida: Blount & Curry Funeral Home. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  11. ^ Dabrowski, John (October 2020). "An Oral History of William W. Hartzog" (PDF). The Citadel. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  12. ^ "LTG Caryl Glenn Marsh". Find a Grave. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  13. ^ Lee, Edward (October 24, 2021). "Otto J. Guenther, a retired U.S. Army lieutenant general who chaired McDaniel College's board of trustees, dies". Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, Maryland. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  14. ^ Wisniewska, Zuzanna. "Robert Earl Gray (1941-2011)". Blackpast.org. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved December 7, 2021.
  15. ^ "Lieutenant General Tommy R. Franks". U.S. Army Central. Archived from the original on April 29, 1999. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
  16. ^ "LIEUTENANT GENERAL JACK P. NIX Jr., U.S. ARMY". Allied Forces Southern Europe. Archived from the original on February 24, 1999. Retrieved December 12, 2021.
  17. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 107th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2003. p. 51. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  18. ^ "Air Force Magazine, Volume 89". Google Books. 2006. p. 73. Archived from the original on June 14, 2022. Retrieved October 23, 2021.
  19. ^ "Major General Michael A. Canavan". OCS Alumni. Archived from the original on December 9, 2021. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  20. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 107th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2003. p. 119. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2022.
  21. ^ "Lieutenant General Daniel G. Brown, United States Army". U.S. Transportation Command. Archived from the original on August 17, 2000. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  22. ^ Acts of May 28, 1798, and March 3, 1799. Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part One.
  23. ^ Senate Journal, 33rd Congress, 2nd session, 28 February 1855, 409: Nomination of Winfield Scott
  24. ^ Acts of March 3, 1857, and August 3, 1861. Fry, pp. 208–209; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Five.
  25. ^ Acts of July 28, 1866; July 15, 1870; and June 1, 1888. Bell, p. 24.
  26. ^ Act of February 5, 1895. Connelly, p. 313.
  27. ^ "Our Military Needs—Set Forth by General Miles to House Military Committee", The Daily Review, p. 1, December 13, 1898; Connelly, p. 331.
  28. ^ For statutory definitions of "general officer of the line" and "general officer of the staff," see Sec. 4, Act of June 3, 1916.
  29. ^ Act of June 6, 1900.
  30. ^ Act of February 2, 1901.
  31. ^ "Sumner And Wood To Be Major Generals; Thirty-three Officers to be Promoted and Retired", The New York Times, p. 3, July 18, 1903; "Bates To Succeed Chaffee; He Will Be Retired Soon to Make Way for Corbin", The New York Times, p. 3, June 18, 1905.
  32. ^ "The Chief Of Staff", The New York Times, p. 6, December 17, 1905; "Gen. Corbin", The New York Times, p. 10, April 22, 1906.
  33. ^ "Corbin And MacArthur Win - Plan to Abolish Grade of Lieutenant General Is Defeated", The New York Times, p. 3, February 28, 1906.
  34. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Three.
  35. ^ Act of March 2, 1907. "Gen. MacArthur Plans To Retire; Ranking Officer of the Army Tires of His Anomalous Position", The New York Times, p. 6, March 30, 1907; Young, The General's General, pp. 332–334.
  36. ^ Acts of July 15, 1870, and October 6, 1917. "Pershing To Be Given Rank Solely Of "General"—Measure Providing for Chief of Staff and Other Promotions—Need Prestige—American Officers in Europe Now Too Far Outranked", The Fresno Morning Republican, p. 1, October 3, 1917.
  37. ^ "Liggett Promoted, Bullard Also - Commanders of First and Second Field Armies to be Lieutenant Generals", The New York Times, p. 10, October 22, 1918.
  38. ^ Act of June 4, 1920. Coffman, pp. 194–195.
  39. ^ "Chamberlain Wants Wood and Goethals Made Lieutenant Generals With Crowder", The New York Times, p. 21, October 7, 1919; "Senate Votes Rank To Crowder Only - Rejects Chamberlain's Amendment to Promote Other Army Leaders Also", The New York Times, p. 5, October 8, 1919; "Pershing For His Generals - Asks Higher Rank for Liggett, Bullard, Harbord, McAndrew, Dickman", The New York Times, p. 12, November 6, 1919; "Six Lieutenant Generals; House Bill Names Liggett, Bullard, Dickman, Crowder, Wood, Morrison", The New York Times, p. 48, January 10, 1923.
  40. ^ Act of March 4, 1915. "Jadwin To Get Pay Of Obsolete Rank - Retired Officer Is on List as Lieutenant General; Grade Abolished", The Washington Post, p. R9, September 22, 1929.
  41. ^ Act of June 21, 1930. "Promotion Deserved And Withheld", The New York Times, p. 12, August 10, 1929; "Retired Officers Get Army War Rank - Under Law Passed in June 695 Are Advanced Without Increased Pay", The New York Times, p. 37, August 20, 1930.
  42. ^ Acts of June 13, 1940, and July 9, 1942. Army Register.
  43. ^ Act of February 23, 1929. "Proposes Rankings Of General In Army; War Secretary Submits Bill to Raise Chief of Staff and Territorial Heads", The New York Times, p. 12, January 22, 1928; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Four.
  44. ^ Acts of August 5, 1939, and July 31, 1940. "Army Renews Rank of Lieutenant General; H.A. Drum, S.H. Ford, S.D. Embick and A.J. Bowley Advanced to World War Grade", The New York Times, p. 38, August 8, 1939.
  45. ^ Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]. Army Register.
  46. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943, and June 29, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948]. Army Register; Anderson, pp. 193–197; Dorn, p. I-1.
  47. ^ Act of September 9, 1940. Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Four.
  48. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943; August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]; and June 24, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948].
  49. ^ "Knudsen the Only Civilian To Enter Army at His Rank", The New York Times, p. 9, January 17, 1942.
  50. ^ Acts of July 27, 1947 [National Security Act of 1947], and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947].
  51. ^ Mylander, pp. 26–27.
  52. ^ Norris, John G. (December 16, 1947), "Truman Picks Five Generals For High Command Promotion", The Washington Post, p. 1
  53. ^ Eckhardt, p. 11; "'Iron Mike' O'Daniel Gets Back Third Star", Associated Press, September 6, 1954
  54. ^ Acts of November 5, 1990 [National Defense Authorization Act Year 1991], October 23, 1992 [National Defense Authorization Year 1993], February 10, 1996 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996], September 23, 1996 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997], October 17, 1998 [Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1999], October 5, 1999 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000], December 2, 2002 [Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003] and January 2, 2012 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013].
  55. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 526 - Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
  56. ^ "A History of the Defense Intelligence Agency" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. DIA Office of Historical Research. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 31, 2022. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  57. ^ Act of October 30, 2000 [National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 2001]
  58. ^ Act of April 14, 2008 [National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008], Section 543

Notes

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Army register of active and retired commissioned officers, the General Officer Management Office, or the National Guard Senior Leader Management Office. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to lieutenant general. If such a date cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to lieutenant general should be substituted. For officers promoted to lieutenant general on the same date, they should be organized first by date of promotion to four-star rank, and then by the tier of their first listed assignment upon promotion to lieutenant general.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to lieutenant general. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty three-star assignments is not counted.
  4. ^ a b Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Military Academy (USMA); Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university; ROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Norwich University (Norwich), Pennsylvania Military College (PMC), University of North Georgia (UNG), or Widener University (Widener); Officer Candidate School (OCS); the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA); the Army National Guard (ARNG); and direct commission (direct).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with significant military officers or government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Served as a commander-in-chief (CINC).
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Served as Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (VCSA).
  9. ^ a b c Served as Chief of Staff, U.S. Army (CSA).
  10. ^ Graduated from Pennsylvania Military College, which was reorganized as a civilian institution in 1972 and is now Widener University.
  11. ^ Served as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS).
  12. ^ Served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
  13. ^ Received commission, June 1963; reported for active duty, June 1965.
  14. ^ Retired as general, Nov 2000; recalled as general, Aug 2003.
  15. ^ Kerrick served in this position alongside James Steinberg (Jul–Aug 2000) and Stephen Hadley (2000–2001). As a senior staffer of the White House Office, he concurrently held the title Assistant to the President.
  16. ^ Retired as major general, 2005.
  17. ^ Relieved, July 2005, and retired as lieutenant general.

Bibliography

  • United States Department of the Army (1976) [1948], United States Army Register, Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office