Flag of a Marine Corpsthree-star general
Flag of a Marine Corps
three-star general

This is a list of three-star generals in the United States Marine Corps since 2010. The rank of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is the second-highest rank in the Marine Corps, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above major general (two-star general) and below general (four-star general).

There have been 59 lieutenant generals in the United States Marine Corps since January 1, 2010, 6 of whom were promoted to four-star general. All 58 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Marine Corps. Lieutenant generals entered the Marine Corps via several paths: 33 via Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 10 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 9 via the United States Naval Academy (USNA), and 7 via NROTC at a senior military college.

List of generals

Entries in the following list of lieutenant generals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the general's name, date of rank,[1] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[2] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[3] year commissioned and source of commission,[4] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[5] and other biographical notes.[6]

List of U.S. Marine Corps three-star generals since 2010
# Name Photo Date of rank [1] Position [2] Yrs [3] Commission [4] YC [5] Notes [6]
1 Walter E. Gaskin Sr.
LtGen Walter E. Gaskin (2).jpg
22 Mar 2010   4 1974 (NROTC) 35 (1951–        ) Secretary, North Carolina Department of Military and Veterans Affairs, 2021–present.
2 Robert E. Schmidle Jr.
Lt. Gen. Robert E. Schmidle,Jr.jpg
5 Aug 2010   4 1976 (NROTC) 36 -
3 John E. Wissler
LIEUTENANT GENERAL WISSLER.jpg
5 Aug 2010   7 1978 (USNA) 32 (1956–        )
4 Richard T. Tryon
Lt. Gen. Richard T. Tryon, USMC.jpg
29 Oct 2010   5 1975 (USNA) 35 (c. 1954        ) Great grandson of Navy rear admiral James R. Tryon.
5 Robert E. Milstead Jr.
Lieutenant General Robert E. Milstead, Jr..jpg
22 Dec 2010  
  • Deputy Commandant, Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DC M&RA), 2010–2014.
3 1975 (NROTC) 36 (1951–        )
6 Kenneth J. Glueck Jr.
Lt. Gen. Kenneth J. Glueck Jr (cropped).jpg
7 Jan 2011   4 1974 (NROTC) 37 -
* Robert B. Neller
Neller July 9, 2015.JPG
11 Jan 2011[7] 3 1975 (OCS) 35 (1953–        )[8] Promoted to general, 24 Sep 2015.
7 Steven A. Hummer
Lieutenant General Steven A. Hummer.jpg
26 May 2011  
  • Commander, Marine Forces Reserve/Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Northern Command (COMMARFORRES/COMMARFORNORTH), 2011–2013.
  • Deputy to the Commander for Military Operations, U.S. Africa Command (DCDR-MILOP, USAFRICOM), 2013–2015.
4 1977 (NROTC) 34 (1952–        )
8 Richard P. Mills
Lieutenant General Richard P. Mills.jpg
26 May 2011   4 1975 (OCS) 36 (1950–        )
9 Thomas L. Conant
Lieutenant General Thomas L. Conant, USMC.jpg
14 Feb 2012   2 1975 (NROTC) 37 -
10 Jon M. Davis
Lieutenant General Jon M. Davis.JPG
24 May 2012   5 1980 (OCS) 32 -
11 John A. Toolan Jr.
Lieutenant General John A. Toolan.JPG
12 Sep 2012   4 1976 (NROTC) 36 (1954–        )
12 William M. Faulkner
LtGen William M. Faulkner (2).jpg
2 Oct 2012  
  • Deputy Commandant, Installations and Logistics (DC I&L), 2012–2015.
3 1982 (NROTC) 30 [9]
13 Robert R. Ruark
Robert R. Ruark (2).jpg
23 May 2013   4 1981 (NROTC) 32 -
14 Ronald L. Bailey
Ronald L. Bailey.jpg
14 Jun 2013  
  • Deputy Commandant, Plans, Policies and Operations (DC, PP&O), 2013–2017.
4 1977 (NROTC) 36 -
* Glenn M. Walters
Lieutenant General Glenn M. Walters.JPG
17 Jun 2013[10]
  • Deputy Commandant, Programs and Resources (DC P&R), 2013–2016.
3 1979 (Citadel) 34 (1957–        )[11] Promoted to general, 2 Aug 2016. President, The Citadel, 2018–present.
* Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr.
Lieutenant General Kenneth F. McKenzie, Jr.JPG
3 Jun 2014   5 1979 (Citadel) 35 (1957–        )[12] Promoted to general, 28 Mar 2019.
* David H. Berger
Lt. Gen. David H. Berger.jpg
11 Jul 2014   5 1981 (NROTC) 33 (1959–        )[8] Promoted to general, 11 Jul 2019.
15 James B. Laster
LtGen James B. Laster.jpg
11 Dec 2014  
  • Director, Marine Corps Staff (DMCS), 2015–2018.
4 1978 (OCS) 36 -
16 Vincent R. Stewart
Stewart CYBERCOM.jpg
23 Jan 2015   4 1981 (NROTC) 34 (1958–        ) First African-American and Jamaican-American to become director of the Defense Intelligence Agency.
17 Mark A. Brilakis
Lt. Gen. Mark A. Brilakis.jpg
30 Apr 2015   4 1981 (OCS) 34 (1958–        )
18 Robert S. Walsh
Lieutenant General Robert S. Walsh (cropped).JPG
20 Aug 2015  
  • Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command/Commander, Marine Corps Forces Strategic Command/Deputy Commandant, Combat Development and Integration (DC, CD&I/CG MCCDC/COMMARFORSTRAT), 2015–2018.
3 1979 (USNA) 36 -
19 Michael G. Dana
Lt. Gen. Michael G. Dana.jpg
4 Sep 2015  
  • Deputy Commandant, Installations and Logistics (DC I&L), 2015–2018.
  • Director, Marine Corps Staff (DMCS), 2018–2019.
4 1982 (NROTC) 33 -
20 Lawrence D. Nicholson
LIEUTENANT GENERAL NICHOLSON (cropped).jpg
11 Sep 2015   3 1979 (Citadel) 36 (1956–        )
21 Rex C. McMillian
Lieutenant General Rex C. McMillian.jpg
12 Sep 2015  
  • Commander, Marine Forces Reserve/Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Northern Command (COMMARFORRES/COMMARFORNORTH), 2015–2018.
3 1980 (OCS) 35 -
22 William D. Beydler
LtGen William D. Beydler MARCENT.jpg
27 Oct 2015   3 1981 (USNA) 34 -
23 Joseph L. Osterman
Lt. Gen. Joseph L. Osterman(2) (cropped).jpg
29 Jun 2016   4 1982 (NROTC) 34 (1960–        )
* Gary L. Thomas
Lt. Gen. Gary L. Thomas.jpg
29 Jun 2016  
  • Deputy Commandant, Programs and Resources (DC P&R), 2016–2018.
2 1984 (NROTC) 32 (1962–        )[11] Promoted to general, 4 Oct 2018.
24 Lewis A. Craparotta
Lieutenant General L. A. Craparotta.jpg
27 Jul 2016   5 1983 (NROTC) 33 (1960–        )
25 Steven R. Rudder
Lt. Gen. Steven R. Rudder (2).jpg
10 Jul 2017   4 1984 (NROTC) 33 -
26 Robert F. Hedelund
Lt. Gen. Robert F. Hedelund.jpg
13 Jul 2017   4 1983 (NROTC) 34 (1961–        )
27 Brian D. Beaudreault
Lieutenant General Brian D. Beaudreault.jpg
21 Jul 2017  
  • Deputy Commandant, Plans, Policies and Operations (DC, PP&O), 2017–2019.
  • Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force (CG, II MEF), 2019–2021.
4 1983 (NROTC) 34 (1960–        )
28 John J. Broadmeadow
Lt. Gen. John J. Broadmeadow (2).jpg
31 Jul 2017   3 1983 (Norwich) 34 (1961–        )
29 Daniel J. O'Donohue
Lt. Gen. Daniel J. O
31 Jul 2017  
  • Deputy Commandant, Information (DCI), 2017–2018.
  • Director, Joint Force Development, Joint Staff, J7, 2018–2020.
2 1984 (NROTC) 33 -
30 H. Stacy Clardy III
Lt. Gen. H. Stacy Clardy III.jpg
3 Aug 2017   4 1983 (NROTC) 34 (1960–        )
31 Michael A. Rocco
Lt. Gen. Michael A. Rocco.jpg
8 Aug 2017  
  • Deputy Commandant, Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DC M&RA), 2017–2020.
3 1983 (NROTC) 34 -
32 John K. Love
John K. Love (3).jpg
28 Jun 2018   3 1984 (NROTC) 34 -
33 Charles G. Chiarotti
Lt. Gen. Charles G. Chiarotti.jpg
29 Jun 2018  
  • Deputy Commandant, Installations and Logistics (DC I&L), 2018–2021.
3 1985 (NROTC) 34 -
34 Loretta E. Reynolds
Lt. Gen. Loretta E. Reynolds.jpg
2 Jul 2018  
  • Deputy Commandant, Information/Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Strategic Command (DCI/COMMARFORSTRAT), 2018–2021.
3 1986 (USNA) 32 -
35 Carl E. Mundy III
Lt. Gen. Carl E. Mundy III.jpg
11 Jul 2018   3 1983 (NROTC) 35 (1960–        ) Son of Marine Corps four-star general Carl E. Mundy Jr.
* Eric M. Smith
Lieutenant General Eric M. Smith (cropped 2).jpg
2 Aug 2018   3 1987 (Texas A&M) 31 (c. 1961        )[11] Promoted to general, 8 Oct 2021.
36 John M. Jansen
Lt. Gen. John M. Jansen.jpg
2 Oct 2018  
  • Deputy Commandant, Programs and Resources (DC P&R), 2018–2021.
3 1986 (OCS) 32 -
37 George W. Smith Jr.
Lt. Gen. George W. Smith, Jr.jpg
27 Sep 2018   4 1985 (NROTC) 33 Son of Marine major general George W. Smith.
38 David G. Bellon
Lt. Gen. David G. Bellon.jpg
4 Sep 2019   3 1989 (NROTC) 30 -
39 Dennis A. Crall
Lt. Gen. Dennis A. Crall.jpg
21 May 2020  
  • Director, Command, Control, Communications and Computers/Cyber and Chief Information Officer, Joint Staff, J6, 2020–present.
2 1987 (NROTC) 33 -
40 Mark R. Wise
Lt. Gen. Mark R. Wise.jpg
21 May 2020   2 1986 (NROTC) 34 -
41 Karsten S. Heckl
Lt. Gen. Karsten S. Heckl (2).jpg
31 Jul 2020   2 1988 (NROTC) 32 -
42 David A. Ottignon
Lt. Gen. David A. Ottignon (cropped).jpg
4 Aug 2020  
  • Deputy Commandant, Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DC M&RA), 2020–present.
2 1987 (NROTC) 33 -
43 Michael S. Groen
LtGen Michael S. Groen (2).jpg
30 Sep 2020   2 1987 (NROTC) 33 -
44 Matthew G. Glavy
Lt. Gen. Matthew G. Glavy.jpg
7 Jul 2021  
  • Deputy Commandant, Information/Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Strategic Command (DCI/COMMARFORSTRAT), 2021–present.
1 1986 (USNA) 35 -
45 William M. Jurney
Lt. Gen. William M. Jurney.jpg
8 Jul 2021   1 1988 (OCS) 33 -
46 Edward D. Banta
Lt Gen Edward D. Banta.jpg
9 Jul 2021  
  • Deputy Commandant, Installations and Logistics (DC I&L), 2021–present.
1 1986 (OCS) 35 -
47 David J. Furness
Lt Gen David J. Furness.jpg
Aug 2021  
  • Deputy Commandant, Plans, Policies and Operations (DC, PP&O), 2021–present.
1 1987 (VMI) 34 -
48 Kevin M. Iiams
Lt. Gen. Kevin M. Iiams.jpg
2 Aug 2021   1 1986 (USNA) 35 -
49 Christopher J. Mahoney
Lt Gen Christopher J. Mahoney.jpg
9 Aug 2021  
  • Deputy Commandant, Programs and Resources (DC P&R), 2021–present.
1 1987 (NROTC) 34 -
50 Stephen D. Sklenka
Lt Gen Stephen D. Sklenka.jpg
16 Aug 2021   1 1988 (USNA) 33 (1966–        )
51 James W. Bierman Jr.
Lt Gen James W. Bierman (cropped).jpg
9 Nov 2021   1 1987 (VMI) 34 -
52 Michael E. Langley
Lt Gen Michael E. Langley.jpg
10 Nov 2021   1 1985 (OCS) 36 -
53 Gregg P. Olson
LtGen Gregg P. Olson.jpg
17 Feb 2022  
  • Director, Marine Corps Staff (DMCS), 2020–present.
0 1985 (USNA) 37 (1963–        )

Timeline

2010–present

Gregg P. OlsonMichael E. LangleyJames W. Bierman Jr.Stephen D. SklenkaChristopher J. MahoneyKevin M. IiamsDavid J. FurnessEdward D. BantaWilliam M. JurneyMatthew G. GlavyMichael S. GroenDavid A. OttignonKarsten S. HecklMark R. WiseDennis A. CrallDavid G. BellonGeorge W. Smith Jr.John M. JansenEric Smith (general)Carl E. Mundy IIILoretta E. ReynoldsCharles G. ChiarottiJohn K. LoveMichael A. RoccoH. Stacy Clardy IIIDaniel J. O'DonohueJohn J. BroadmeadowBrian D. BeaudreaultRobert F. HedelundSteven R. RudderLewis A. CraparottaGary L. ThomasJoseph L. OstermanWilliam D. BeydlerRex C. McMillianLawrence D. NicholsonMichael G. DanaRobert S. WalshMark A. BrilakisVincent StewartJames B. LasterDavid H. BergerKenneth F. McKenzie Jr.Ronald L. BaileyGlenn M. WaltersRobert R. RuarkWilliam M. FaulknerJohn A. ToolanJon M. DavisRichard P. MillsSteven A. HummerThomas L. ConantKenneth J. Glueck Jr.Robert E. Milstead Jr.Richard T. TryonRobert NellerJohn WisslerRobert E. Schmidle Jr.Walter E. GaskinOperation Inherent ResolveIraq WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

History

See also: List of United States Marine Corps lieutenant generals on active duty before 1960 § History

World War I

James C. Breckinridge

The rank of lieutenant general in the Marine Corps was first proposed in 1918, when the Senate Naval Affairs Committee tried to increase the rank of the major general commandant and his three senior staff officers for the duration of World War I. Instigated by the incumbent commandant, George Barnett, the proposal was blocked by Navy secretary Josephus Daniels and House Naval Affairs Committee member Thomas S. Butler, who was outraged that the headquarters staff would gain a lieutenant general commandant and three major generals at a time when no Marine major generals were deployed in the field. The incident contributed to Daniels' decision to remove Barnett midway through his second term as commandant.[14][15]

A decade later, Butler himself tried to promote Barnett's successor as commandant, John A. Lejeune, to lieutenant general to match the three-star rank proposed for Army corps area commanders in 1928. The Navy had four admirals and three vice admirals, but the highest active-duty Army rank was only major general, so the War Department asked Congress to raise the ex officio ranks of the Army chief of staff and three overseas department commanders to general and nine corps area commanders to lieutenant general. At the President's behest, the House Military Affairs Committee approved only the four-star promotion for the chief of staff. Since the Army still had no lieutenant generals and Navy secretary Curtis D. Wilbur felt the commandant was not equivalent to a three-star fleet commander in the Navy, Lejeune's promotion died in committee.[16][17][18]

In 1925, Congress authorized Marine Corps officers to retire with a tombstone promotion to the rank but not the retired pay of the next higher grade if they were specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat during World War I, but only if they retired because they were too old to be promoted further, a condition that excluded major generals, who already held the highest grade in the Marine Corps. Congress expanded eligibility in 1938 to cover officers with a qualifying combat citation from any time period who retired for any reason,[19] allowing James C. Breckinridge to become the first three-star Marine when he retired with a tombstone promotion to lieutenant general in October 1941.[20][21] Lejeune lobbied Congress to extend tombstone promotions to officers who had retired before 1938, and finally received his third star in April 1942.[22]

World War II

Thomas Holcomb

In January 1942, following the United States entry into World War II, Congress increased the commandant's rank to lieutenant general, making Thomas Holcomb the first three-star Marine to serve on active duty. Holcomb's superior, chief of naval operations Ernest J. King, opposed promoting more Marines to that rank, but King relented after Alexander A. Vandegrift, recently awarded the Medal of Honor for the Battle of Guadalcanal, was assigned to command the first Marine amphibious corps and slated to succeed Holcomb as commandant. Vandegrift was appointed temporary lieutenant general in July 1943,[23] under a 1941 law that anticipated the wartime expansion of the Marine Corps by authorizing an unlimited number of temporary general officers for the duration of the national emergency.[24]

When Vandegrift returned to the United States to become commandant in January 1944, King rejected Holcomb's bid to maintain a three-star Marine in the Pacific theater by promoting the other amphibious corps commander, Holland M. Smith, who had led the ground forces at the Battle of Tarawa. Smith received his third star only after the naval commanders at Tarawa, Raymond A. Spruance and Richmond K. Turner, were rewarded with promotions in March 1944.[25][26]

Unlike Holcomb, whose three-star rank was an aspect of his office of commandant, Vandegrift and Smith held personal three-star grades that followed them regardless of assignment, as did every other temporary lieutenant general appointed before the Officer Personnel Act of 1947 made all three-star ranks ex officio. For example, upon relinquishing his final command in May 1946, Smith remained a lieutenant general for the three months until he actually retired,[27] whereas a postwar lieutenant general would have reverted immediately to his permanent two-star grade. Early promotions to these wartime grades therefore rewarded past personal triumphs—Guadalcanal for Vandegrift and Tarawa for Smith—as much as future organizational efficiency.[23]

By the end of the war, the commandant was a full general. One lieutenant general commanded Marines deployed overseas under Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and a second lieutenant general commanded Marines being readied for deployment under Marine Training and Replacement Command. A third lieutenant general was appointed in January 1947 to command the new Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic.

Postwar

The Officer Personnel Act of 1947 authorized only two lieutenant generals for the Marine Corps after July 1, 1948, except during war or national emergency. All active-duty ranks above major general were temporary and ex officio, so upon vacating an office carrying three-star rank, an officer reverted to his permanent two-star grade unless he retired. The two lieutenant generals were assigned to command the operating forces in the Pacific and Atlantic.[28]

The permanent peacetime limit of two lieutenant generals was imposed during the post-World War II drawdown, but remained in place even as the Marine Corps expanded during the Cold War. The state of emergency declared for the Korean War on December 16, 1950, allowed a third lieutenant general to serve as assistant commandant and chief of staff of the Marine Corps, and a fourth as commandant of Marine Corps Schools. A fifth lieutenant general was assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps as director of aviation in 1953, but its three-star designation shifted to the chief of staff when that job was separated from assistant commandant in 1957.[29]

Congress finally declared in 1977 that up to 15 percent of all active-duty Marine Corps general officers could be lieutenant generals or generals even without an emergency, after the 1976 National Emergencies Act terminated all existing national emergencies, effective September 14, 1978, which would have eliminated five of the seven lieutenant generals then on active duty.[30]

Tombstone promotions

Further information: List of United States Marine Corps tombstone lieutenant generals

Keller E. Rockey

From 1938 to 1959, Marine officers who were specially commended for the performance of duty in actual combat before the end of World War II could retire with the rank but not the pay of the next higher grade. Such honorary increases in rank at retirement were called tombstone promotions, since their only tangible benefit was the right to carve the higher rank on one's tombstone.[31] Tombstone promotions made James C. Breckinridge the first three-star Marine in October 1941,[20][21] and Thomas Holcomb the first four-star Marine in January 1944.

A lieutenant general could only receive a tombstone promotion to four-star general if he still held a three-star job on the day he retired. When Oliver P. Smith was abruptly ordered to relinquish his three-star command on September 1, 1955, and revert to major general for the two months until his statutory retirement, he moved up his retirement date to September 1 and kept his tombstone promotion to general.[32]

Of the 27 lieutenant generals appointed before Congress ended tombstone promotions on November 1, 1959, all but five were promoted to general, either by tombstone promotion, selection as commandant, or posthumous legislation, in the case of Roy S. Geiger, who died only a week before he was scheduled to retire with a tombstone promotion.[33] The exceptions were Keller E. Rockey and Robert H. Pepper, who preferred to revert to major general rather than retire at the end of their three-star assignments;[34] Thomas E. Watson, who relinquished command of Fleet Marine Force, Pacific for an assignment at Headquarters Marine Corps, but retired for ill health only three months later;[35] Merwin H. Silverthorn, who was too young to retire for age when his three-star assignment ended and Congress had suspended early retirements;[36] and Verne J. McCaul, who chose to sacrifice a fourth star to stay on active duty until the new commandant took office two months after tombstone promotions ended.[37]

Commandant successions

Merwin H. Silverthorn

Lieutenant general appointments were inextricably tied to the politics of commandant succession. Any lieutenant general was a viable candidate for commandant if he was young enough to complete a full four-year term before reaching the statutory retirement age of 62, as were prominent major generals.[38]

A commandant tended to appoint lieutenant generals in two waves, one at the start of his term and one in the middle.[38] The first wave filled three-star positions vacated by the newly appointed commandant and any rivals who chose to retire after being passed over. For example, Allen H. Turnage retired after a major general, Clifton B. Cates, was selected to be commandant in 1947,[39] as did all five lieutenant generals after another major general, David M. Shoup, was selected in 1959.[40] An incoming commandant might also choose not to retain his predecessor's lieutenant generals, to clear space for his own favorites. Of the five lieutenant generals who retired at Shoup's accession, at least two, Verne J. McCaul and Robert E. Hogaboom, only did so after he made clear they would not be continued at that rank.[41] Upon succeeding Cates in 1952, Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr. promptly appointed Gerald C. Thomas to be his assistant commandant and chief of staff, sending Cates' appointee, Merwin H. Silverthorn, to a two-star job until retirement.[42]

From the middle of his term, a commandant's choices for lieutenant general were meant to set up his preferred candidates to succeed him and eliminate others from consideration.[38] When picking a commandant in 1947, President Harry S. Truman judged Cates and Shepherd to be equally qualified. Since Cates was senior, Truman appointed Cates first and promised to appoint Shepherd next.[39] Cates duly appointed Shepherd to the next three-star vacancy, but when Oliver P. Smith returned to the United States in 1951 after famously commanding the 1st Marine Division at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Cates gave Smith another two-star command instead of the three-star promotion many expected, reducing the risk that Smith's popularity might derail Shepherd's succession. Smith finally received his third star two years later, after he was too old to be considered for commandant.[43]

Verne J. McCaul

When Cates stepped down as commandant, he had to stay on active duty because a 1951 law froze voluntary officer retirements by withholding retired pay from any regular officer who retired for any reason other than age, disability, hardship, or the best interests of the service.[36] (When Graves B. Erskine retired early to accept a civilian position in the Department of Defense in 1953, Congress had to pass special legislation to exempt him.[44]) At Cates' request, Shepherd gave him the three-star job commanding Marine Corps Schools, repaying his support for Shepherd's succession.[45] Congress repealed the law in 1954 and Cates retired two months later.[46] Shepherd picked Thomas to succeed Cates, which simultaneously avoided creating another rival for the commandancy, since Thomas was too old to be considered, and freed Thomas' three-star job of assistant commandant and chief of staff for Shepherd's preferred candidate, Randolph M. Pate, who eventually did succeed Shepherd.[38]

All such machinations failed when Pate's successor was selected in 1959. The best positioned three-star candidate, Merrill B. Twining, was viewed as too political by the secretary of defense, Thomas S. Gates Jr., who passed over all five lieutenant generals to recommend Shoup instead. Four of the five lieutenant generals collected tombstone promotions to general by retiring on November 1, 1959, the day the tombstone promotion law expired, but Verne J. McCaul chose to remain on duty until Shoup took office on January 1, 1960.[41]

Modern use

Lt. Gen. Robert F. Hedelund, Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), is pinned by family members during his promotion ceremony on Camp Lejeune, N.C., July 14, 2017.
Lt. Gen. Robert F. Hedelund, Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force (II MEF), is pinned by family members during his promotion ceremony on Camp Lejeune, N.C., July 14, 2017.
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Glenn M. Walters promotes Maj. Gen. Charles G. Chiarottito lieutenant general at the Pentagon, June 29, 2018.
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, Gen. Glenn M. Walters promotes Maj. Gen. Charles G. Chiarottito lieutenant general at the Pentagon, June 29, 2018.

There are 15 three-star billets in the United States Marine Corps. Among these positions include commanders of high-level Marine Corps commands, such as the marine expeditionary forces and Marine service component commands.[47] Certain senior Marine staff officers under the Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) who directly answer to the commandant and the assistant commandant may also hold three-star rank.

About 20 to 30 joint service three-star billets exist at any given time that can be occupied by a Marine Corps three-star general, among the most prestigious being the Director of the Joint Staff (DJS), principal staff advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and historically considered a stepping stone to four-star rank.[48] All deputy commanders of the unified combatant commands are of three-star rank, as are directors of Defense Agencies not headed by a civilian such as the director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIRDIA).[49] Internationally-based three-star positions include the United States military representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP) and the security coordinator for the Palestinian National Authority in Israel.

Statutory limits, elevations and reductions

The U.S. Code states that no more than 17 officers in the U.S. Marine Corps may be promoted beyond the rank of major general and below the rank of general on the active duty list.[50] However, the President[50] may designate up to 15 additional three-star appointments, with the condition that for every service branch allotted such additional three-star appointments, an equivalent number must be reduced from other service branches. Other exceptions exist for non-active duty or reserve appointments, as well as other circumstances.[51] As such, three-star positions can be elevated to four-star status or reduced to two-star status where deemed necessary, either to highlight their increasing importance to the defense apparatus (or lack thereof) or to achieve parity with equivalent commands in other services or regions.

Several three-star positions have been eliminated entirely during this era, with some positions transitioning into new forms with the activation of new commands. Few three-star positions are set by statute. Common practice in the Marine Corps is to dual-hat certain commands under a single officeholder to remain under the statutory limit for three-star positions, and shifting them around when necessary to facilitate swift and efficient command and control of Marine units.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps register of active and retired commissioned officers. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to lieutenant general. If such a date cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to lieutenant general should be substituted.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to lieutenant general. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column.
  4. ^ a b Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the Officer Candidates School (OCS); the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university; Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) at a civilian university; and ROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Texas A&M University (Texas A&M), or The Citadel (Citadel).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with other significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ Afghan National Security Forces: Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives. U.S. Congress. 2012. p. 46. ISBN 9780160904905.
  8. ^ a b Served as Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC).
  9. ^ Promoted directly from rank of brigadier general, October 2012.
  10. ^ "Lt. Gen. Glenn M. Walters". Retrieved July 21, 2021.
  11. ^ a b c Served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps (ACMC).
  12. ^ Served as a combatant commander (CCDR).
  13. ^ Position held jointly with Army lieutenant general William C. Mayville Jr. from 2017-2018.
  14. ^ Hearings Before Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on Estimates Submitted by the Secretary of the Navy, 1918, Sixty-Fifth Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1918. pp. 720–722.
  15. ^ Bartlett, Merrill L. (2004). "George Barnett". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 189, 191.
  16. ^ Bartlett (1996), p. 166.
  17. ^ "Higher Rank Urged For Marine Commander". The Boston Globe. March 12, 1928. p. 5.
  18. ^ "Report No. 1547". House Reports (Public), 70th Congress, 1st Session. Vol. 4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1928.
  19. ^ Acts of March 4, 1925 (43 Stat. 1279) and June 23, 1938 (52 Stat. 951).
  20. ^ a b "General Breckinridge's Views". The Lexington Herald. March 6, 1942. p. 4.
  21. ^ a b "Obituaries". Army and Navy Journal. March 7, 1942. p. 751.
  22. ^ Bartlett (1996), pp. 185–186.
  23. ^ a b Hoffman, Jon T. (2004). "Alexander A. Vandegrift". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 291–293.
  24. ^ Act of July 24, 1941 (55 Stat. 604).
  25. ^ Smith, Holland M.; Finch, Percy (1948). Coral and Brass. New York City, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 153–155.
  26. ^ Dyer, George C. (1969). The Amphibians Came to Conquer: The Story of Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner. Vol. II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 849–850.
  27. ^ "Famed Marine Leader Honored". The Los Angeles Times. August 8, 1946. p. 8.
  28. ^ Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 876). Millett (1993), p. 257.
  29. ^ Hearings Before and Special Reports Made by Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives on Subjects Affecting the Naval and Military Establishments. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1959. pp. 345–349.
  30. ^ Acts of September 14, 1976 [National Emergencies Act] (90 Stat. 1255) and July 30, 1977 [Department of Defense Appropriation Authorization Act, 1978] (91 Stat. 336). Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Administrative Law and Governmental Relations of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, First Session: National Emergencies Act. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 52.
  31. ^ Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Part 3: Financial Statements: Manpower, Personnel, and Reserves. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1960. pp. 742–743.
  32. ^ Shisler (2009), p. 268.
  33. ^ Full Committee Hearings on H.R. 3049, H.R. 3251, H.R. 3053, H.R. 3056, H.R. 3252, H.R. 1845, H.R. 3191, H.R. 3057, H.R. 2314, H.R. 1380, H.J. Res. 96, H.R. 3055, H.R. 3394, H.R. 3484. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1947. p. 3011.
  34. ^ Smith, Oliver P., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, June 12, 1969, Marine Corps History Division, pp. 329–330.
  35. ^ "Marine General, Wartime CO of 2nd Division, Retires". Guam Daily News. July 17, 1950. p. 2.
  36. ^ a b Acts of October 18, 1951 [Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1952] (65 Stat. 424) and August 1, 1953 [Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1954] (67 Stat. 337). Bartlett, Charles (January 6, 1952). "Washington Report". The Chattanooga Times. p. 16. "2 Staff Chiefs Future Posts Still In Doubt". The Baltimore Sun. May 19, 1953. p. 2.
  37. ^ "Assistant Marine Commandant Won't Retire Until 1960". Independent. September 1, 1959. p. B-6.
  38. ^ a b c d Millett (1993), pp. 334–335.
  39. ^ a b Millett (1993), pp. 258–259.
  40. ^ "More Marine Brass Joins Nov. 1 Exodus". The York Dispatch. September 12, 1959. p. 5.
  41. ^ a b Jablon, Howard (2004). "David Monroe Shoup". In Millett, Allan R.; Shulimson, Jack (eds.). Commandants of the Marine Corps. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 367–369.
  42. ^ Millett (1993), pp. 315–316, 318.
  43. ^ Shisler (2009), pp. 263–264.
  44. ^ Act of July 17, 1953 [Private Law 92] (67 Stat. A34). "Gen. Graves Erskine Is Slated To Hold High Civilian Post In Defense Department With Act Of Congress". Caldwell Watchman-Progress. June 25, 1953. p. 6.
  45. ^ Shepherd, Lemuel C. Jr., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, February 22, 1967, Marine Corps History Division, p. 194.
  46. ^ Act of May 5, 1954 [Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954] (68 Stat. 70). Macomber, Frank (May 31, 1954). "Military Officer Retirement Cleared". San Pedro News-Pilot. p. 5. Thomas, Gerald C., recorded interview by Benis M. Frank, October 7, 1966, Marine Corps History Division, p. 344.
  47. ^ "U.S. Marine Corps Lieutenant General - Pay Grade and Rank Details". www.federalpay.org.
  48. ^ Woodward, Bob (2006). State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. Simon and Schuster. pp. 22, 40. ISBN 978-0-7432-7223-0. scott fry joint staff.
  49. ^ "ON RAISING THE RANK OF THE CHIEF OF THE NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU" (PDF). Library of Congress. February 2007.
  50. ^ a b 10 U.S.C. § 525 - Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades.
  51. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 526 - Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
  52. ^ a b "US Marine Corps Forces South welcomes 3-star commander". DVIDS.
  53. ^ "TRAINING AND EDUCATION COMMAND BECOMES A THREE STAR COMMAND". U.S. Marine Corps. March 8, 2020.
  54. ^ Eckstein, Megan (September 28, 2020). "TECOM: Modernizing Training, Education Will Be a Focus for Marines In FY 2022". USNI News.
  55. ^ A dual-hatted position from 2005 to 2012, command of MARCENT prior to that was held by the commander of U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Pacific.
  56. ^ "LT. GEN. SATTLER ASSUMES MARCENT COMMAND". Camp Pendleton. August 10, 2005.
  57. ^ Cpl. Jennifer Pirante (September 12, 2012). "I MEF, MARCENT WELCOME NEW LEADERS". I MEF. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  58. ^ Marine forces subordinated to the U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM)
  59. ^ "Lt. Gen. McMillian Retires After 38 Years of Service". DVIDS.
  60. ^ "U.S. Marine Corps Forces Northern Command Transfers to U.S. Marine Corps Forces Command". DVIDS.
  61. ^ "Lt. Gen. David G. Bellon assumes command of Marine Forces Reserve and Marine Forces North". Marine Corps Forces Reserve.