Flag of a Navyvice admiral
Flag of a Navy
vice admiral

This is a list of three-star admirals in the United States Navy since 2010. The rank of vice admiral (or three-star admiral) is the second-highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above rear admiral (two-star admiral) and below admiral (four-star admiral).

There have been 141 vice admirals in the U.S. Navy since January 1, 2010, 19 of whom were promoted to four-star admiral. All 141 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Navy. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 81 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 40 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 6 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 6 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), 4 via direct commission (direct), one via NROTC at a senior military college, one via the California State University Maritime Academy (CSU Maritime), one via the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the United States Army (USA).

List of admirals

Entries in the following list of vice admirals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the admiral's name, date of rank,[1] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[2] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[3] year commissioned and source of commission,[4] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[5] and other biographical notes.[6]

List of U.S. Navy three-star admirals since 2010
# Name Photo Date of rank
[1]
Position [2] Yrs
[3]
Commission
[4]
YC
[5]
Notes [6]
1 John T. Blake
Jan 2010  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2009–2012.
2 1975 (USNA) 35 (1953–        )[7]
2 Michael A. Lefever
Jan 2010   3 1976 (USNA) 34 (1954–        )
3 William R. Burke
Apr 2010[8]
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Readiness and Logistics (DCNO N4), 2010–2012.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfare Systems (DCNO N9), 2012–2013.
3 1978 (USNA) 32 (1956–        )
4 Carol M. Pottenger
7 May 2010   3 1977 (NROTC) 33 (1955–        ) First female surface warfare officer to achieve the rank of vice admiral.
5 Allen G. Myers IV
1 Jul 2010   4 1978 (USAFA) 32 Naval aviator.
6 Mark I. Fox
5 Jul 2010   6 1978 (USNA) 32 (1956–        ) Naval aviator. Director, White House Military Office, 2005–2006.
7 Michael H. Miller
3 Aug 2010   4 1974 (USNA) 36 (1952–        )[9] Naval aviator. Director, White House Military Office, 2002–2005.
8 Daniel P. Holloway Jr.
5 Aug 2010   1 1978 (USNA) 32 (1956–        )
9 William E. Landay III
5 Aug 2010   3 1978 (USNA) 32 (1956–        )
10 Charles J. Leidig Jr.
5 Aug 2010  
  • Deputy to the Commander for Military Operations, U.S. Africa Command (DCDR-MILOP, USAFRICOM), 2010–2013.
3 1978 (USNA) 32 (1955–        )
11 W. Mark Skinner
5 Aug 2010   3 1977 (USNA) 33 (1955–        )
12 Scott R. Van Buskirk
10 Sep 2010   3 1979 (USNA) 31 (1959–        )
* Cecil D. Haney
3 Nov 2010[10] 2 1978 (USNA) 32 (1955–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 20 Jan 2012.
* John M. Richardson
5 Nov 2010   2 1982 (USNA) 28 (1960–        )[12][13][14] Promoted to admiral, 2 Nov 2012.
13 James P. Wisecup
18 Apr 2011   2 1977 (USNA) 34 (1954–        ) President, Naval War College, 2008–2011; Director, Chief of Naval Operations Strategic Studies Group, 2013–2016.
14 Gerald R. Beaman
21 Apr 2011   2 1974 (NROTC) 34 (1952–        )[15]
15 David H. Buss
26 May 2011   4 1978 (USNA) 33 (1956–        ) Naval aviator.
16 Kendall L. Card
Jun 2011   2 1977 (NROTC) 34 (1955–        )
* Scott H. Swift
7 Sep 2011  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2011–2013.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS), 2013–2015.
4 1979 (AOCS) 32 (1959–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 27 May 2015.
* Michael S. Rogers
30 Sep 2011[16] 3 1981 (NROTC) 30 (1959–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 3 Apr 2014. First information warfare community officer to achieve three-star rank.
17 Frank C. Pandolfe
3 Oct 2011   6 1980 (USNA) 31 (1958–        )
18 Matthew L. Nathan
18 Nov 2011   4 1981 (direct) 30 Medical Corps.
19 Timothy M. Giardina
20 Dec 2011   2 1979 (USNA) 32 (1957–        )[17] Relieved, 2013.
20 William D. French
3 Feb 2012   2 1979 (NROTC) 33 (1954–        )
21 Philip H. Cullom
17 Feb 2012  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Readiness and Logistics (DCNO N4), 2012–2017.
5 1979 (USNA) 33 (1957–        )[18]
22 Charles W. Martoglio
17 Feb 2012   2 1978 (USNA) 34 (1956–        )
23 John W. Miller
24 May 2012   3 1979 (USNA) 33 (1957–        )[19]
24 Thomas H. Copeman III
19 Jul 2012   2 1982 (OCS) 30 (1959–        )
25 Nanette M. DeRenzi
20 Jul 2012   3 1984 (direct)[20] 28 (1960–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. First female judge advocate in any service to achieve three-star rank.
* Kurt W. Tidd
26 Jul 2012[21] 3 1978 (USNA) 34 (1956–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 14 Jan 2016. Son of Navy vice admiral Emmett H. Tidd; brother of Navy rear admiral Mark L. Tidd.
26 Robin R. Braun
13 Aug 2012   4 1980 (USNA) 32 (1958–        ) Naval aviator. First woman to lead any reserve component of the U.S. Armed Forces.
* Michelle J. Howard
24 Aug 2012   2 1982 (USNA) 30 (1960–        )[22] Promoted to admiral, 1 Jul 2014. First African-American woman to achieve the rank of vice admiral in the Navy.
27 Michael J. Connor
7 Sep 2012   3 1980 (NROTC) 32 (1960–        )
28 David A. Dunaway
21 Sep 2012   3 1982 (USNA) 30 (1960–        ) Naval aviator.
29 Paul J. Bushong
Oct 2012   2 1981 (USNA) 31 (1958–        )
30 James D. Syring
19 Nov 2012   5 1985 (USNA) 27 (1963–        )[12]
31 Joseph P. Aucoin
5 Mar 2013  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfare Systems (DCNO N9), 2013–2015.
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2015–2017.
4 1980 (NROTC) 33 (1957–        ) Relieved, 2017.
32 Bruce E. Grooms
15 May 2013   2 1980 (USNA) 33 (1958–        )
33 Paul A. Grosklags
23 May 2013   5 1982 (USNA) 31 (1960–        ) Naval aviator.
34 Terry J. Benedict
28 May 2013  
  • Director, Strategic Systems Programs (DIRSSP), 2010–2018.
5 1982 (USNA) 31 (1958–        )
35 Kenneth E. Floyd
3 Jun 2013   2 1980 (NROTC) 33 (1958–        )
36 William H. Hilarides
7 Jun 2013   3 1981 (USNA) 32 (1959–        )
37 Sean A. Pybus
2 Jul 2013   3 1979 (NROTC) 34 (1957–        ) Navy SEAL.
38 Nora W. Tyson
22 Jul 2013   4 1979 (OCS) 34 (1957–        ) First woman to command a ship fleet.
39 Ted N. Branch
30 Jul 2013   3 1979 (USNA) 34 (1957–        ) Naval aviator. Relieved, 2016.
40 Robert L. Thomas Jr.
31 Jul 2013  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2013–2015.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS), 2015–2016.
3 1979 (NROTC) 34 (1956–        )
* William F. Moran
2 Aug 2013  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2013–2016.
3 1981 (USNA) 32 (1958–        )[22] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 31 May 2016.
* James F. Caldwell Jr.
5 Sep 2013   2 1981 (USNA) 32 (1959–        )[13] Promoted to admiral, 14 Aug 2015. Great-grandson of Navy four-star admiral Jehu V. Chase.
41 Joseph W. Rixey
6 Sep 2013   4 1983 (USNA) 30 (1960–        )[12]
42 William A. Brown
9 Oct 2013   4 1980 (VMI) 33 (1958–        ) Supply Corps.
* Philip S. Davidson
11 Oct 2013   1 1982 (USNA) 31 (1960–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 19 Dec 2014.
43 Joseph P. Mulloy
10 Jan 2014[23]
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2014–2017.
3 1979 (USNA) 35 (1957–        )
44 Jan E. Tighe
2 Apr 2014   4 1984 (USNA) 30 (1962–        ) First woman to command a numbered fleet.
45 Walter E. Carter Jr.
23 Jul 2014   5 1981 (USNA) 33 (1959–        ) President, Naval War College, 2013–2014; President, University of Nebraska System, 2020–present.
46 Thomas S. Rowden
7 Aug 2014   4 1982 (USNA) 32 (1963–        ) Relieved, 2018. Son of Navy vice admiral William H. Rowden.
47 Dixon R. Smith
24 Oct 2014   5 1983 (USNA) 31 (1960–        )
* James G. Foggo III
14 Dec 2014   3 1981 (USNA) 33 (1959–        ) Promoted to admiral, 20 Oct 2017.
48 Troy M. Shoemaker
22 Jan 2015   3 1982 (USNA) 33 (1960–        ) Naval aviator.
49 Herman A. Shelanski
15 May 2015   3 1979 (AOCS) 36 (1957–        )
50 Michael T. Franken
22 Jun 2015  
  • Deputy to the Commander for Military Operations, U.S. Africa Command (DCDR-MILOP, USAFRICOM), 2015–2017.
2 1981 (NROTC) 34 (1957–        )
51 James W. Crawford III
26 Jun 2015   3 1983 (direct)[20] 32 (1957–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. President, Felician University, 2021–present.
52 Kevin M. Donegan
3 Sep 2015   3 1980 (NROTC) 35 (1958–        ) Naval aviator.
53 Richard P. Breckenridge
8 Sep 2015   2 1982 (USNA) 33 (1960–        )
54 Joseph E. Tofalo
11 Sep 2015   3 1983 (USNA) 32 (1962–        )
55 John N. Christenson
Oct 2015   3 1981 (USNA) 34 (1958–        ) President, Naval War College, 2011–2013.
56 David C. Johnson
Oct 2015   3 1982 (USNA) 33 (1960–        )
* John C. Aquilino
13 Oct 2015   3 1984 (USNA) 31 (1961–        )[11] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 17 May 2018.
57 Raquel C. Bono
29 Oct 2015   4 1979 (NROTC) 36 (1957–        ) First Asian-American woman to achieve the rank of vice admiral.
58 C. Forrest Faison III
25 Dec 2015   4 1980 (direct) 35 (1958–        ) Medical Corps.
* Robert P. Burke
27 May 2016  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2016–2019.
3 1983 (NROTC) 33 (1962–        )[12][22] Promoted to admiral, 10 Jun 2019.
59 Thomas J. Moore
10 Jun 2016   4 1981 (USNA) 35 (1959–        )
60 Kevin D. Scott
Jul 2016  
  • Director, Joint Force Development, Joint Staff, J7, 2016–2018.
2 1982 (NROTC) 34 (1960–        ) Naval aviator.
* Michael M. Gilday
14 Jul 2016   3 1985 (USNA) 31 (1962–        )[14] Promoted to admiral, 22 Aug 2019.
61 Colin J. Kilrain
15 Jul 2016   6 1985 (OCS) 31 (1958–        ) Navy SEAL.
62 Luke M. McCollum
28 Sep 2016   4 1983 (USNA) 33 (1960–        )
63 P. Gardner Howe III
4 Oct 2016   3 1982 (USNA) 34 (1962–        ) Navy SEAL. President, Naval War College, 2014–2016.
* Charles A. Richard
18 Oct 2016   3 1982 (NROTC) 34 (1959–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 18 Nov 2019.
* Christopher W. Grady
28 Oct 2016   2 1984 (NROTC) 32 (1962–        )[24] Promoted to admiral, 4 May 2018.
64 Mary M. Jackson
31 Mar 2017   3 1988 (USNA) 29 (1966–        )[12]
* William K. Lescher
5 Apr 2017  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2017–2020.
3 1980 (USNA) 37 (1958–        )[22] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 29 May 2020.
65 David H. Lewis
24 May 2017   3 1979 (NROTC) 38 (1957–        )
66 Mathias W. Winter
25 May 2017[25] 2 1984 (NROTC) 33 (1962–        )
67 Matthew J. Kohler
6 Jul 2017[26] 3 1983 (AOCS) 34 (1960–        )
68 William R. Merz
31 Jul 2017  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfare Systems (DCNO N9), 2017–2019.
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2019–2021.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Operations, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2021–present.
4 1986 (USNA) 31 (1963–        )
69 Andrew L. Lewis
16 Aug 2017   4 1985 (USNA) 32 (1963–        ) Naval aviator.
70 Phillip G. Sawyer
23 Aug 2017  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2017–2019.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Operations, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2019–2021.
4 1983 (USNA) 34 (1961–        )
71 John D. Alexander
15 Sep 2017   2 1982 (AOCS) 35 (1956–        )
72 Frederick J. Roegge
25 Sep 2017   4 1980 (NROTC) 37 (1958–        )
73 Bruce H. Lindsey
7 Nov 2017   3 1982 (USNA) 35 (1960–        )
74 Richard A. Brown
8 Jan 2018   2 1985 (USNA) 33 (1963–        )
75 DeWolfe H. Miller III
11 Jan 2018   2 1981 (USNA) 37 (1959–        ) Naval aviator.
76 Nancy A. Norton
1 Feb 2018   3 1987 (NROTC) 31 (1964–        )
77 Lisa M. Franchetti
1 Mar 2018   4 1985 (NROTC) 33 (1964–        )
* Craig S. Faller
Apr 2018   0 1983 (USNA) 35 (1961–        )[11] Promoted to admiral, 26 Nov 2018.
78 Johnny R. Wolfe Jr.
4 May 2018  
  • Director, Strategic Systems Programs (DIRSSP), 2018–present.
4 1988 (USNA) 30 (1965–        )[12]
79 Scott A. Stearney
6 May 2018   0 1987 (USNA) 31 (1960–2018) Naval aviator. Died in office.
80 G. Dean Peters
31 May 2018   3 1985 (USNA) 33 (1963–        )[12] Naval aviator.
81 Brian B. Brown
15 Jun 2018   3 1986 (USNA) 32 (1964–        )
82 David M. Kriete
15 Jun 2018   3 1984 (USNA) 34 (1963–        )
83 Timothy J. White
18 Jun 2018   2 1987 (USNA) 31 (1965–        )
84 James J. Malloy
31 Jul 2018   4 1986 (USNA) 32 (1963–        )
85 Richard P. Snyder
31 Jul 2018   3 1983 (NROTC) 35 (1960–        ) Naval aviator.
86 John G. Hannink
12 Sep 2018   3 1985 (USNA) 33 (1962–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps; former naval aviator.
87 Michael T. Moran
12 Oct 2018   3 1984 (USNA) 34 (1962–        )
88 Timothy G. Szymanski
15 Oct 2018   3 1985 (USNA) 33 (1962–        ) Navy SEAL.
89 Michael J. Dumont
5 Nov 2018   3 1990 (USA) 28 (1960–        )[27] Naval aviator.
90 Robert D. Sharp
7 Feb 2019   3 1988 (OCS) 31 -
91 Stuart B. Munsch
28 Mar 2019  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfighting Development (DCNO N7), 2019–2020.
  • Director, Joint Force Development, Joint Staff, J7, 2020–present.
3 1985 (USNA) 34 (1962–        )
92 Ross A. Myers
24 May 2019   3 1986 (NROTC) 33 (1959–        ) Naval aviator.
93 John B. Nowell Jr.
24 May 2019  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2019–present.
3 1984 (USNA) 35 (1962–        )
94 Jon A. Hill
31 May 2019   3 1985 (NROTC) 34 (1963–        )
95 Ronald A. Boxall
7 Jun 2019  
  • Director, Force Structure, Resources and Assessment, Joint Staff, J8, 2019–present.
3 1984 (NROTC) 35 (1963–        )
96 Ricky L. Williamson
27 Jun 2019  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Readiness and Logistics (DCNO N4), 2019–present.
3 1985 (USNA) 34 (1962–        )
97 Dee L. Mewbourne
2 Jul 2019   3 1982 (USNA) 37 (1961–        )
98 James W. Kilby
23 Jul 2019  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfighting Requirements and Capabilities (DCNO N9), 2019–2021.
  • Deputy Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command/Deputy Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command/Deputy Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Strategic Command/Commander, Task Force 80 (DCOMUSFF/DCOMUSNAVNORTH/DCOMUSNAVSTRAT/CTF-80), 2021–present.
3 1986 (USNA) 33 (1963–        )
99 Sean S. Buck
26 Jul 2019   3 1983 (USNA) 36 (1960–        )
100 Scott D. Conn
27 Sep 2019  
  • Commander, U.S. Third Fleet (COMTHIRDFLT), 2019–2021.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfighting Requirements and Capabilities (DCNO N9), 2021–present.
3 1985 (NROTC) 34 (1962–        ) Naval aviator.
* Daryl L. Caudle
12 Nov 2019   2 1985 (OCS) 34 (1963–        ) Promoted to admiral, 7 Dec 2021.
101 Randy B. Crites
15 May 2020  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2020–present.
2 1985 (OCS)[28] 35 (1962–        )
102 Yancy B. Lindsey
29 May 2020   2 1986 (AOCS) 34 (1962–        ) Naval aviator.
103 Eugene H. Black III
1 Jun 2020   2 1986 (USNA) 34 (1964–        )
104 Jeffrey E. Trussler
5 Jun 2020   2 1985 (NROTC) 35 (1963–        )
105 William J. Galinis
19 Jun 2020   2 1983 (USNA) 37 (1961–        )
106 Michelle C. Skubic
24 Jul 2020   2 1988 (NROTC) 32 (1966–        ) Supply Corps.
107 Roy I. Kitchener
3 Aug 2020   2 1984 (NROTC) 36 (1962–        )
108 John B. Mustin
7 Aug 2020   2 1990 (USNA) 30 (1967–        ) Son of Navy vice admiral Henry C. Mustin; grandson of Navy vice admiral Lloyd M. Mustin.
* Samuel J. Paparo Jr.
19 Aug 2020   1 1987 (NROTC) 33 (1964–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 5 May 2021.
109 Kenneth R. Whitesell
2 Oct 2020   2 1985 (AOCS) 35 (1961–        ) Naval aviator.
110 Jeffrey W. Hughes
1 Feb 2021  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfighting Development (DCNO N7), 2021–present.
1 1988 (NROTC) 33 (1966–        ) Naval aviator.
111 Charles B. Cooper II
5 May 2021   1 1989 (USNA) 32 (1967–        )
112 Kelly A. Aeschbach
7 May 2021   1 1990 (NROTC) 31 (1968–        )
113 Stephen T. Koehler
3 Jun 2021   1 1989 (NROTC) 32 (1964–        ) Naval aviator.
114 John V. Fuller
11 Jun 2021   1 1987 (USNA) 34 (1965–        )
115 Karl O. Thomas
8 Jul 2021   1 1986 (NROTC) 35 (1963–        ) Naval aviator.
116 Frank D. Whitworth III
30 Jul 2021   1 1989 (NROTC) 32 (1967–        ) Brother-in-law of Navy vice admiral Darse E. Crandall Jr.
117 Francis D. Morley
4 Aug 2021   1 1988 (NROTC) 33 (1966–        ) Naval aviator.
118 Darse E. Crandall Jr.
18 Aug 2021   1 1984 (NROTC) 37 (1962–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. Brother-in-law of Navy vice admiral Frank D. Whitworth III.
119 Daniel W. Dwyer
20 Aug 2021   1 1988 (CSU Maritime) 33 (1966–        ) Naval aviator.
120 Carl P. Chebi
9 Sep 2021   1 1987 (NROTC) 34 (1965–        ) Naval aviator.
121 William J. Houston
10 Sep 2021   1 1990 (NROTC) 31 (1968–        )
122 Collin P. Green
16 Dec 2021   1 1986 (USNA) 35 (1962–        ) Navy SEAL.

Timeline

2010–present

Collin P. GreenWilliam J. HoustonCarl P. ChebiDaniel W. DwyerDarse CrandallFrancis D. MorleyFrank D. WhitworthKarl O. ThomasJohn V. FullerStephen T. KoehlerKelly AeschbachCharles Cooper IIJeffrey W. HughesKenneth R. WhitesellSamuel PaparoJohn MustinRoy KitchenerMichelle K. SkubicWilliam J. GalinisJeffrey TrusslerEugene H. Black IIIYancy LindseyRandy B. CritesDaryl CaudleScott D. ConnSean BuckJames KilbyDee MewbourneRicky WilliamsonRonald A. BoxallJon A. HillJohn B. NowellRoss A. MyersStuart B. MunschRobert D. SharpMike DumontTimothy SzymanskiMichael T. MoranJohn G. HanninkRichard P. SnyderJames J. MalloyTimothy J. WhiteDavid KrieteBrian B. BrownG. Dean PetersScott StearneyJohnny WolfeCraig S. FallerLisa FranchettiNancy A. NortonDeWolfe Miller IIIRichard A. Brown (admiral)Bruce H. LindseyFritz RoeggeJohn D. Alexander (admiral)Phillip G. SawyerAndrew L. Lewis (admiral)William R. MerzMatthew J. KohlerMathias W. WinterDavid H. LewisWilliam K. LescherMary M. JacksonChristopher W. GradyCharles A. RichardP. Gardner Howe IIILuke M. McCollumColin J. KilrainKevin D. ScottMichael M. GildayThomas Moore (admiral)Robert P. BurkeC. Forrest Faison IIIRaquel C. BonoJohn C. AquilinoDavid C. Johnson (admiral)John N. ChristensonJoseph E. TofaloKevin M. DoneganRichard P. BreckenridgeJames W. Crawford IIIMichael T. FrankenHerman A. ShelanskiTroy M. ShoemakerJames G. Foggo IIIDixon R. SmithThomas S. RowdenWalter E. Carter Jr.Jan E. TigheJoseph P. MulloyPhilip S. DavidsonWilliam A. Brown (admiral)Joseph W. RixeyJames F. Caldwell Jr.William F. Moran (admiral)Robert L. Thomas Jr.Ted N. BranchNora W. TysonSean A. PybusWilliam H. HilaridesKenneth E. FloydTerry J. BenedictPaul A. GrosklagsBruce E. GroomsJoseph AucoinJames D. SyringPaul J. BushongDavid A. DunawayMichael J. ConnorMichelle HowardRobin BraunNanette M. DeRenziKurt W. TiddThomas H. Copeman IIIJohn W. MillerCharles W. MartoglioPhilip Hart CullomWilliam D. FrenchTimothy GiardinaMatthew L. NathanFrank Craig PandolfeMichael S. RogersScott H. SwiftKendall L. CardDavid Buss (United States Navy)Gerald R. BeamanJames P. WisecupJohn M. Richardson (admiral)Cecil D. HaneyScott R. Van BuskirkW. Mark SkinnerCharles J. LeidigWilliam E. Landay IIIDaniel Holloway (admiral)Michael H. MillerMark I. FoxAllen G. Myers IVCarol M. PottengerWilliam R. BurkeMichael A. LefeverJohn Terence Blake (admiral)Iraq WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

History

See also: List of United States Navy vice admirals on active duty before 1960 § History

Civil War

Stephen C. Rowan

The grade of vice admiral in the United States Navy was created by Congress in December 1864 to honor David G. Farragut for his victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay during the American Civil War. The promotion made Farragut the senior officer in the Navy but did not give him command of all naval forces, unlike the corresponding grade of lieutenant general that had been revived for Ulysses S. Grant earlier that year.[29] After the war, Farragut was promoted to admiral and his vacated vice admiralcy was filled by David D. Porter. When Farragut died in 1870, Porter succeeded him as admiral and Stephen C. Rowan became vice admiral. Three years later, Congress stopped further promotions to admiral or vice admiral, and the vice admiral grade expired with Rowan in 1890.[30]

After the Spanish-American War, Congress tried to revive the grade to reward William T. Sampson and Winfield S. Schley for winning the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, but the officers feuded bitterly over credit for the victory and their partisans in the Senate could not agree on who would be the senior vice admiral, so neither was promoted.[31][32] Even after Sampson died in 1902, his admirers continued to prevent Schley from being promoted, while Schley's friends blocked all moves to elevate any other officer over him during his lifetime, such as an attempt to promote Robley D. Evans to vice admiral on the retired list in 1909. No new vice admirals were created until after Schley's death in 1911.[33][34]

World War I

Henry T. Mayo

In 1915, Congress authorized the President to designate the commanders in chief of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets to hold the rank of admiral, and their seconds in command the rank of vice admiral. The chief of naval operations (CNO) received the rank of admiral the following year.[35] Because Porter and Rowan had been promoted permanently to vice admiral and then never gone to sea again, Congress made these new ranks strictly ex officio. Upon relinquishing command, an officer lost his designation as admiral or vice admiral and reverted to his permanent grade of rear admiral.[36] The three fleet commanders were immediately made admirals to match the rank of their foreign counterparts, but only the second in command of the Atlantic Fleet, Henry T. Mayo, was designated a vice admiral, since the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets were too small to employ their vice admirals.[37]

Albert Gleaves

When the United States entered World War I, Congress generalized the law to let the President designate up to six commanders of any fleet or subdivision of a fleet to hold ranks higher than rear admiral, of which up to three could be admirals and the rest vice admirals. This allowed William S. Sims to be designated vice admiral as commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters. The other two vice admiral designations went to the Atlantic Fleet's two battleship force commanders.[38] When the Asiatic Fleet's commander in chief retired in December 1918, his four-star designation was transferred to Sims, whose vacated vice admiralcy went to Albert Gleaves, commander of the Atlantic Fleet's cruiser and transport force.[39] By the end of 1918, all three seagoing admirals and all three vice admirals were assigned to the Atlantic and European theaters, including the four-star commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, who had taken a force to patrol the South Atlantic Ocean.[40]

William L. Rodgers

With the end of hostilities in Europe, the six designations for admirals and vice admirals were redistributed in 1919. The commanders in chief of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets remained admirals. About half of the major ships in the Atlantic Fleet transferred to the Pacific Fleet, which was now large enough to employ a vice admiral to command its battleship force. A second vice admiral commanded the battleship force of the Atlantic Fleet, and a third vice admiral, Gleaves, commanded its cruiser and transport force. The sixth designation returned to the Asiatic Fleet when Sims left his European command, but its commander in chief, William L. Rodgers, was promoted only to vice admiral since Gleaves was already slated to be its admiral, so for a few months there were four vice admirals and only three admirals, including the CNO.[41]

In September 1919, Gleaves was appointed commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet with the rank of admiral. Rodgers remained vice admiral in command of Division 1 of the Asiatic Fleet until January 1920, so for the first and only time, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets each had an admiral and vice admiral, as originally envisioned in 1915.[42]

Interwar

In 1922 the three fleets were combined into a single United States Fleet with three admirals and three vice admirals. One admiral served as commander in chief of the United States Fleet (CINCUS), a second admiral as commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, and the third admiral as commander in chief of the former Pacific Fleet, now the Battle Fleet. A vice admiral commanded the former Atlantic Fleet, now the Scouting Fleet, and a second vice admiral commanded the battleship divisions of the Battle Fleet.[43] The Battle Fleet and Scouting Fleet became the Battle Force and Scouting Force, respectively, when the United States Fleet was reorganized into type commands in 1931.[44] When the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets were reconstituted in February 1941, CINCUS was dual-hatted as commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC), and the commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet was made an admiral by downgrading the Battle Force's commander to vice admiral and its battleship commander to rear admiral.[45]

The third vice admiral designation moved from the Asiatic Fleet to the commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters in 1920 and lapsed when the European force was disbanded in 1929. It was revived the next year for the commander of the Scouting Fleet's light cruiser divisions and subsequently the Scouting Force's cruisers, before migrating in 1935 to the commander of the Battle Force's aircraft.[46]

William V. Pratt

A flag officer in the United States Fleet climbed a cursus honorum that nominally began with command of a battleship division as a rear admiral, followed by command of all battleship divisions in the Battle Force as a vice admiral, then command of the entire Battle Force as an admiral, and finally either CINCUS, the highest office afloat, or CNO, the highest office ashore—or both, in the case of William V. Pratt.[47] Upon leaving the fleet, it was normal for a former three- or four-star commander to revert to his permanent grade of rear admiral and remain on active duty until statutory retirement as president of the Naval War College, commandant of a naval district, or member of the General Board.[35]

Since there were four admirals and only three vice admirals, it was not uncommon to skip the rank of vice admiral entirely, especially for commanders in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, which was seen as a four-star consolation prize for flag officers who were out of the running for CINCUS or CNO.[47] By the early 1940s, neither the CNO (Harold R. Stark), CINCUS (Claude C. Bloch, James O. Richardson), nor CINCPAC (Husband E. Kimmel, Chester W. Nimitz) had ever been a vice admiral.

World War II

Robert L. Ghormley

In July 1941, Congress authorized the President to designate, at his own discretion, up to nine additional officers to carry the ex officio rank of vice admiral while performing special or unusual duty, for a total of 12 vice admirals in the permanent establishment.[48] The first of the nine new vice admiral designations was assigned to Robert L. Ghormley, then serving as special observer in the U.S. Embassy in London.[49] After the United States entry into World War II in December 1941, the new commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet, Royal E. Ingersoll, was designated a vice admiral after his predecessor, Ernest J. King, was appointed commander in chief of the United States Fleet (COMINCH, formerly CINCUS) and took the Atlantic Fleet's four-star designation with him.[50] The remaining seven vice admiral slots were quickly filled by the director of the Office of Procurement and Material and the commanders of U.S. Naval Forces, Southwest Pacific; ANZAC Force; the service forces in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets; and two anti-submarine task forces in the Atlantic Fleet.

Russell Willson

All 12 vice admiral designations were in use by March 1942, when a headquarters reorganization called for two more vice admirals to be vice chief of naval operations and chief of staff to COMINCH. Frederick J. Horne and Russell Willson were nominated to be temporary vice admirals,[51] under a 1941 statute that authorized an unlimited number of appointments in all grades for temporary service during a national emergency, with temporary flag officers needing confirmation by the Senate.[52] The statute technically created temporary grades only up to rear admiral, but the Senate confirmed Horne and Willson as vice admirals anyway,[53] and continued to confirm temporary admirals and vice admirals when nominated. Dozens of temporary vice admirals were appointed during World War II, either to serve in a specified job or simply for the duration of the national emergency.

Postwar

The Officer Personnel Act of 1947 consolidated the various laws governing vice admiral appointments. Previously, the President had controlled a pool of 12 vice admiral designations that he could assign at his own discretion.[54] In addition, the Senate could confirm an unlimited number of officers nominated by the President to hold the temporary personal grade of vice admiral, either while serving in a particular job or for the duration of a national emergency.[52] Under the new law, all vice admirals had to be confirmed by the Senate, and held that temporary grade only while serving in a particular job. The maximum number of vice admirals was proportional to the total number of flag officers.[55]

The new law also made any former admiral or vice admiral eligible to retire with that rank,[55] simplifying the hodgepodge of rules that had promoted various classes of retirees piecemeal. Originally every designated admiral and vice admiral retired in his permanent grade of rear admiral. In 1930 Congress promoted officers on the retired list to their highest rank held during World War I, which was defined as having ended on July 2, 1921, so John D. McDonald, who became vice admiral on July 1, 1921, was promoted, but William R. Shoemaker, who became vice admiral only a week later, was not.[56][57] In 1942 former fleet commanders were allowed to retire as admiral or vice admiral if they had served in that grade for at least a year, a cutoff that John H. Dayton and Walter R. Sexton both missed by about two weeks. Dayton lived long enough to be advanced back to vice admiral by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, but Sexton did not.[58]

Lynde D. McCormick

Postwar vice admirals typically headed directorates in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, numbered fleets, type commands, sea frontiers, senior educational institutions like the National War College and the Naval War College, or other interservice or international positions. Upon completing their capstone assignments, many senior flag officers resumed the prewar pattern of remaining on active duty in a lower grade until statutory retirement, in contrast to Army and Air Force general officers who usually preferred to retire immediately to avoid demotion. For example, Lynde D. McCormick reverted from vice admiral to rear admiral but rose again to vice admiral and admiral before dropping to vice admiral for his final assignment.[59]

Tombstone promotions

Further information: List of United States Navy tombstone vice admirals

David W. Bagley

In 1925 Congress authorized Navy and Marine Corps officers who had been specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat during World War I to retire with the rank of the next higher grade but not its pay. Such honorary increases in rank at retirement were dubbed tombstone promotions, since their only tangible benefit was the right to carve the higher rank on the officer's tombstone.[60][61] Later laws expanded eligibility beyond World War I and to officers already on the retired list. Tombstone promotions were limited in 1947 to duty performed before the end of World War II, meaning before January 1, 1947, and halted entirely in 1959.[62] By May 29, 1959, there were 154 vice admirals on the retired list who had never served on active duty in that rank, not counting those already deceased.[63]

Robert C. Giffen

Dozens of vice admirals received tombstone promotions to admiral.[63] Even if a vice admiral reverted to rear admiral, he could still retire as a vice admiral and then claim a tombstone promotion to admiral, but only if he had satisfactory service in the temporary grade of vice admiral during World War II. For example, Gerald F. Bogan, David W. Bagley, Robert C. Giffen, and Alexander Sharp Jr. all reverted to rear admiral after serving as a vice admiral, and all qualified for a tombstone promotion, but only Bagley was advanced to admiral when he retired.

Modern use

Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert congratulates Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers after Rogers' promotion ceremony on September 30, 2011.
Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Jonathan W. Greenert congratulates Vice Adm. Michael S. Rogers after Rogers' promotion ceremony on September 30, 2011.
Vice Adm. David Dunaway gets his three-star shoulder boards attached by his wife and daughter, September 20, 2012.
Vice Adm. David Dunaway gets his three-star shoulder boards attached by his wife and daughter, September 20, 2012.

There are presently 27 permanent three-star billets in the United States Navy. These positions include commanders of numbered fleets[71] as well as high-level type commands and geographic commands, including the commanders of the naval submarine forces, naval surface forces, naval information forces and the chief of navy reserve. Heads of Navy staff corps such as the judge advocate general[72][73] are also vice admirals. The superintendent of the United States Naval Academy has been a three-star vice admiral without interruption since John R. Ryan's tenure began in 1998.

Vice Adm. Timothy White, commander, U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/U.S. 10th Fleet is sworn in during a promotion ceremony held at FCC/C10F headquarters, June 18, 2018.
Vice Adm. Timothy White, commander, U.S. Fleet Cyber Command/U.S. 10th Fleet is sworn in during a promotion ceremony held at FCC/C10F headquarters, June 18, 2018.

As with any other service branch, vice admirals can hold joint assignments, of which there are 20 to 30 at any given time. Among the most prestigious of them is the Director of the Joint Staff (DJS), principal staff advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and historically considered a stepping stone to four-star rank.[74] All deputy commanders of the unified combatant commands are of three-star rank, as are directors of Defense Agencies not headed by a civilian such as the director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIRDIA).[75] Internationally-based three-star positions include the United States military representative to the NATO Military Committee (USMILREP), the commander of Allied Joint Force Command - Norfolk (JFC-NF), and the security coordinator for the Palestinian National Authority in Israel.

Statutory limits, elevations and reductions

The U.S. Code states that no more than 27 officers in the U.S. Navy may be promoted beyond the rank of rear admiral and below the rank of admiral on the active duty list, with the exception of those on joint duty assignments,.[76] However, the President[76] may designate up to 15 additional three-star appointments, with the condition that for every service branch allotted such additional three-star appointments, an equivalent number must be reduced from other service branches. Other exceptions exist for non-active duty or reserve appointments, as well as other circumstances.[77] As such, three-star positions can be elevated to four-star status or reduced to two-star status where deemed necessary, either to highlight their increasing importance[78] to the defense apparatus (or lack thereof) or to achieve parity with equivalent commands in other services or regions. Several three-star positions have been created, consolidated, or even eliminated entirely during this era.

While it is rare for three-star or four-star nominations to face even token opposition in the Senate, nominations that do face opposition due to controversy surrounding the nominee in question are typically withdrawn. Nominations that are not withdrawn are allowed to expire without action at the end of the legislative session.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Navy register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the monthly U.S. Navy flag officer roster. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to vice admiral. If such a date that qualifies for the above cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to vice admiral should be substituted.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to vice admiral. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty. Positions held in an acting capacity are italicized.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty three-star assignments is not counted.
  4. ^ a b The year commissioned is taken to be the year the officer graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, or equivalent. Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university; NROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Norwich University (Norwich), Pennsylvania Military College (PMC), or Widener University (Widener); Officer Candidate School (OCS); warrant; the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA); United States Military Academy (USMA); and the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ Retired, 1 Feb 2013.
  8. ^ "Vice Admiral William R. Burke" (PDF). U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved 2021-06-18.
  9. ^ Retired, 1 Aug 2015.
  10. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 113th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2014. p. 1130. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Served as a combatant commander (CCDR).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Promoted directly from rank of rear admiral (lower half).
  13. ^ a b Served as Director, Naval Reactors.
  14. ^ a b Served as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO).
  15. ^ On temporary departure from active duty with Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1981–1984; re-commissioned in U.S. Navy as lieutenant, Aug 1984.
  16. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 113th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2014. p. 538. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  17. ^ Relieved, Oct 2013, and retired as rear admiral, Jul 2015.
  18. ^ Nomination as U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense for Energy, Installations, and Environment withdrawn, 2016.
  19. ^ Nomination as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Plans, Policy, and Operations confirmed, Mar 2014; retired prior to assumption of post, Sep 2015.
  20. ^ a b Directly commissioned via the JAG Corps Special Program.
  21. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 114th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2017. p. 955. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  22. ^ a b c d Served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO).
  23. ^ "Vice admiral [Image 1 of 3]". DVIDS. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  24. ^ Served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS).
  25. ^ Carey, Bill (May 30, 2017). "New Officer Takes Charge of Pentagon's F-35 Program". Ain Online.
  26. ^ George Bieber (July 6, 2017). "Pennsylvania Native, Rear Adm. Matthew Kohler, Puts on Third Star". DVIDS. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
  27. ^ Transferred to U.S. Navy Reserve from U.S. Army, 1990.
  28. ^ Commissioned via the Navy Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NUPOC) Program.
  29. ^ "Vice-Admiral Farragut". The New York Times. December 23, 1864. p. 6.
  30. ^ Acts of December 21, 1874 (13 Stat. 420); July 25, 1866 (14 Stat. 222); and January 24, 1873 (17 Stat. 418). Chisholm, pp. 311-313, 349-353.
  31. ^ "Admirals Sampson and Schley". The Army and Navy Journal. February 23, 1901. p. 617.
  32. ^ "Sampson Doomed". The Wilkes-Barre Record. February 28, 1901. p. 5.
  33. ^ "Case Is Lost". The Courier-Journal. January 29, 1902. p. 1.
  34. ^ "Evans No Vice Admiral". The Baltimore Sun. February 16, 1909. p. 2.
  35. ^ a b Peeks, Ryan (October 2016). "Temporary Admirals Might Do". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 142 (10).
  36. ^ Chisholm, pp. 557, 565, 568. House Report No. 377, 63d Congress, 2d Session: Admirals and Vice Admirals, United States Navy. Government Printing Office. March 13, 1914.
  37. ^ Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs, House of Representatives, Sixty-Fourth Congress, First Session, on Estimates Submitted by the Secretary of the Navy, 1916, Volume 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1916. pp. 3565–3566, 3653–3654.
  38. ^ "Two Divisions Of Atlantic Battleship Fleet Announced". The Official Bulletin. July 19, 1917. p. 2.
  39. ^ "Half Of U.S. Navy Soon Will Be Sent To The Pacific Ocean". The Capital. November 30, 1918. p. 1.
  40. ^ Johnson, pp 181–183.
  41. ^ "To Command Our Atlantic Fleet". The Beattie Eagle. July 10, 1919. p. 2.
  42. ^ "Changes Among Navy Flag Officers". Army and Navy Journal. February 7, 1920. p. 698.
  43. ^ Annual Reports of the Navy Department For The Fiscal Year 1923. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1924. p. 122.
  44. ^ Wheeler, pp. 325–326.
  45. ^ King and Whitehill, p. 318.
  46. ^ "Marvell Awarded Vice Admiralcy As Third Of Rank". The Honolulu Advertiser. December 14, 1930. p. 1.
  47. ^ a b Wheeler, pp. 242, 252–255.
  48. ^ Chisholm, pp. 763–764. Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on Sundry Legislation Affecting the Naval Establishment, 1941–[1942]: Seventy-Sixth Congress, First–[Second] Session, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1942. pp. 1426–1433.
  49. ^ Rear Admiral Robert L. Ghormley Advanced To Vice Admiral. Navy Department press release. September 20, 1941.
  50. ^ "Ingersoll Raised To Full Admiral". The Muncie Evening Press. July 3, 1942. p. 2.
  51. ^ "Admiral King Named To Head Operations; Two Are Promoted". The Cincinnati Enquirer. March 14, 1942. p. 7.
  52. ^ a b Acts of July 24, 1941 (55 Stat. 603) and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886). "Personal Money Allowance—Admirals And Vice Admirals (22 Comp. Gen. 1071)". Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. Vol. 22. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1943. p. 1071.
  53. ^ Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on Sundry Legislation Affecting the Naval Establishment, 1943–[1944]: Seventy-Sixth Congress, First–[Second] Session, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1944. p. 3202.
  54. ^ Acts of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 941); May 22, 1917 (40 Stat. 89); July 17, 1941 (55 Stat. 598); and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886). Chisholm, pp. 763-764. Congressional Record (June 30, 1941), Vol. 87, Part 1, p. 5727.
  55. ^ a b Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886.)
  56. ^ "Ten Admirals For Life". The Cincinnati Enquirer. August 23, 1930. p. 7.
  57. ^ "Army and Navy News". The Sunday Star. August 17, 1930. p. 65.
  58. ^ "Navy Officers' Elevation Due". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. July 10, 1942. p. 15.
  59. ^ "Biographic Sketch: Vice Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, U.S.N." Naval War College Review. 9 (2): 54–55. October 1956.
  60. ^ "Navy Officers Make Honorary Rank Bid". The Fresno Bee. August 5, 1959. p. 3.
  61. ^ Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Part 3: Financial Statements: Manpower, Personnel, and Reserves. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1960. pp. 742–743.
  62. ^ Acts of March 4, 1925 (43 Stat. 1278); July 17, 1941 (55 Stat. 598); June 6, 1942 (56 Stat. 370); August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886); October 12, 1949 [Career Compensation Act of 1949] (63 Stat. 806); and August 11, 1959 (72 Stat. 337). Patrick, Howard A. (August 1948). "The Effect of Combat Commendation Upon Retirement". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 74 (8): 957–965.
  63. ^ a b Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Eighty-Sixth Congress, First Session on S. 1795: A Bill Amending Title 10, United States Code, to Revise Certain Provisions Relating to the Promotion and Involuntary Retirement of Officers of the Regular Components of the Armed Forces. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1959. pp. 25–26, 61–62.
  64. ^ Wooldridge, E. T. (1995). Into the Jet Age: Conflict and Change in Naval Aviation, 1945–1975, An Oral History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 104–105.
  65. ^ "Bogan's Retirement Rank In Jeopardy". News-Pilot. January 31, 1950. p. 12.
  66. ^ Confirmed by Senate as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Western Sea Frontier, 18 Jan 1944; while serving as Commander, Hawaiian Sea Frontier, 27 Nov 1944; and until detachment from duty as member of the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 28 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 31 Jan 1946; retired as vice admiral and advanced to tombstone admiral, 1 Apr 1947.
  67. ^ a b Court-Martial Order No. 4–1948: Advancement in rank on retired list: special commendation for performance of duty in actual combat. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. April 1948. pp. 127–131.
  68. ^ Confirmed as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, 22 Mar 1944; and until detachment from duty as Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, 24 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 3 Dec 1945; reprimanded for misconduct while Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, preventing retirement in highest wartime grade; retired as rear admiral and advanced to tombstone vice admiral, 1 Sep 1946.
  69. ^ "Admonish, Reprimand 5 Naval Men". The Windsor Daily Star. May 24, 1946. p. 8.
  70. ^ Investigation of the National Defense Program: Hearings Before A Special Committee Investigating The National Defense Program, United States Senate, Seventy-Ninth Congress, Second Session, Pursuant To S. Res. 55 (79th Congress), Part 33. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1946. pp. 17307–17322, 17539.
  71. ^ only fleets subordinated to U.S. Fleet Forces Command, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and the U.S. Pacific Fleet.
  72. ^ [1] Pub.L. 114-328: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017
  73. ^ Per the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, the JAG's previously statutory three-star rank was revoked, however it remains a vice admiral's billet.
  74. ^ Woodward, Bob (2006). State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III. Simon and Schuster. pp. 22, 40. ISBN 978-0-7432-7223-0. scott fry joint staff.
  75. ^ "ON RAISING THE RANK OF THE CHIEF OF THE NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU" (PDF). Library of Congress. February 2007.
  76. ^ a b 10 U.S.C. § 525 - Distribution of commissioned officers on active duty in general officer and flag officer grades.
  77. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 526 - Authorized strength: general and flag officers on active duty.
  78. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 601 refers to positions held by four-star and three-star officers as "positions of importance and responsibility".
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  91. ^ SSP is responsible for overseeing the inception of advanced technologies and equipment under the Navy's Strategic Weapons Systems.
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  95. ^ 10 U.S.C. § 155 - Joint Staff.
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