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Uralic is a language family located in Northern Eurasia, in the countries of Finland, Estonia, Hungary (where Uralic languages are spoken by the majority of the population), in other countries Uralic languages are spoken by a minority of the population, these languages are spoken in far-northern Norway (in most of the Finnmark region and other regions of the far-north), in far-northern Sweden (in some areas of Norrland), and Russia (where Uralic languages are also spoken by a minority of its population, although there is a significant number of speakers in some Federal subjects - republics and autonomous districts or autonomous okrugs of Northern Russia, these languages are spoken in Udmurtia, Komi Republic, Mordvinia, Mari-El, Karelia, in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Taymyr Autonomous Okrug and also in the former area of Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, now part of the Perm Krai, other areas where Uralic languages are spoken in Russia are for example the Kola Peninsula). In Latvia, in some of the far-northern coastal areas of Courland (Kurzeme) region, a dead Uralic language was spoken: Livonian.

Uralic languages are spoken by about 25 million people. Main Uralic languages in number of speakers are Hungarian (12-13 million), Finnish (5.4 million) and Estonian (1.1 million), that are also national and official languages of sovereign states.

Geographical distribution of the Uralic languages
Geographical distribution of the Uralic languages

Hypothetical ancestors

Major proposals for hypothetical relations to other language families and their proto-languages, none of which have gained wide acceptance:

Ancestral

Samoyedic

Current distribution of the Samoyedic languages
Current distribution of the Samoyedic languages

Ob-Ugric

Dialects of Mansi (and Khanty). .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Northern Mansi   Western and Southern Mansi   Eastern Mansi
Dialects of Mansi (and Khanty).
  Northern Mansi
  Western and Southern Mansi
  Eastern Mansi
Dialects of Khanty (and Mansi):   Obdorsk (Salekhard) dialect   Ob dialects   Southern (Irtysh) Khanty   Surgut dialects   Far Eastern (Vakh-Vasyugan) dialects
Dialects of Khanty (and Mansi):
  Obdorsk (Salekhard) dialect
  Ob dialects
  Southern (Irtysh) Khanty
  Surgut dialects
  Far Eastern (Vakh-Vasyugan) dialects

Magyar

The Hungarian dialects in Hungary and other countries according to an older Hungarian distribution
The Hungarian dialects in Hungary and other countries according to an older Hungarian distribution

Permic

Geographical distribution of Permic languages.
Geographical distribution of Permic languages.

Mari

The four main dialects of Mari.   Hill Mari   North-Western Mari   Meadow Mari   Eastern Mari
The four main dialects of Mari.
  Hill Mari
  North-Western Mari
  Meadow Mari
  Eastern Mari

(Mari dialect continuum)

Mordvinic

Mordvinic languages in Mordovia    Moksha    Erzya
Mordvinic languages in Mordovia
  Moksha
  Erzya

Finnic

Geographical distribution of Finnic languages.
Geographical distribution of Finnic languages.
Map of Finnish dialects
Map of Finnish dialects
North Estonian and South Estonian languages.
North Estonian and South Estonian languages.

(Finnic dialect continuum)

Sami

Recent distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official or minority language.
Recent distribution of the Sami languages: 1. Southern Sami, 2. Ume Sami, 3. Pite Sami, 4. Lule Sami, 5. Northern Sami, 6. Skolt Sami, 7. Inari Sami, 8. Kildin Sami, 9. Ter Sami. Darkened area represents municipalities that recognize Sami as an official or minority language.

(Sami dialect continuum)

Unclassified Uralic languages (all extinct)

Uralic languages whose relationship to other languages in the family is unclear

See also

References

External classification

Linguistic issues