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The following is a list of communist and anti-capitalist parties with representation in national parliaments. This list does not contain communist and anti-capitalist parties previously represented in parliament. This list includes only those parties who officially call themselves communist or anti-capitalist (or socialist parties who are declared anti-capitalist) ideologically. 178 communist and anti-capitalist parties have been elected worldwide to parliament in 84 different countries in both recognized and non-recognized states. Of the 84 states listed here, 18 of them are republics ruled by a socialist, communist or anti-capitalist party, five of them are official socialist states ruled by a communist party; four of which espouse Marxism–Leninism (China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam) while the fifth (North Korea) espouses Juche.[1]

List

Country Continent Party Electoral Coalition Election Upper house Lower house Official ideology
 Algeria Africa National Liberation Front 2021 election
98 / 407
59 / 144
Arab socialism
 Argentina America Workers' Party Workers' Left Front 2017 election
1 / 257
0 / 72
Trotskyism
Socialist Workers' Party
2 / 257
0 / 72
Trotskyism
Revolutionary Communist Party Frente de Todos (2019 coalition)
2 / 257
0 / 72
Marxism-Leninism-Maoism
Intransigent Party
2 / 257
0 / 72
Democratic Socialism
Patria Grande Front
2 / 257
0 / 72
Socialism of the 21st century
 Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria Middle East Syrian National Democratic Alliance 2017 election
4 / 43
Democratic confederalism
Democratic Socialist Arab Ba'ath Party
1 / 43
Democratic socialism
Democratic Union Party Democratic Nation List
3 / 43
Eco-socialism
 Bahrain Middle East Progressive Democratic Tribune 2018 election
1 / 40
0 / 40
Communism
 Bangladesh Asia Workers Party of Bangladesh Grand Alliance 2018 election
4 / 300
Marxism–Leninism
National Socialist Party
2 / 300
Socialism
 Belarus Europe Communist Party of Belarus 2019 election
11 / 110
17 / 64
Marxism–Leninism
Belarusian Patriotic Party
2 / 110
0 / 64
Socialism
 Belgium Europe Workers' Party of Belgium 2019 election
12 / 150
5 / 60
Marxism
 Bolivia America Movement for Socialism 2020 election
75 / 130
21 / 36
Socialism of the 21st century[2][3][4]
 Brazil America Communist Party of Brazil 2018 election
9 / 513
0 / 81
Marxism–Leninism[5]
Socialism and Liberty Party
10 / 513
0 / 81
Democratic socialism[5]
 Burkina Faso Africa Union for Rebirth / Sankarist Party 2020 election
5 / 127
Sankarism
Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba
1 / 127
Communism
 Chile America Communist Party of Chile Apruebo Dignidad 2021 election
12 / 155
2 / 43
Marxism–Leninism[6]
Social Convergence
9 / 155
0 / 43
Democratic socialism
Democratic Revolution
8 / 155
1 / 43
Democratic socialism
Commons
6 / 155
0 / 43
Socialism of the 21st century
Social Green Regionalist Federation
2 / 155
2 / 43
Eco-socialism
Humanist Party Dignidad Ahora
3 / 155
0 / 43
Democratic socialism
 China Asia Communist Party of China United Front 2017–2018 election
2,119 / 2,980
Socialism with Chinese characteristics[7]
 Colombia America Historic Pact for Colombia Historic Pact for Colombia 2022 election
27 / 172
16 / 108
Democratic socialism
Commons Historic Pact for Colombia
5 / 172
5 / 108
Marxism-Leninism
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa Unified Lumumbist Party 2018 election
17 / 500
2 / 108
Lumumbism
 Costa Rica America Broad Front 2022 election
6 / 57
Socialism of the 21st century
 Croatia Europe Workers' Front Green–Left Coalition 2020 election
1 / 151
Democratic socialism
 Cuba America Communist Party of Cuba Committees for the Defense of the Revolution 2018 election
605 / 605
Castroism
 Cyprus Europe Progressive Party of Working People 2021 election
15 / 56
Marxism–Leninism
 Denmark Europe Red–Green Alliance 2019 election
13 / 179
Eco-socialism[8]
Socialist People's Party
14 / 179
Democratic socialism
Inuit Ataqatigiit
1 / 179
Democratic socialism
 Ecuador America Union for Hope 2021 election
49 / 137
[verification needed]
Socialism of the 21st century
 Egypt Africa Homeland Defenders Party Call of Egypt 2020 Egyptian Parliamentary and Senate Elections
23 / 596
11 / 300
Democratic socialism
National Progressive Unionist Party National Front Alliance
6 / 596
4 / 300
Nasserism
 El Salvador America Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front 2021 election
4 / 84
Farabundismo
 Eritrea Africa People's Front for Democracy and Justice 1992 election
75 / 150
Socialism
 Finland Europe Left Alliance 2019 election
16 / 200
Democratic socialism
 France Europe French Communist Party 2017 election
12 / 577
12 / 348
Communism
La France Insoumise
17 / 577
1 / 348
Democratic socialism
Left Party La France Insoumise
8 / 577
0 / 348
Democratic socialism
Ensemble!
2 / 577
0 / 348
Eco-socialism
Communist Party of Réunion Alliance of the Overseas[needs update]
0 / 577
1 / 348
Communism
 Gambia Africa People's Democratic Organisation for Independence and Socialism 2022 election
2 / 58
Socialism
 Germany Europe The Left 2021 election
39 / 735
4 / 69
Democratic socialism
 Greece Europe Communist Party of Greece 2019 election
15 / 300
Marxism–Leninism
Syriza
86 / 300
Democratic socialism[9]
 Guatemala America Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity 2019 election
3 / 158
Revolutionary socialism[10]
Movement for the Liberation of Peoples
1 / 158
Socialism
Winaq
4 / 158
Democratic socialism
 Guinea-Bissau Africa African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde 2019 election
47 / 102
Democratic socialism
Madem G15
27 / 102
Democratic socialism
 Guyana America People's Progressive Party 2020 election
33 / 65
Democratic socialism
 Honduras America Liberty and Refoundation 2021 election
51 / 128
Democratic socialism

Socialism of the 21st Century

 Iceland Europe Left-Green Movement 2021 election
8 / 63
Eco-socialism
 India Asia Communist Party of India United National Progressive Alliance 2019 election
2 / 545
2 / 245
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of India (Marxist) United National Progressive Alliance
3 / 545
6 / 245
Marxism–Leninism[11]
Revolutionary Socialist Party United National Progressive Alliance
1 / 545
0 / 245
Marxism–Leninism
 Iraqi Kurdistan Middle East Communist Party of Kurdistan - Iraq Kurdistan List 2018 election
1 / 111
Communism
 Ireland Europe People Before Profit Solidarity–People Before Profit 2020 election
4 / 160
0 / 60
Socialism
Solidarity (Ireland)
1 / 160
0 / 60
Trotskyism
 Israel Middle East Israeli Communist Party Democratic Front for Peace and Equality 2021 election
2 / 120
Marxism–Leninism[12]
 Italy Europe Italian Left Free and Equal 2018 election
3 / 630
1 / 315
Democratic socialism[13]
 Japan Asia Japanese Communist Party 2019—2021 elections
10 / 465
13 / 242
Scientific socialism[14]
 Jordan Middle East Jordanian Communist Party 2020 election
1 / 130
0 / 75
Marxism-Leninism
Jordanian Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party
1 / 130
0 / 75
Neo-Ba'athism
 Kazakhstan Asia People's Party of Kazakhstan 2021 election
10 / 108
Socialism[15]
 Laos Asia Lao People's Revolutionary Party Lao Front for National Construction 2021 election
158 / 164
Kaysone Phomvihane Thought
 Latvia Europe Socialist Party of Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony" 2018 election
1 / 100
Communism
 Lebanon Middle East Progressive Socialist Party March 14 Alliance 2018 election
6 / 128
Democratic socialism
Armenian Revolutionary Federation in Lebanon March 8 Alliance
3 / 128
Democratic socialism
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party - Lebanon Region
1 / 128
Ba'athism
Popular Nasserist Organization
1 / 128
Nasserism
Union Party
1 / 128
Nasserism
 Luxembourg Europe The Left 2018 election
2 / 60
Democratic socialism
 Mauritius Africa Mauritian Militant Movement National Alliance 2019 election
9 / 69
Democratic socialism
Muvman Liberater Mauritian Alliance
2 / 69
Democratic socialism
 Mexico America Labor Party Juntos Haremos Historia 2018 election
61 / 500
7 / 128
Socialism
 Moldova Europe Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova Electoral Bloc of Communists and Socialists 2021 election
22 / 101
Democratic socialism
Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova
10 / 101
Communism
 Montenegro Europe Worker's Party ZBCG 2020 election
1 / 81
Labourism
 Morocco Africa Party of Progress and Socialism 2021 election
22 / 395
2 / 120
Socialism
 Mozambique Africa FRELIMO 2019 election
184 / 250
Democratic socialism
 Namibia Africa Landless People's Movement 2019 election
4 / 104
0 / 42
Democratic Socialism
Namibian Economic Freedom Fighters
2 / 104
0 / 42
Anti-capitalism
South West Africa National Union
1 / 104
0 / 42
Democratic socialism
South West Africa People's Organisation
63 / 104
40 / 42
Socialism
   Nepal Asia CPN (Unified Marxist-Leninist) 2017 election
95 / 275
24 / 59
Marxism-Leninism
CPN (Maoist Center) Left Alliance
49 / 275
15 / 59
Prachanda Path
CPN (Unified Socialist)
25 / 275
10 / 59
Marxism-Leninism
Janata Samajbadi Party, Nepal
20 / 275
2 / 59
Democratic socialism
Rastriya Janamorcha
1 / 275
0 / 59
Marxism-Leninism
Nepal Majdoor Kisan Party
1 / 275
0 / 59
Juche
 Netherlands Europe BIJ1 2021 election
1 / 150
0 / 75
Anti-capitalism
 New Caledonia Oceania National Union for Independence 2019 election
9 / 54
Melanesian socialism
Caledonian Union
9 / 54
Melanesian socialism
Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front
6 / 54
Melanesian socialism
Labour Party (New Caledonia)
1 / 54
Revolutionary socialism
Kanak Socialist Liberation
1 / 54
Melanesian socialism
 Nicaragua America Sandinista National Liberation Front 2021 election
75 / 90
Sandinismo[16]
United Kingdom Northern Ireland Europe People Before Profit 2017 election
1 / 90
Socialism
 North Korea Asia Workers' Party of Korea Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland 2019 election
607 / 687
Juche[17]
 North Macedonia Europe The Left (North Macedonia) 2020 election
2 / 120
Socialism
 Norway Europe Socialist Left Party 2021 election
13 / 169
Democratic socialism
Red Party
8 / 169
Communism
 Pakistan Asia Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party 2018 election
0 / 342
2 / 104
Democratic Socialism
Awami National Party
1 / 342
1 / 104
Democratic Socialism
 Palestine Middle East Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Palestine Liberation Organization 2006 election
3 / 132
Marxism–Leninism
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine
1 / 132
Marxism–Leninism
Palestinian People's Party
1 / 132
Scientific socialism
 Paraguay America Guasú Front 2018 election
0 / 80
6 / 45
Democratic socialism
 Peru America Free Peru 2021 election
37 / 130
Socialism
Together for Peru
5 / 130
Democratic socialism
 Philippines Asia New Patriotic Alliance National Democracy Movement 2019 election
6 / 304
0 / 24
Filipino communism[18]
 Poland Europe Polish Socialist Party 2019 election
0 / 460
1 / 100
Democratic socialism
 Portugal Europe Portuguese Communist Party Unitary Democratic Coalition 2022 election
6 / 230
Marxism–Leninism[19]
Left Bloc
5 / 230
Democratic socialism
LIVRE
1 / 230
Eco-socialismDemocratic socialism
 Russia Europe Communist Party of the Russian Federation 2021 election
57 / 450
3 / 170
Marxism-Leninism
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Africa Polisario Front 2012 election
53 / 53
Democratic socialism
 San Marino Europe RETE Movement Tomorrow in Motion 2019 election
11 / 60
Democratic Socialism
 Sierra Leone Africa All People's Congress 2018 election
68 / 146
Democratic socialism
 Slovenia Europe LEVICA 2022 election
5 / 90
Eco-socialism
 South Africa Africa Economic Freedom Fighters 2019 election
44 / 400
11 / 90
Marxism–Leninism[20]
South African Communist Party[note 1] Tripartite Alliance
0 / 400
0 / 90
Marxism–Leninism
 South Ossetia Europe Communist Party of South Ossetia 2019 election
1 / 34
Marxism–Leninism
 Spain Europe Podemos Unidas Podemos 2019 election
24 / 350
0 / 266
Democratic socialism
United Left
6 / 350
0 / 266
Communism
Communist Party of Spain
6 / 350
1 / 266
Marxism–Leninism[22]
Sortu EH Bildu
1 / 350
1 / 266
Socialism
Alternatiba
1 / 350
0 / 266
Socialism
Initiative for Catalonia Greens En Comu Podem
1 / 350
0 / 266
Eco-socialism[23]
United and Alternative Left
2 / 350
0 / 266
Communism
Equo
1 / 350
0 / 266
Eco-socialism
Republican Left of Catalonia Ahora Republicas
13 / 350
13 / 266
Democratic socialism
Galician Nationalist Bloc
1 / 350
0 / 266
Anti-capitalism
Adelante Andalucia Confederal Left
6 / 350
1 / 266
Democratic Socialism
Coalicio Compromis
0 / 350
1 / 266
Eco-socialism
Galicia en Comun
2 / 350
1 / 266
Democratic socialism
Mes per Mallorca
0 / 350
1 / 266
Democratic socialism
Catalunya en Comu
4 / 350
1 / 266
Eco-socialism
Sobrianistes
1 / 350
0 / 266
Democratic socialism
Popular Unity Candidacy
2 / 350
0 / 266
Socialism
 Sri Lanka Asia People's Liberation Front National People's Power 2020 election
3 / 225
Marxism–Leninism
Communist Party of Sri Lanka United People's Freedom Alliance
1 / 225
Marxism–Leninism
Lanka Equal Society Party United People's Freedom Alliance
1 / 225
Trotskyism
 Sweden Europe Left Party 2018 election
28 / 349
Socialism
 Syria Middle East Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region National Progressive Front 2020 election
167 / 250
Neo-Ba'athism
Arab Socialist Union Party
3 / 250
Nasserism
Syrian Communist Party (Bakdash)
2 / 250
Marxism–Leninism[24]
Socialist Unionist Party
2 / 250
Nasserism
Syrian Communist Party (Unified)
2 / 250
Communism
National Covenant Party
2 / 250
Islamic Socialism
Arabic Democratic Union Party
1 / 250
Nasserism
Democratic Socialist Unionist Party
1 / 250
Democratic Socialism
  Switzerland Europe Labour 2019 election
2 / 200
0 / 46
Marxism
 Tajikistan Asia Communist Party of Tajikistan 2020 election
2 / 63
0 / 33
Marxism–Leninism[25]
Socialist Party of Tajikistan
1 / 63
0 / 33
Socialism
 Tanzania Africa Alliance for Change and Transparency 2020 election
5 / 384
Democratic Socialism
 Tunisia Africa People's Movement 2019 election
15 / 217
Nasserism
Popular Front
1 / 217
Socialism
 Turkey Europe Workers' Party of Turkey 2018 election
2 / 600
Marxism-Leninism
 Uruguay America Communist Party of Uruguay Broad Front 2019 election
42 / 99
13 / 30
Marxism–Leninism
Movement of Popular Participation Socialism of the 21st century
 Vanuatu Oceania Vanua'aku Pati 2020 election
7 / 52
Melanesian socialism
 Venezuela America United Socialist Party of Venezuela Great Patriotic Pole 2020 election
219 / 277
Socialism of the 21st century
Fatherland for All
8 / 277
Democratic socialism
Tupamaro
7 / 277
Marxism-Leninism
Movement We Are Venezuela
5 / 277
Socialism
For Social Democracy
4 / 277
Democratic Socialism
Alliance for Change
3 / 277
Democratic Socialism
People's Electoral Movement
3 / 277
Socialism
Venezuelan Popular Unity
2 / 277
Socialism

Marxism

Communist Party of Venezuela Popular Revolutionary Alternative
1 / 277
Marxism–Leninism
 Vietnam Asia Communist Party of Vietnam Vietnamese Fatherland Front 2021 election
485 / 499
Ho Chi Minh Thought
 Yemen Middle East Nasserist Unionist People's Organisation 2003 election
3 / 301
Nasserism
Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party - Yemen Region
1 / 301
Ba'athism
 Zambia Africa Patriotic Front 2021 election
60 / 156
Democratic socialism[26][27]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Its currently unknown how many seats the South African Communist Party has in the national legislature since its MPs are elected through the African National Congress, a separate political party. In the last election "almost the entire top SACP leadership was absorbed into the government".[21]

References

  1. ^ Kim Jong-un, "Let Us Brilliantly Accomplish the Revolutionary Cause of Juche, Holding the Great Comrade Kim Jong Il in High Esteem as the Eternal General Secretary of Our Party", 6 April 2002.
  2. ^ Ediciones El País (21 April 2008). "Evo Morales insta a "erradicar el capitalismo" para salvar el planeta". EL PAÍS. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Evo Morales: Ten commandments against capitalism, for life and humanity". Climate & Capitalism. 15 January 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  4. ^ "Evo Morales: "Capitalism is the worst enemy of humanity"". Climate & Capitalism. 3 October 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  5. ^ a b The first reference is for the lower house, the second for the upper house.
  6. ^ "South America: Chile – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  7. ^ http://cpc.people.com.cn/
  8. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Denmark". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  9. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Greece". Parties and Elections in Europe.
  10. ^ "Acuerdo No. 1319-2011 – Resultados oficiales" (in Spanish). elecciones2011.tse.org.gt. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  11. ^ The first two references are about seats in parliament.
  12. ^ "Middle East: Israel – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  13. ^ "Parties and Elections in Europe - Italy". Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  14. ^ "East & Southeast Asia: Japan – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  15. ^ "Two more Kazakh parties wins parliamentary seats". BBC News. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  16. ^ "Central America and Caribbean: Nicaragua – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  17. ^ "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  18. ^ "Asia: Philippines – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  19. ^
  20. ^ "About us". Archived from the original on 2014-05-08.
  21. ^ Matuma Letsoalo (15 May 2014). "Parliamentary payoff for pro-Zuma Cosatu officials". The M&G Online. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  22. ^ "El PCE recupera el leninismo al cumplirse el centenario de la Revolución de Octubre". cuartopoder (in Spanish). 3 December 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Europe: Spain – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  24. ^ Yoshie Furuhashi (18 June 2012). "S. Saleh Waziruddin, "Communist Parties Win 11 Seats in Syrian Parliamentary Elections"". Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  25. ^ "Central Asia: Tajikistan – Government". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  26. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2015-12-16.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "2011 Tripartite Elections: Summary of Allocation of National Assembly Seats" (PDF). Electoral Commission of Zambia. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2016.