Most human civilizations – India, Greece, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Rome, and Persia, among others – based their culture on complex systems of astrology, which provided a link between the cosmos with the conditions and events on earth. For these, the astrological practice was not mere divination because it also served as the foundation for their spiritual culture and knowledge-systems used for practical purposes such as the calendar (see Mesoamerican calendrical shamans) and medicine (e.g. I Ching).
Astrological tradition even contributed to the development of astronomy as the study of the skies provided invaluable insights about celestial bodies. For instance, the Ptolemaic astrological tradition has already listed some of the planets in the Solar System and their movements.
The following is an incomplete list of the different traditions, types, systems, methods, applications, and branches of astrology.
Traditions which have arisen relatively recently in the West: