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This is a list of notable baked or steamed bread varieties. This list does not include cakes, pastries, or fried dough foods, which are listed in separate Wikipedia articles. It also does not list foods in which bread is an ingredient which is processed further before serving.


Name Image Type Origin Description (including main ingredients and notable aspects)
Aish merahrah Flatbread Egypt Made with fenugreek seeds and maize; dough allowed to ferment overnight, then flattened and baked.
Anadama bread Yeast bread United States (New England) A sweet, cornmeal- and molasses-based bread.
Anpan Sweet bun Japan Filled, usually with red bean paste, or with white beans, sesame, or chestnut.
Varies widely India
Sri Lanka
Bowl-shaped thin pancakes, made of fermented rice flour, shaped via cooking utensil, neutral taste, served usually with spicy condiment or curry, for breakfast or dinner.
Apple bread Wheat germ bread Taiwan Made from wheat germ and eggs, some with apple fillings
Arboud Unleavened Jordan Unleavened bread made from flour, water and salt, baked in the embers of a fire. Traditional among Arab Bedouin
Arepa Cornbread South America (Northern) Dish made of ground corn dough or cooked cornmeal, similar to Mesoamerican tortilla and Salvadoran pupusa.
Baba Various thick, round breads China (Northwestern Yunnan, Naxi people) Round, thick bread, often with various sweet or savoury fillings.
Babka Yeast bread Poland, Ukraine Sweet, braided bread popular among the Jewish diaspora.
Bagel Yeast bread Ashkenazi Jewish Ring-shaped, usually with a dense, chewy interior; usually topped with sesame or poppy seeds baked into the surface. May be boiled in lye.

Beghrir, ghrayef, mchahda

Baghrir with sugar
Baghrir with sugar
Pancake Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) Pancake consumed in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. They are small, spongy, and made with semolina or flour; when cooked correctly, they are riddled with tiny holes (which soak up whatever sauce they are served with).
French stick, French bread
Yeast bread France Thin elongated loaf, made of water, flour, yeast, and salt, instantly recognizable by slits cut in top surface before baking to allow gas expansion. Can be cut to resemble the shape of wheat and called Pain d'épi.
Bakarkhani Flatbread South Asia & Middle East Thick, sweet or spicy flatbread made of Dough, ghee, milk, sugar. Mostly consumed as snacks and also in iftar.
Balep korkun Flatbread Tibet (Central) Round, flat, easy to make, made of barley flour, water, baking powder, cooked in frying pan; Balep Korkun is a type of bannock.
Bammy Flatbread Jamaica A bread of cassava, baked on a griddle.
Banana bread Quick bread United States[1] Dense, made with mashed bananas, often a moist, sweet, cake-like quick bread, but some recipes are traditional yeast breads.
Bánh mì Yeast bread Vietnam A variant of the French baguette, a Vietnamese baguette has a thin crust and white, airy crumb. It may consist of both wheat flour and rice flour.
Bannock Quick bread United Kingdom (Scotland) Modern types are made with baking soda or baking powder as leavening agent, giving a light, airy texture. May be baked or fried. Some Native American peoples in North America prepare their own versions of bannock.
Bara Brith Fruit bread United Kingdom (Wales) Sometimes termed "speckled bread", raisins, currants and candied peel are added to dough.
Barbari bread Flatbread Iran
Afghanistan (Northwestern)
Invented by the Barbar tribes of Iran and Northern Afghanistan.
Barmbrack Quick bread Ireland Sweeter than sandwich bread, but less rich than cake, contains sultanas and raisins to add texture.
Barm cake Yeast bread United Kingdom (England, Lancashire) Soft sweet roll. Derived from ancient pre-Roman leavening process using barm. Pictured is barm cake with black pudding and melted butter.
Italian stick, cane, staff
Yeast bread Italy Shorter and thicker than a French baguette. Sometimes with sesame seed garnish.
Bazin Flatbread Libya Prepared with barley, water and salt.
Bazlama Flatbread Turkey Flat and circular, average thickness of 2 cm, usually eaten fresh.
Beer bread Quick or yeast bread Germany Made with regular beer or other types such as stout or dark beer.
Belgian waffle Waffle Belgium A type of waffle popular in North America and in Belgium. Compared to the standard American waffle, it is identified by its larger size, lighter batter, larger squares, and a higher grid pattern that forms deep pockets.
Bhakri Flatbread India
Usually grayish in colour, made of cereals and thus high in protein and fibre like Jowar, Bajra or Maize.
Bialy Yeast bread Poland Similar to a bagel, but instead of a hole it has only a dimple on top, which is filled with a bit of butter and diced onion or garlic. Known as a cebularz in Poland.
Bibingka Rice cake Philippines A type of rice cake baked in clay pot. Often with toppings of butter, salted duck egg, muscovado sugar, grated cheese and desiccated coconut.
Bing Flatbread China Similar to a Mexican tortilla, only much thicker; usually cooked on a griddle.
Biscotti Biscuit Italy Italian almond biscuits that are twice-baked, oblong-shaped, dry, crunchy, and may be dipped in a drink, traditionally Vin Santo.
Biscuit Quick bread although sometimes made with yeast United States, Canada This refers to the North American quick bread, generally light and fluffy (similar to a scone). Elsewhere the term biscuit means a small baked product that would be called either a "cookie" or a "cracker" in the United States and most of English-speaking Canada.
Black bread Rye Russia Made of rye grain, usually dark colored and high fiber, ranges from crispy in texture to dense and chewy.
Blaa Bun Ireland Doughy, white bread bun (roll) specialty; particularly associated with Waterford, Ireland. Currently made in Waterford and County Kilkenny, and was historically made in Wexford.
Bolani Flatbread Afghanistan Has a very thin crust and can be stuffed with a variety of ingredients, such as potatoes, spinach, lentils, pumpkin, or leeks.
Bolo do caco Flatbread Portugal (Madeira) A circular flatbread made with sweet potatoes.
Borlengo Pancake Italy A thin crepe now made with milk, eggs (sometimes omitted), flour and salt. Originally a food eaten by the poor and made with flour and water.
Borodinsky Sourdough Russia A dark brown sourdough rye bread, traditionally sweetened with molasses and flavored with coriander and caraway seeds.
Boule Yeast bread France
From the French for "ball".
Bread roll Bun Europe Short, oblong or round, served usually before or with meals, often with butter.
Breadstick Dry bread Italy A dry bread formed into sticks, served as an appetizer.
Brioche Yeast bread, Sweet France A highly enriched bread, noted for its high butter and egg content, commonly served as a component of French desserts. Made in loaves or buns.
Cornbread Portugal, Galicia, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde and Brazil Unlike the cornbread typical of the southern United States, made of mix of cornmeal and wheat or rye flour, leavened with yeast rather than baking powder or baking soda.
Brown bread Rye or wheat bread Global Made with a significant amount of whole grain flour, usually rye or wheat; sometimes made with molasses or coffee. Also known as "wholemeal bread".
Bublik Wheat bread Poland Made from yeast-leavened wheat dough that commonly contains milk, butter, and egg whites and is rather sweet.
Canadian White White Canada A thick, protein-rich sliced sandwich bread.
Carrot bread Leavened United States May be prepared with grated carrot[2] or carrot juice.[3] Pictured is a vegan carrot bread with raisins.
Catalán Leavened Uruguay Soft bun, similar to hamburger bread.
Česnica Soda bread Serbia Baked during Christmas season with a solid silver coin in the dough for good luck; the family member whose bread piece contains the coin is viewed as the most fortunate for that year.
Challah Leavened Jewish Braided, made with wheat flour, yeast, oil/butter and eggs (optional), usually made by Jewish people for the Shabbat.
Chapati Flatbread India Chapati is a circular flatbread made of flour, water, and oil that is then cooked on a stove. It's been a staple in Indian households for many centuries and is even mentioned in old Sanskrit texts. Chapati originated in India and later spread to Southeast and Central Asia, East Africa, and the Caribbean, where it remains part of the everyday diet.
Chickpea bread Leavened Albania
Made from chickpea flour. The most significant difference of this type of bread is, instead of using regular yeast, they use a yeast made with chickpeas.
Chipá Cheese bread Argentina, Paraguay Typical Paraguayan, made from cassava flour and cheese.
Cholermüs Pancake Switzerland Also known as a "Swiss pancake", as its name self-explains, a Swiss pancake, or "shredded, fried crepe", is a breakfast pancake with dried fruit filling. This preparation should not be confused with Hollermus, or Holdermus, which is an elderberry mash.
Christmas wafer Crispy bread Poland/Central Europe Christmas wafers are a ceremonial bread, usually embossed with images of Christian figures, such as Jesus or the Virgin Mary.
Ciabatta White Italy Loaf is somewhat elongated, broad and flattish and, like a slipper, should be somewhat collapsed in the middle.
Coffin bread bread bowl Taiwan Bread is hollowed out and either toasted or fried before it is filled with a creamy stew of chicken, seafood, tripe, or mushroom. It is then topped with a piece of toasted or fried bread, creating the "coffin" look
Coppia Ferrarese Sourdough Italy Twisted in shape. Sourdough bread made with flour, lard, olive oil, and malt.
Cornbread Cornbread Americas Made from cornmeal, can be baked or fried, has a golden appearance, usually has a moist interior.
Cottage loaf Yeast bread United Kingdom (England) Name refers mostly to shape of loaf, not consistency, loaves are made when larger and smaller roughly spherical balls are squashed together, forming a cottage shape.
Cozonac Sweet leavened bread Romania, Bulgaria Prepared with milk, yeast, eggs, sugar, butter, raisins, lokum, grated orange or lemon zest, walnuts or hazelnuts, and vanilla or rum flavor.
Cracker Crispy bread United States
United Kingdom
Isle of Man
A baked good typically made from a grain and flour, dough and usually manufactured in large quantities. Crackers (roughly equivalent to savory biscuits in the United Kingdom and the Isle of Man) are usually flat, crisp, small in size (usually 3 inches or less in diameter) and made in various shapes, commonly round or square.
Crêpe Pancake France Extremely thin pancakes, can be stuffed with cheese, asparagus, ham, spinach, eggs, ratatouille, mushrooms, artichoke, or meat products. In Canada, they are often filled with fruit and consumed as a breakfast dish.
Crisp bread Crispy bread Scandinavia Very dry, traditionally consists of wholemeal rye flour, salt, and water.
Crumpet Flatbread United Kingdom (England) Usually circular and flat, but thick, with pores in upper surface. This gives it a light, spongy texture.
Cuban bread Yeast bread, White United States (Florida)
A fairly simple white bread, similar to French bread and Italian bread, but has a slightly different baking method and ingredient list.
Karē pan Bun Japan Some Japanese curry is wrapped in a piece of dough, which is coated in flaky bread crumbs, and usually deep fried or baked.
Damper Unleavened bread (traditionally) Australia Made of a wheat flour, traditionally baked in the coals of a campfire; iconic Australian dish.
Dampfnudel Sweet bread, White Germany Usually dense and moist with a white top surface.
Dhebra Dhebra Flatbread India (Gujarat) Millet/Bajra, Wholewheat bread, embedded with fresh methi(Fenugreek) leaves and sesame seeds.
Dorayaki Pancake Japan Japanese confection, which consists of two small pancake-like patties made from castella, wrapped around a filling of sweet Azuki red bean paste.
Dosa Pancake India (Southern) Fermented crêpe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is also served with variety of fillings like potato, coconut, paneer, vegetables, dry fruits etc.
Dumb bread Unleavened Virgin Islands[4][5] This bread does not require any yeast.[6] Ingredients include flour, water, butter, sugar, baking powder, salt, and milk; oftentimes, shredded coconut is also added to the dough.[4][7]
Eggette Pancake Hong Kong Spherical pancake or ball waffle popular in Hong Kong and Macao. The food item is also referred to as an egg puff, egg waffle, puffle or by its Cantonese name, gai daan jai, and is made from eggs, sugar, flour, and light evaporated milk.
English muffin Yeast bread England Small, round, thin, usually dusted with semolina and served split horizontally, toasted, buttered, eaten as a snack alone or part of meal, usually breakfast or, in the UK and Ireland, early-evening tea. In the UK, usually just called a "muffin".
Farl Flatbread United Kingdom (Scotland) Made by spreading dough on a griddle or skillet in a rough circular shape, then cutting it into four equal pieces and cooking.
Farinata Chickpea flour flatbread from Italy Argentina, Italy, Uruguay Flat bread made with chickpea flour and water, also known as fainá (masculine femenine noun in Uruguay and Argentina, respectively).
Felipe Leavened Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay Hard crust, leavened, wheat.
Filone Leavened Italy Similar to a French baguette.
Flatbread Flatbread Global Bread that is flat in shape, often round in shape. Cooked and eaten in many cultures around the world.
Flatbrød Flatbread Norway Traditional food, usually eaten with fish, salted meats and soups.
Flatkaka Flatbread, Rye Iceland Soft, round, thin and dark with a characteristic pattern from the frying pan; traditionally fried in small, heavy cast-iron frying pans.
Focaccia Yeast bread Italy Often punctured or dotted with a knife to relieve surface bubbling.
Fougasse Yeast bread France Some versions are sculpted or slashed into a pattern resembling an ear of wheat.
Fugazza leavened flat bread with onions Argentina, Uruguay Also known as figazza in Uruguay, fugazzeta is an Argentinian variation.
Graham bread United States A whole wheat bread inspired by Sylvester Graham.
Galleta de Campaña Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay Layered wheat bread with lard.
Green onion pancake Flatbread China Savory, non-leavened flatbread folded with oil and minced scallions (green onions). Unlike a true pancake, it is made from dough instead of batter.
Guokui Flatbread China Flatbread made from flour with different regional variations, often cookied in a cylindrical oven.
Hallulla Flatbread Chile Round, baked with butter, used for Chilean aliados: cheese and ham sandwich.
Hard dough bread Yeast bread Jamaica A common sandwich bread.
Hardbrood Flatbread, White Netherlands (Groningen) Dry white flat bread, consisting of two layers, each as thick as an American pancake, that are connected at the dents.
Hardtack Flatbread, Crispy Egypt, Mediterranean Basin Simple type of cracker or biscuit, made from flour, water, and sometimes salt.
Himbasha Flatbread Eritrea
Celebratory, slightly sweet, often served at special occasions, several varieties, most distinctive flavoring is ground cardamom seeds.
Hoagie Roll Leavened United States A type of long roll used to prepare hoagie sandwiches. Ingredients used in hoagie roll preparation include flour, egg, milk, vegetable oil, salt, sugar and yeast. Some versions include sesame seeds atop the roll
Hot and spicy cheese bread Yeast bread United States (Madison, Wisconsin) Made from a brioche-like yeasted dough, mixed with Provolone cheese, Monterey Jack Cheese, and topped with crushed hot red peppers.
Injera Flatbread Eritrea
Risen with a fermented starter with unique, slightly spongy texture, traditionally made of teff flour.
Shokupan Yeast bread Japan A soft white milk bread made with a tangzhong and commonly found in Asian bakeries.[8]
Johnnycake or Hoecake Flatbread United States Fried gruel made of yellow or white cornmeal, mixed with salt, hot water or milk and cooked in a skillet or oven; sometimes sweetened; attributed to Native Americans.
Ka'ak Leavened Near East
The Middle East
Arab World
Varies with bread rings and sweets.
Kalach Yeast bread East Slavs Kettlebell-shaped or ring-shaped bread.
Kamir Yeast bread Indonesia Round shape bread made of yeast, flour, butter, egg mixture and banana or tapai.
Khachapuri Flatbread Georgia Cheese-filled bread. Different varieties have different shapes and fillings.
Khanom bueang Flatbread, Crispy Thailand Common Thai street food, resemble tacos made of rice flour, usually first topped or filled with coconut cream, then sweet or savory toppings: shredded coconut, strips of fried eggs or egg yolks, chopped scallions.
Khakhra Flatbread, Crispy India (Gujarat) Common Gujarati food, resembling roti or chapati in its round shape, but crispy and dry.
Khooba Roti Flatbread, Soft India (Rajasthan) Common Rajasthani food, resembling a thicker version of roti or chapati in its round shape, a little hard from outside but soft inside. Made with ghee and wheat flour. In some parts of Rajasthan it's also called Jadi Roti.
Khubz Flatbread Arab world Medium-size yeast bread made with whole wheat flour, with a hollow pocket in the center.
Kifli Yeast bread Austria Similar to a bagel, but the dough starts as a wedge and is rolled into a crescent shape rather than a circle – or sometimes into a straight stick. The kipferl is usually given an egg wash and sprinkled with either poppy seeds or caraway seeds mixed with coarse salt.
Kisra Flatbread Sudan
South Sudan
Popular fermented bread made of sorghum (durra) or wheat
Kitcha Flatbread Ethiopia
Also known as kitta or caccabsaa, a wheat-flour flatbread cooked in a pan. Often used to make fit-fit.
Kulcha Flatbread India
Pakistan (Punjab)
Made of maida flour dough, mashed potatoes, onion (optional), many spices, rolled into flat round shape, baked until golden brown, usually rubbed with butter, eaten with spicy chickpea curry.
Lagana Crispy bread Greece Special kind of azyme bread, baked only on Clean Monday, the first day of Lent. Not to be confused with lasagna.
Lahoh Leavened Djibouti
Spongy, pancake-like, dough of plain flour, self-raising flour, warm water, yeast, pinch of salt.
Lángos Yeast bread Hungary
Dough patty baked in fat. It is served as a snack with sour cream and cheese as well as with ham, onion and parsley. It is served warm.
Laobing Flatbread China (Northern) Unleavened, sometimes called a "Chinese pancake", very much like Indian chapati, can be size of a large pizza, about one centimeter thick, doughy and chewy texture, made by pan frying thick unleavened batter made of salt, flour, water.
Laufabrauð Flatbread Iceland Laufabrauð is a traditional kind of Icelandic bread that is most often eaten in the Christmas season.
Lavash Flatbread Iran
Soft, thin, dough is rolled out flat, flexible when fresh, easier to use for wrap sandwiches, dries fast and grows brittle and hard, for long storage. A traditional dish of Armenian cuisine. In 2014, "lavash, the preparation, meaning and appearance of traditional bread as an expression of culture in Armenia" was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.[9]
Lefse Flatbread Norway Soft, made of potato, milk or cream (or sometimes lard), flour, cooked on a griddle.
Limpa Yeast bread Scandinavia A sweet, spiced rye bread.
Yeast bread Catalan Countries, especially the island of Mallorca. Llonguet or French bread is a type of small oval bread with a groove on the top. It is made with flour, water, yeast and salt. It is a bun, similar to a French roll, with a consistent crust and loose crumb that is mainly used to make sandwiches.
Lye roll Yeast bread Germany Rolls that are coated or immersed in lye before baking, though baking soda or washing soda may be substituted. A more generalized form of the pretzel.
Malooga or Maluj Flatbread Yemen Pizza-like dough (flour, water, yeast, salt) kneaded well, risen, cut to large rounds, stretched, repeatedly warm ghee spread on dough as it is folded, round is stretched into flat round form, baked in tandoor-like oven.
Maltese bread or
Ħobż tal-Malti
Sourdough Malta Traditional Maltese bread originating in Qormi, often served with tomato paste and olive oil.
Mantou Bun China Steamed, made of white flour, often slightly sweetened.
Markook Flatbread Levant
The Middle East
Arab World
West Asia
Usually large, round dough, about 2 feet in diameter, kept thin before baking; can be baked either in a clay oven or on a saj, a domed-convex metal griddle.
Marraqueta Leavened, lobed loaf Chile Kneaded, made with flour, salt, water, and leavening.
Matzah Flatbread Levant (Jewish) Unleavened. Used in Judaism, mainly during Passover. Made in 18 minutes to avoid rising. Consists of 2 ingredients: flour and water.
Melonpan Sweet bun, Crispy Japan Made of enriched dough covered in thin layer of crispy cookie dough. Pineapple bun is a similar sweet bread from Hong Kong, and a Korean variation Soboro bread uses peanut butter in the top layer.
Miche Leavened France Rounded loaf, often sourdough based.
Michetta Leavened Italy Also known as rosetta, it has a hollow, bulging shape.
Milk roll Leavened Soft white bread, sometimes baked in loaf tin with circular cross-section; recipe includes milk.[10][11]
Mohnflesserl White Austria Traditional Austrian pastry in the form of a braided bun, sometimes sprinkled with poppy seeds or salt, or glazed
Mollete Flatbread, White Spain (Andalusia) A soft white bread, often served toasted with oil and garlic or lard.
Montreal-style bagel Yeast bread Canada A bagel that is boiled in honey-sweetened water and then baked in a wood-fired oven. It is smaller and denser and uniquely incorporates egg and honey in the dough.
Msemmen A platter of msamman served with jam, olive oil, honey, butter, and olives. Flatbread North Africa Made of flour, durum wheat semolina, dry yeast, melted butter, salt, sugar and water.
Naan Naan from a Pakistani restaurant Flatbread Central Asia,South Asia Leavened bread, baked or fried
Ngome Flatbread Mali Made of millet, water, and vegetable oil.
Obwarzanek krakowski Yeast bread Poland (Kraków) A ring-shaped bread product made of strands of dough twisted into a spiral that is boiled and sprinkled with salt, poppy seeds, sesame seeds, etc., before being baked
Pain de mie or pancarré Yeast bread France Slightly sweet sandwich-style loaf with a dense crumb.
Pan marsellés Yeast bread Uruguay A soft medium-sized white bread, lobed, with a hard crust dusted in cornmeal; somewhat similar to Italian bread
Pao Alentejano Sourdough bread Portugal A crusty sourdough that is traditionally woodfired
Palianytsia Yeast bread Ukraine Traditionally made with an incision at the top and baked in a hearth
Pambazo Yeast bread Mexico A bread for making a sandwich of the same name.
Pan dulce Sweet bread Mexico A bread that is one of the poster treats in Mexico and other Latin American countries.
Panbrioche Leavened Italy A bread similar to brioche.
Pandesal Sweet bread Philippines A rounded bread made of flour, eggs, yeast, sugar, and salt.
Pandoro Yeast bread Italy Traditional sweet yeast loaf, most popular around Christmas and New Year, typically Veronese, usually shaped like a frustum with 8 pointed-star section, often served dusted with vanilla scented icing sugar made to resemble the snowy peaks of the Italian Alps in winter.
Pan de manteca Buttered bread Uruguay
Pane carasau Flatbread Italy Traditional flatbread, thin, crisp, usually in form of a dish half a meter wide, made by taking baked flatbread, splitting it in two sheets that are re-baked, recipe is ancient for shepherds who used to stay far from home for months, can last up to one year if kept dry.
Pane di Altamura Leavened Italy Made from durum flour, often odd in shape.
Pane ticinese Leavened, White Switzerland White, distinguished by its shape and softness, made of several small sub-loaves or rolls to be broken off by hand, with oil added to dough, which makes it soft.
Panettone Sweet bread Italy Fluffy, base round, octagon or star section, takes days to make to cure acidic dough like sourdough, contains candied citrus, raisins, sliced vertically, served with cider or champagne, esp. for Christmas, New Year.
Panfocaccia Leavened Italy A bread similar to focaccia.

Pão de queijo Cassava flour Brazil A bread similar to chipá with cassava flour and cheese.
Papadum or Papad Flatbread India Thin, crisp, and cracker-like, served with meal, as appetizer, as final item in meal, or as snack, eaten with various toppings: chopped onions, chutney, other dips and condiments.
Paratha Flatbread India
Unleavened, made by pan frying whole wheat dough, ghee or cooking oil usually in dough and on done loaves, usually stuffed with vegetables or cheese, served with butter, chutney, spicy sauces or curries of meat and vegetables.
Parotta or Barotta Flatbread India (Southern) A common layered flatbread of Southern India. This is not to be confused with the North Indian Paratha. Parottas are usually available in restaurants and road side shops across Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, southern Coastal Andhra and the Middle East.
Paximathia Dry bread Greece Also referred to as "rusks", it is prepared with whole wheat, chick pea, or barley flour, and is a common bread in Greece.
Peg bread Leavened, lobed loaf Jamaica and West Indies A bread similar to a bread roll
Penia Sweet bread Italy Made from sugar, butter, eggs, anise seeds and lemons.
Pita Flatbread Near East
Round with inner pocket, as it cooks, steam puffs up dough, as it cools and flattens a pocket is left in the middle. A small version Khobz, is popular in Arab countries.
Pizza Leavened flatbread with toppings Italy A round, flattened base of leavened wheat-based dough, topped with tomatoes, cheese, and various other ingredients that is baked at a high temperature, traditionally in a wood-fired oven. First recorded in the 10th century it has become one of the most popular foods in the world and a common fast food item in Europe and North America.
Piadina Flatbread Italy Thin, usually made in Romagna region with white flour, lard or olive oil, salt, water, dough traditionally cooked on terra cotta dish, today flat pans or electric griddles are more common.
Pistolet Leavened Belgium Round and small, traditionally filled with butter and jam for Sunday morning breakfast
Pogača Flatbread Balkans and Turkey Generally made from wheat flour, but barley and sometimes rye may be added. Can be stuffed with potatoes, ground beef, or cheese, and have grains and herbs like sesame, black sesame, dried dill in the dough or sprinkled on top.
Porteño Leavened Uruguay Wheat, leavened, cut, similar to pan flauta.
Portuguese sweet bread Sweet bread Portugal Round, made with milk, sugar or honey, subtly sweet lightly textured loaf, traditionally made for Christmas and Easter times (when hard boiled eggs often baked in), today made year round.
Potato bread Leavened or unleavened United States
Potato replaces part of usual wheat flour, ratio of potato to wheat varies much, leavened or unleavened, may have many other ingredients baked in, varied cooking methods.
Potbrood Leavened South Africa Produced in a cast-iron pot covered with wood coals, there are a wide range of flavors but is often made with wheat flour and sweetcorn.
Pretzel Yeast bread Germany Alemannic knot-shaped lye roll, sometimes soft, sometimes hard, sometimes sweet, sometimes salty.
Proja Cornbread Croatia
Small muffins or loaves of cornbread, was popular in times of widespread poverty, now is a common everyday meal.
Pumpernickel Rye Germany Very heavy, dense, slightly sweet dark pure rye traditionally made with coarsely ground flour; now often made with mixed flour and whole grain berries.
Pumpkin bread Quick bread Native Americans A type of moist quick bread made with pumpkin. The pumpkin can be cooked and softened before being used or simply baked with the bread; using canned pumpkin renders it a simpler dish to prepare. Additional ingredients include nuts (such as walnuts).
Puran Poli, also called Obbatu, Bobbatlu, Bakshalu Flatbread India Sweet dessert served for special occasions and festivals, stuffing of boiled chickpea lentils, turmeric, sugar, jaggery and spices, cooked on hot griddle, served with milk or ghee and lentil broth soup.
Qistibi Flatbread Russia (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan) Roasted flatbreads with various fillings inside. The dough should be non-fermented. The most popular filling is mashed potato, but it may also be ragout or millet. Filling is placed on the one half of the flatbread and is covered by the other half. Later, clarified butter is spread on the flatbreads.
Quick bread Leavened United States Leavened with a substance other than yeast.
Rewena bread Sourdough New Zealand A round loaf made with a potato-based sourdough culture.
Komeko pan Rice bread Japan Made from rice flour.
Rieska Flatbread Finland Unleavened, commonly made from barley or potato.
Röggelchen Rye Germany (Rhineland)

Eastern Belgium

Small pastry in the form of a double roll made from two pieces of dough, the content of which is at least 50% rye.
Roti Flatbread India


Unleavened, made from stone ground wholemeal flour, traditionally named atta flour.
Roti bolen Sweet bread Indonesia Made of baked flour with butter or margarine layers, filled with cheese, durian or banana.
Roti buaya Sweet bread Indonesia Crocodile-shaped bread made of yam or cassava.
Roti canai Flatbread Indonesia
Flatbread dish served with curry. Of South Indian origin, it is popular in various Southeast Asian countries. This bread which is made of dough is usually composed of fat (usually ghee), flour and water; some recipes also include sweetened condensed milk.
Rugbrød Sourdough Denmark Made of rye and wheat flour or up to 1/3 whole rye grains may have whole seeds, usual sourdough base, low fat, no oil or flavoring but salt, high fiber, little or no sugar, usually long brown rectangle.
Rumali Roti Flatbread India (Northern) Rumali in Hindi means handkerchief or napkin. This flatbread is thin and soft like a handkerchief. It is made with maida flour (highly refined wheat flour).
Ryaninjun Leavened United States (New England) Brown bread made from rye flour and cornmeal and baked on oak or cabbage leaves, made by the Puritans in New England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The name is derived from "rye and Indian".[12]
Rye bread Leavened Europe Made of various fractions of rye grain flour, color light to dark via flour used and if colors added, usually denser and higher fiber than many common breads, darker color, stronger flavor. Jewish rye bread is popular in Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine, and topped with caraway. In Germany, breads with a mixture of rye and other grains is a Mischbrot.
Sacramental bread Crispy bread Greece
Italy (Rome)
Ceremonial bread used in the Christian Eucharist ritual.
Saj bread Unleavened Middle East, Turkey, Armenia Daily staple in many Middle Eastern countries, especially in Lebanon
Samoon Yeast bread Iraq It is baked in traditional stone ovens, like pizza. Usually served with a variety of foods such as Hummus, Kebab, Shawarma.
Salt-rising bread Leavened United States Made of wheat flour, starter of liquid (water or milk), either corn, potatoes, or wheat, and some other minor ingredients; result has dense crumb and positive cheese-like flavor.
Sangak Sourdough Iran Plain, rectangular, or triangular, whole wheat sourdough, usually two types: generic no toppings and costlier topped with poppy or sesame seeds.
Scallion bread scallion bread Taiwan Characterised by its green onion topping and use of traditional lard, this bread has a soft, fluffy texture and a distinctive aroma.
Scone Quick bread United Kingdom Small quick bread usually made of wheat, barley or oatmeal, baking powder leavening.
Sgabeo Leavened Italy (Lunigiana) Cut into strips, fried and salted.
Shaobing Layered flatbread China Thick, baked, layered flatbread which may have sweet or savory filling.
Shirmal Flatbread India
Saffron-flavored traditional flatbread, usually made with milk instead of water.
Shotis puri Yeast bread Georgia Made of white flour and shaped like a canoe rowboat baked in tandoor.
Shuangbaotai Dough bread Taiwan Chewy fried dough bread containing large air pockets on the inside and a crisp crust on the outside. It is made by twisting two small pieces of dough together and frying them, causing them to separate slightly while remaining connected.
Soda bread Soda bread Ireland A variety of quick bread traditionally made in a variety of cuisines in which sodium bicarbonate (otherwise known as baking soda) is used as a raising agent rather than the more common yeast. The ingredients of traditional soda bread are flour, bread soda, salt, and buttermilk. The buttermilk in the dough contains lactic acid, which reacts with the baking soda to form tiny bubbles of carbon dioxide. Other ingredients can be added such as raisins, egg or various nuts.
Sopa Maize flour and cheese bread Paraguay Maize flour, cheese, eggs, lard.
Sopapilla Deep fried pumpkin bread Chile Pumkin, wheat flourm lard
Sourdough bread Sourdough Fertile Crescent A bread product made by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeasts. In comparison with breads made quickly with cultivated yeast, it usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced by the lactobacilli.
Spelt bread Yeast bread Georgia
Made mainly with spelt flour or coarse meal.
Sprouted bread Sprouted Isle of Man A type of bread made from sprouted (germinated) whole grains
Taboon bread or Laffa Flatbread Turkey Taboon is a wrap used in many cuisines. This type of flatbread is traditionally baked in a Tabun oven and eaten with different fillings.
Taftan Leavened Iran Leavened flour bread with saffron and small amount of cardamom powder baked in a clay oven.
Tandoor bread Flatbread Global A type of bread baked in a clay oven that is called a tandoor.
Teacake Sweet bun United Kingdom Fruited sweet bun usually served toasted and buttered.
Telera Yeast bread Mexico A soft, white bread generally used for making sandwiches called tortas.
Texas toast Yeast bread United States (Texas) A type of packaged white bread (not sold toasted as the name implies) which is sold sliced at double the typical thickness of most sliced breads. While it can be used in the same manner as ordinary bread slices such as in sandwiches, it is especially useful for dishes involving liquids, such as barbecue sauce, or where extra thickness can improve the product, such as French toast.
Tiger bread Rice bread Netherlands Rice paste bread made with sesame oil and with a pattern baked into the top made by painting rice paste onto the surface prior to baking. The paste dries and cracks during the baking process, creating a two-colour effect similar to a tiger's markings, hence the name.
Tonis puri Flatbread Georgia Made of white flour and baked in tandoor.
Torta frita White flour, lard, flatbread, fried Argentina, Uruguay Leavened flatbread deep fried in lard. Similar to sopaipilla
Tortilla Flatbread Mexico
Thin flatbread made from finely ground wheat flour. Originally derived from the corn tortilla (tortilla in Spanish means "small torta", or "small cake"), a bread of maize which predates the arrival of Europeans to the Americas, the wheat flour tortilla was an innovation after wheat was brought to the New World from Spain while this region was the colony of New Spain. It is made with an unleavened, water based dough, pressed and cooked like corn tortillas.
Tsoureki Leavened Greece Sweet bread formed of braided strands of dough; may also be savory.
Ttongppang Pancake South Korea Korean bread sold at street markets. It is filled with red bean paste with walnut kernel and sold for about 1,000.
Tunnbröd Flatbread Sweden Soft (used as wrap for other food), or crisp (used with fermented herring), many variants depending on type of grain (any mix of wheat, barley, rye), leavening agent (or lack), and rolling pin.
Uttapam Pancake India (Southern) Fermented crêpe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils garnished with onion, chilli, capsicum, coriander, tomato and cheese. It is served with chutney or sambar
Vánočka Leavened Czech Republic, Slovakia Baked traditionally at Christmastime. It is rich in eggs and butter, making it similar to brioche. Lemon rind and nutmeg add color and flavor; the dough can also contain raisins and almonds, and is braided like challah.
Vienna bread Leavened Austria (Vienna) Produced from a process using high milling of Hungarian grain, cereal press-yeast for leavening.
Wagafi bread Flatbread Iraq, Iran A flat, thin bread.
White bread White Global Made from wheat flour from which the bran and the germ have been removed through a process known as milling.
Whole wheat bread Leavened Europe Made using flour which is partly or entirely made from whole or almost whole wheat grains. An Estonian version is the Sepik.
Wotou/wowotou Steamed China Cone-shaped steamed bread made from cornmeal, originating in northern China.
Yufka Flatbread Turkey Thin, round, unleavened, similar to lavash, about 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter, usually made of wheat flour, water, table salt. The lower the moisture content, the longer the shelf life. Not to be confused with yufka meaning filo.
Zopf Leavened, White Switzerland
Made of white flour, milk, egg, butter, yeast, dough is braided, brushed with egg yolk before baking, forming a gold crust.
Zwieback Crispy sweet bread Germany Crisp, sweetened bread, made with eggs and baked twice. It is sliced before it is baked a second time, which produces crisp, brittle slices that closely resemble melba toast.

See also


  1. ^ "Short History of Banana Bread". Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  2. ^ Treuille, E.; Ferrigno, U. (2008). Bread Revised. DK Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7566-5461-0.
  3. ^ Lahey, J.; Flaste, R. (2009). My Bread: The Revolutionary No-Work, No-Knead Method. W. W. Norton. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-0-393-06630-2.
  4. ^ a b "Traditional Bread From United States Virgin Islands". TasteAtlas. 2021-08-10. Retrieved 2024-04-23.
  5. ^ Morse, K.J. (2022). The Americas: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society [2 volumes]. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 234. ISBN 979-8-216-04766-7. Retrieved 2024-04-23.
  6. ^ Potter, S.H. (2015). Moon U.S. & British Virgin Islands. Moon Handbooks. Avalon Publishing. p. 649. ISBN 978-1-63121-168-3. Retrieved 2024-04-23.
  7. ^ B, Dienia (2014-08-27). "Virgen Islands Dumb Bread Recipe". Retrieved 2024-04-23.
  8. ^ Moskin, Julia (2014-04-22). "Three Recipes to Savor to the Last Crumb (Published 2014)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2023-07-30. Retrieved 2023-07-30.
  9. ^ "Lavash, the preparation, meaning and appearance of traditional bread as an expression of culture in Armenia, Inscribed in 2014 (9.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Country(ies): Armenia". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  10. ^ "Down Memory Lane with my Old Fashioned Milk Loaf Recipe". Lavender and Lovage. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018. With image of baking tin.
  11. ^ Lepard, Dan (26 October 2012). "Dan Lepard's recipes for milk bread". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  12. ^ Stavely, Keith; Fitzgerald, Kathleen (8 March 2006). "Ryaninjun and Brown Bread". America's Founding Food: The Story of New England Cooking. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 23–29. ISBN 978-0-8078-7672-5.