Examples of major urban areas in the United Kingdom; Liverpool, Edinburgh, Newcastle upon Tyne; and London.

This is a list of cities in the United Kingdom that are officially designated such as of 12 November 2022.[1][2] It lists those places that have been granted city status by letters patent or royal charter.[3][4]

There are currently a total of 76 such cities in the United Kingdom: 55 in England, eight in Scotland, seven in Wales, and six in Northern Ireland.[3] Of these, 24 in England, two in Wales, and two in Northern Ireland have Lord Mayors; four in Scotland have Lord Provosts.[a] In some cases, the area holding city status does not coincide with the built up area or conurbation of which it forms part. In Greater London, for example, the City of London and that of Westminster each hold city status separately, but no other local authority in the London Region has been granted city status, nor has the Greater London Authority.

In other cases, such as the cities of Canterbury and Lancaster, the status applies to a local government district which extends over a number of towns and rural areas outside the main settlement proper.[5] In England, the status sometimes applies to civil parishes, such as the city of Ripon; though the status may not apply to the local government district which share their name. For example, the civil parishes of Lichfield and Chichester each hold city status, but the Lichfield District and the Chichester District, in which they are situated, respectively, do not.

The list does not include places like Luton or Northampton which, despite having populations of over 200,000, have not been awarded city status and thus formally remain as towns. As of 2022, there are currently 5 ceremonial counties which contain 3 cities – Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hampshire, West Midlands and West Yorkshire. Outside the UK within British overseas cities of the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies, there are currently five. The number has increased as part of the Platinum Jubilee celebrations, with longstanding cities Gibraltar, Hamilton in Bermuda and Jamestown in St Helena being joined by Stanley in the Falkland Islands and Douglas in the Isle of Man.

History

Main articles: City status in the United Kingdom and Ireland, also Roman cities in Britain.

The initial cities (Latin: civitas) of Britain were the fortified settlements organised by the Romans as the capitals of the Celtic tribes under Roman rule. The British clerics of the early Middle Ages later preserved a traditional list of the "28 Cities" (Old Welsh: cair) which was mentioned by Gildas[7] and listed by Nennius.[8]

The title of city was initially informal and, into the 20th century, royal charters were considered to recognise city status rather than to grant it.[10] The usual criterion in early modern Britain was the presence of a cathedral, particularly after King Henry VIII granted letters patent establishing six new cities when he established a series of new dioceses in the 1540s as part of the English Reformation.[11] No new cities were created between the 16th and 19th centuries, but following the Industrial Revolution and the accompanying population boom and growth in urbanisation, new sees were established at Ripon (1836) and Manchester (1847); their councils began to style them cities immediately. Inverness in Scotland was even refused a charter at the time of the Jubilee honours of 1897, in part because it would have drawn more attention to the other traditional "cities" still not formally chartered as such.[5]

Beginning in the mid-19th century, however, the process became more formal. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1851 prompted Manchester to petition Parliament for recognition of its status. Ripon followed in the 1860s, and a series of hitherto informal "cities" were formally recognised in the 1880s and 1890s. On the basis of its size, importance, and regular government, Belfast was elevated in spite of its lack of a cathedral in 1888; other large municipalities followed, while smaller applicants began to be rejected. King Edward VII and the Home Office established three criteria for future applicants in 1907—a minimum population of 300,000, a good record of local government, and a "local metropolitan character"[5] – but these criteria were not made public, and following Leicester's successful elevation in 1919 a series of exceptions were made. The 1972 Local Government Act effectively eliminated all authorities holding city status outside Greater London on 1 April 1974; most of their replacements were confirmed in their predecessor's status—even in cases such as the 1974–2023 City of Carlisle district, where much of the local authority area was undeveloped countryside—but the Borough of Medway was not permitted to continue Rochester's title. In recent times there have been competitions for new grants of city status. Towns or councils that claim city status or add "city" to their name have been known to be rebuked by the Advertising Standards Authority.[12]

The cities of Scotland and Ireland were treated separately. Scottish towns irregularly applied the description to themselves, but were formally organised as royal burghs; the special rights of these were preserved by Article XXI of the Treaty of Union which established the single state of Great Britain in 1707.[13] Edinburgh and Glasgow were confirmed as cities "by ancient usage" in the 18th century,[5] as was Aberdeen,[14] and this was later reconfirmed in the Act enlarging the burgh in 1891. Dundee was granted letters patent in 1889 and Elgin and Perth were recognised as cities by the Home Office in 1972, before the privilege was removed by the Scottish Local Government Act of 1973.[15] In Ireland, only the seat of the primate at Armagh was accorded city status by ancient usage, and this status was abolished by the Irish Municipal Corporations Act of 1840. All other cities have been those explicitly recognised as such.

Statistical role

Further information: City status in the United Kingdom § Smallest and largest cities, and City status in the United Kingdom § Populous towns

City status has no significance in UK statistically because it is not a measure of a city's size and only holds a ceremonial status. Historic cities, such as St Davids (a cathedral city in Wales) can be quite small, however newer cities, such as those conferred in 2022, can range in size from anywhere between 50,000 to over 200,000. There are large populous settlements, such as Luton, Northampton and Reading, that still do not have city status.

Conurbations

The term "city" is sometimes loosely applied to conurbations in the UK. The government tends to recognise these as primary urban areas for statistical and economic purposes, though greater urban areas are what most determine to be a city region.[16] Large cities outside of London such as Manchester or Birmingham are often confused with these greater conurbations. According to the 2011 census, Manchester was significantly less populous than Birmingham, despite Greater Manchester having a larger urban population than the West Midlands conurbation.[17] This question of definition has provoked a second city debate in the United Kingdom.

Conversely, many official cities in the UK contain a substantial rural area encompassing settlements which are physically separated from the core urban area. This applies to settlements such as Milton Keynes and Colchester, whose local authorities received Letters Patent, despite the City of Milton Keynes and City of Colchester administrative units covering an area substantially larger than that of their respective core urban areas, meaning that extra-urban settlements such as Olney[18] and West Mersea fall within de jure cities.[19][20]

List of cities

Image De facto[b] De jure[c]
City Region, Country Year granted
or confirmed
City[3][1] City council status[d] Population
London London, England time immemorial City of London6 LGD
(sui generis and ceremonial county)

Map

12,156 (2023)[21]
Westminster London, England 1540 City of Westminster21 LGD
(London borough)

Map

213,119 (2023)[21]
Birmingham West Midlands, England 188933 City of Birmingham2 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

1,171,467 (2023)[21]
Leeds Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1893 City of Leeds1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

829,417 (2023)[21]
Glasgow32
(Scots: Glesga)
(Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu)
Scotland 18th century[5]
(Burgh: 1492)
Glasgow LGD
(Council area)

Map

620,700 (2022)[22]
Manchester North West, England 185334 City of Manchester1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

585,057 (2023)[23]
Sheffield Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1893 City of Sheffield3 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

579,082 (2023)[24]
Bradford Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1897 City of Bradford1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

556,880 (2023)[25]
Edinburgh32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann)
Scotland 18th century[14]
(Burgh: 1329)
Edinburgh LGD
(Council area)

Map

512,700 (2022)[22]
Liverpool North West, England 1880 City of Liverpool2 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

504,932 (2023)[21]
Bristol South West, England 1542 City of Bristol1 LGD
(Unitary and county)

Map

482,815 (2023)[21]
Cardiff9
(Welsh: Caerdydd)
Wales 190529 Cardiff LGD
(Principal area)

Map

381,759 (2023)[21]
Leicester East Midlands, England 191922 City of Leicester1 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

379,963 (2023)[26]
Coventry West Midlands, England 1102

(time immemorial)

City of Coventry1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

368,483 (2023)[26]
Wakefield Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1888 City of Wakefield3 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

362,355 (2023)[26]
Belfast
(Irish: Béal Feirste)
(Ulster-Scots: Bilfawst)
Northern Ireland 1888 Belfast LGD

Map

345,418 (2021)[27]
Nottingham East Midlands, England 1897 City of Nottingham1 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

330,949 (2023)[28]
Newcastle upon Tyne1 North East, England 1882 City of Newcastle upon Tyne1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

315,110 (2023)[29]
Doncaster Yorkshire and the Humber,
England
202247 City of Doncaster LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

314,252 (2023)[30]
Milton Keynes South East, England 202241 City of Milton Keynes LGD
(Unitary)

Map

297,180 (2023)[31]
Salford North West, England 192624 City of Salford1 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

282,487 (2023)[31]
Sunderland North East, England 1992 City of Sunderland18 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

279,556 (2023)[31]
Brighton and Hove South East, England 2001 Brighton and Hove15 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

278,455 (2023)[32]
Wolverhampton West Midlands, England 2001 City of Wolverhampton16 LGD
(Metropolitan borough)

Map

271,173 (2023)[32]
Kingston upon Hull Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1897 City of Kingston upon Hull12 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

271,095 (2023)[32]
Plymouth South West, England 192827 City of Plymouth1 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

267,888 (2023)[33]
Derby East Midlands, England 1977 City of Derby13 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

265,082 (2023)[33]
Stoke-on-Trent West Midlands, England 192528 City of Stoke-on-Trent3 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

261,867 (2023)[33]
Southampton South East, England 1964 City of Southampton1 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

257,160 (2023)[33]
Swansea9
(Welsh: Abertawe)
Wales 196923 Swansea LGD
(Principal area)

Map

245,440 (2023)[33]
Aberdeen32
(Scots: Aiberdeen)
(Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain)
Scotland 189131
(Burgh: 1179)
Aberdeen LGD
(Council area)

Map

224,000 (2022)[34]
Peterborough East, England 1541 City of Peterborough2 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

218,179 (2023)[35]
Portsmouth South East, England 192624 City of Portsmouth1 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

209,171 (2023)[36]
York Yorkshire and the Humber, England time immemorial City of York1,8 LGD
(Unitary)

Map

206,825 (2023)[36]
Colchester East, England 202244 City of Colchester LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

196,808 (2023)[36]
Chelmsford East, England 2012 City of Chelmsford37 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

185,288 (2023)[37]
Southend-on-Sea East, England 202245 City of Southend-on-Sea LGD
(Unitary)

Map

182,278 (2023)[37]
Oxford South East, England 1542 City of Oxford1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

165,257 (2023)[21]
Newport

(Welsh: Casnewydd)

Wales 2002 Newport14 LGD
(Principal area)

Map

163,547 (2023)[38]
Canterbury South East, England time immemorial City of Canterbury3 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

160,351 (2023)[39]
Preston North West, England 2002 City of Preston14 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

155,634 (2023)[39]
Dundee32
(Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dèagh)
Scotland 188930
(Burgh: 1191)
Dundee LGD
(Council area)

Map

148,100 (2022)[40]
Cambridge East, England 195125 City of Cambridge3 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

147,797 (2023)[41]
St Albans East, England 187736 St Albans City and District7 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

147,410 (2023)[41]
Lancaster North West, England 193726 City of Lancaster1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

145,346 (2023)[41]
Norwich East, England 1094

(time immemorial)

City of Norwich1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

144,251 (2023)[42]
Chester North West, England 1541 (Cheshire West and Chester does not hold status)3 Charter trustees

Map

138,873 (2021)[43]
Exeter South West, England time immemorial City of Exeter1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

137,462 (2023)[42]
Wrexham
(Welsh: Wrecsam)
Wales 202243 Wrexham County Borough LGD
(Principal area)

Map

137,341 (2023)[21]
Gloucester South West, England 1541 City of Gloucester1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

133,998 (2023)[44]
Winchester South East, England time immemorial City of Winchester1 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

132,341 (2023)[44]
Durham1 North East, England time immemorial (County Durham does not hold status)1 Charter trustees

Map

126,486 (2021)[45]
Carlisle North West, England 1133 (time immemorial) (Cumberland does not hold status)1 Charter trustees

Map

110,024 (2021)[46]
Worcester West Midlands, England time immemorial City of Worcester3 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

104,589 (2023)[47]
Lincoln East Midlands, England 1072 (time immemorial) City of Lincoln3 LGD
(Non-metropolitan borough)

Map

102,392 (2023)[47]
Bath South West, England 1090 (time immemorial) (Bath and North East Somerset does not hold status)1 Charter trustees

Map

95,043 (2021)[48][49]
Derry39
(Irish: Doire)
(Ulster-Scots: Derrie)
Northern Ireland 1604[50] None Represented on Derry City and Strabane District Council

Map

85,279 (2021)[51]
Dunfermline Scotland 202246 None None

Map

76,210 (2020)[52]
Bangor
(Irish: Beannchar)
Northern Ireland 202248 None Represented on Ards and North Down Borough Council

Map

64,596 (2021)[51]
Inverness
(Scots: Inerness)

(Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Nis)

Scotland 2001 None None

Map

63,730 (2020)[52]
Hereford West Midlands, England time immemorial Hereford parish119 Civil parish

Map

53,113 (2021)[53]
Lisburn
(Irish: Lios na gCearrbhach)
Northern Ireland 2002 None Represented on Lisburn and Castlereagh City Council

Map

51,447 (2021)[54]
Stirling
(Scots: Stirlin)
(Scottish Gaelic: Sruighlea)
Scotland 2002 None None

Map

49,950 (2020)[55]
Perth
(Scots: Pairth)
(Scottish Gaelic: Peairt)
Scotland 2012[56]
(Burgh: 12th century)[58]
None None

Map

47,350 (2020)[59]
Salisbury South West, England 1227 Salisbury parish35 Civil parish

Map

41,552 (2021)[60]
Lichfield West Midlands, England time immemorial Lichfield parish17 Civil parish

Map

32,580 (2021)[61]
Chichester South East, England 1075

(time immemorial)

Chichester parish1 Civil parish

Map

29,407 (2021)[62]
Newry
(Irish: Iúr Cinn Trá)
(Ulster-Scots: Newrie)
Northern Ireland 2002 None Represented on Newry, Mourne and Down District Council

Map

28,530 (2021)[63]
Truro
(Cornish: Truru)
South West, England 1877 Truro parish1 Civil parish

Map

21,046 (2021)[64]
Ely East, England 1109[65]

(time immemorial)

Ely parish1 Civil parish

Map

20,574 (2021)[66]
Ripon Yorkshire and the Humber, England 1865 Ripon parish1 Civil parish

Map

16,590 (2021)[67]
Armagh11
(Irish: Ard Mhacha)
(Ulster-Scots: Airmagh)
Northern Ireland 1994 None Represented on Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon Borough Council

Map

16,310 (2021)[68]
Bangor Wales time immemorial Bangor community1 Community

Map

15,060 (2021)[69]
Wells South West, England time immemorial Wells parish1 Civil parish

Map

11,145 (2021)[70]
St Asaph
(Welsh: Llanelwy)
Wales 2012 St Asaph community37 Community

Map

3,485 (2021)[71]
St Davids
(Welsh: Tyddewi)
Wales 1994 St Davids and the Cathedral Close20 Community

Map

1,751 (2021)[72]

Map of the cities

Below is a map of the 76 cities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Also shown is the one city in a UK Crown Dependency, Douglas in the Isle of Man. (For cities in UK Overseas Territories, see below.)

32 cities have a Lord Provost (in Scotland) or a Lord Mayor (in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland), see List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom.

The six cities where the Lord Mayor or Lord Provost has the right to the style The Right Honourable are York, the City of London, Edinburgh, Glasgow (since 1912), Belfast (since 1923), and Cardiff (since 1956).

• Scalable map displaying local government city boundaries
Map Key
Map

Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies

Main article: British overseas cities

The UK Overseas Territories and UK Crown Dependencies do not form part of the United Kingdom. Association of city status with cathedrals ended in 1865.[73] There are presently five cities in Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies.[74]

Image City Year granted
or confirmed
Territory/Dependency Status Population (Census)
Gibraltar 184242[75] Gibraltar, southwestern Europe

Map

British Overseas Territory 32,194 (2012)
Hamilton 1897 Bermuda,
North Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 854 (2016)
Jamestown 1859 St Helena,
Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
,
South Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 629 (2016)
Stanley 202240 Falkland Islands,
South Atlantic Ocean

Map

British Overseas Territory 2,460 (2016)
Douglas
(Manx: Doolish)
202249 Isle of Man,
Irish Sea

Map

Crown Dependency 27,938 (2011)

See also

Table notes

  • ^‡ The status bearers of these cities changed on 1 April 2009 due to local government reforms. Salisbury became a civil parish, while charter trustees were formed for the former district council areas of Chester and Durham in the new unitary authorities of Cheshire West and Chester and County Durham respectively.[76][77]
  • ^1 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 1 April 1974.[78]
  • ^2 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 25 June 1974.[79]
  • ^3 City status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 28 May 1974.[80]
  • ^4 Bath Abbey and Westminster Abbey are no longer cathedrals.
  • ^5 Coventry has had three cathedrals: the first, St Mary's, from 1043 to 1539 (it became a cathedral in 1102); the second, St Michael's, from 1918 to 1940, when it was destroyed by German bombardment; and its replacement, also St Michael's, built alongside the old cathedral, consecrated in 1962.
  • ^6 Note that the City of London covers only the "square mile", and is usually just referred to as "the City". The larger conurbation of Greater London has no city charter, and consists of the City of London, the City of Westminster and 31 other London boroughs. This can be compared to the City of Brussels, within Brussels.
  • ^7 City status was confirmed by Letters Patent dated 9 July 1974.[81] The city status extends to the entire district, although the district council calls itself "St Albans District Council" or "St Albans City and District".
  • ^8 Letters Patent under the Great Seal conferring City Status were issued to the unitary authority of York on 1 April 1996, confirming the right of the Lord Mayor to be styled "Right Honourable", in continuation to those granted to the previous City Council abolished 31 March 1996.[82]
  • ^9 Letters Patent under the Great Seal were issued on 29 March 1996 ordaining that the counties of Swansea and Cardiff should have the status of cities from 1 April 1996. The counties replaced the previous district councils which had enjoyed city status.[82]
  • ^10 According to the Municipal Year Book, 1972 the royal burghs of Perth and Elgin officially enjoyed city status. The royal burghs of Brechin, Dunfermline and Kirkwall had also been officially described as "cities". As all burghs were abolished in 1975, these areas are now often called "former cities". Although Brechin does not have city status, the community council formed for the area uses the title "City of Brechin and District".
  • ^11 Armagh had previously enjoyed city status, with St Patrick's Cathedral the seat of the metropolitan primate of all Ireland. The city status was lost in 1840 when the city corporation was abolished. However, the successor urban district council and district council frequently used the title of city without official sanction prior to 1994.
  • ^12 City Status confirmed by Letters Patent issued under the Great Seal dated 18 March 1975.[83]
  • ^13 City status granted by Letters Patent dated 7 June 1977.[84]
  • ^14 City status granted to the "Town of Newport in the County Borough of Newport" and the "Town of Preston" by Letters Patent dated 15 May 2002.[85]
  • ^15 Letters Patent dated 31 January 2001 ordained that "the Towns of Brighton and Hove shall have the status of a City".[86]
  • ^16 Letters Patent dated 31 January 2001 ordained that "the Town of Wolverhampton shall have the status of a City".[86]
  • ^17 Letters Patent dated 4 November 1980 ordained that the "Town of Lichfield shall have the status of a City". A town council had been constituted in 1980 leading to the dissolution of the Charter Trustees of the City of Lichfield.[87][88]
  • ^18 City status granted by Letters Patent dated 23 March 1992.[89]
  • ^19 City status was conferred on Hereford Town Council 11 October 2000.[90] The status had previously been confirmed to the district council formed in 1974. When that council was abolished in 1996 charter trustees were formed for the City of Hereford. On the formation of a town council for Hereford in April 2000 the charter trustees were dissolved, and the city status temporarily lapsed.
  • ^20 St David's historically had city status because of the presence of St David's Cathedral. In 1849 it was noted that the city had no municipal corporation: There was however a recognised "city" in which a mayor had limited jurisdiction.[91] A Royal Commission appointed in 1876 reported that the corporation had long been extinct, and the city was formally abolished in 1886 under the provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act 1883.[92] Letters Patent dated 16 September 1994 ordained that the "Town of St. David's shall have the status of a City".[93]
  • ^21 The title of City was used "by courtesy" after 1550 when Westminster ceased to be the see of a bishop. By Letters Patent dated 27 October 1900 city status was conferred on the newly created Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1 November.[94] This status was continued on the creation of the City of Westminster as a London borough in 1965.
  • ^22 A letter from the Home Secretary to the Mayor of Leicester dated 14 June 1919, confirming that the city status would be bestowed, noted that this was a "restoration to your ancient town of its former status of a city".[95][96][97]
  • ^23 Letters Patent dated 10 December 1969.[98]
  • ^24 Letters Patent dated 21 April 1926.[99]
  • ^25 Letters Patent dated 21 March 1951.[100]
  • ^26 Letters Patent dated 14 May 1937.[101]
  • ^27 Letters Patent dated 18 October 1928.[102]
  • ^28 Letters Patent dated 5 June 1925.[103]
  • ^29 Letters Patent dated 28 October 1905, which also granted the title of Lord Mayor.[104]
  • ^30 Warrant issued 28 January 1889 that Letters Patent be issued under the Seal appointed by the treaty of union to be used in place of the Great Seal of Scotland, ordaining and declaring that the Burgh of Dundee shall be a City, and shall be called and styled "The City of Dundee".[105]
  • ^31 Burghs of Old Aberdeen and Woodside and the district of Torry incorporated as the City and Royal Burgh of Aberdeen by the Aberdeen Corporation Act 1891 (54 & 55 Vict. c. cxxiv).
  • ^32 The present council areas are designated "cities" by virtue of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, which also reserves the post of Lord Provost for the convener of the four councils. The previous local government districts and district councils created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 enjoyed the same privileges.
  • ^33 Letters Patent dated 14 January 1889.[106]
  • ^34 Letters Patent dated 29 March 1853.[107]
  • ^35 Letters Patent dated 1 April 2009.[108] City status had been held prior to this date (and since 1974) by the Charter Trustees of the City of New Sarum. The city of Salisbury's formal name was New Sarum (see also: Old Sarum) from 1227 until 2009.
  • ^36 Letters Patent dated 28 August 1877.[109]
  • ^37 Letters Patent dated 1 June 2012 "to ordain that the Town of Chelmsford in the County of Essex and the Town of St Asaph in the County of Denbighshire shall have the status of a City".[110]
  • ^38 [2015] Localities (Glasgow)[111]
  • ^39 Legally, the city and county are called "Londonderry", while the local government district is called "Derry". See Derry/Londonderry name dispute.[112]
  • ^40 Letters Patent dated 14 June 2022.[113]
  • ^41 Letters Patent dated 15 August 2022.[114]
  • ^42 Letters Patent dated 30 September 1842[115]
  • ^43 Letters Patent dated 1 September 2022[116]
  • ^44 Letters Patent dated 5 September 2022[117]
  • ^45 Letters Patent dated 26 January 2022[118]
  • ^46 Letters Patent dated 28 July 2022[119]
  • ^47 Letters Patent dated 7 September 2022, with effect from 1 November 2022[120]
  • ^48 Letters Patent dated 22 November 2022[121]
  • ^49 Letters Patent dated 7 September 2022, with effect from 1 November 2022[122]

Notes

  1. ^ See List of lord mayoralties and lord provostships in the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ De facto - named city settlement
  3. ^ De jure - entity with city status
  4. ^ LGD - Local government district

References

  1. ^ a b Weaver, Matthew (1 March 2022). "'I will tell my grandchildren': Southend celebrates city status". The Guardian.
  2. ^ West, Robby; McMenemy, Rachael (1 March 2022). "Southend ready to celebrate city status granted by Queen". BBC News.
  3. ^ a b c "UK Government Web Archive". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2023.
  4. ^ McClatchey, Caroline (22 June 2011). "Why do towns want to become cities?". BBC News. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Beckett (2005).
  6. ^ "JTK". "Civitas" in Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 451. ABC-CLIO (Sta. Barbara), 2006.
  7. ^ De Excidio Britanniae, §3. (in Latin) Cited in the "Civitas" entry of Celtic Culture.[6]
  8. ^ Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
  9. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. 1911.
  10. ^ The 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, for instance, listed St Asaph and Southwell as cities on the basis of their cathedrals despite their lack of charters or, in Southwell's case, local government.[9]
  11. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 22.
  12. ^ "ASA Adjudication on Medway Council". Asa.org.uk. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  13. ^ Kingdoms of England and Scotland. "Act of Union", §XXI Archived 26 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. 16 January 1707.
  14. ^ a b Beckett (2005), p. 16.
  15. ^ Clark, M. Lynda & al. "Committee on Privileges Second Report", Appendix 3, ss58. Parliament of the United Kingdom (London), 1999.
  16. ^ Swinney, Paul (12 July 2021). "Does how we define cities change our understanding of them?". The Centre for Cities.
  17. ^ "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  18. ^ "Milton Keynes celebrates City status". The Royal Family. 23 February 2023.
  19. ^ Milton Keynes City Council (December 2021). "Milton Keynes city status application" (PDF).
  20. ^ Colchester City Council (November 2022). "Colchester City Status".
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  22. ^ a b "Scotland's Census 2022 – Rounded population estimates – data". Scotland's Census. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  23. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  24. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  25. ^ "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  26. ^ a b c "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  27. ^ "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  28. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  29. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  30. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  31. ^ a b c "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  32. ^ a b c "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  33. ^ a b c d e "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  34. ^ "Scotland's Census 2022 – Rounded population estimates – data". Scotland's Census. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  35. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  36. ^ a b c "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  37. ^ a b "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  38. ^ "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  39. ^ a b "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  40. ^ "Scotland's Census 2022 – Rounded population estimates – data". Scotland's Census. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  41. ^ a b c "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  42. ^ a b "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  43. ^ "City of Chester Charter Trustees – City status extends to the area of the wards for the trustees". The Lord Mayor of Chester. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  44. ^ a b "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  45. ^ "Charter Trust and Mayor for Durham City – Durham County Council – City status extends to the area of the electoral divisions for the trustees". durham.gov.uk. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  46. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Carlisle district (E07000028)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 10 March 2024.
  47. ^ a b "Admin-based population estimates for local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 18 December 2023. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  48. ^ "BANES 2021 Census Ward Profiles – (Combined populations of the 14 wards that make-up the city.)". app.powerbi.com. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  49. ^ "City Map showing Ward Boundaries" (PDF).
  50. ^ City commemorates the 400th Anniversary of the City's first charter, Derry City Council press release dated 7 July 2004, (accessed 15 December 2007) Archived 2 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ a b "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  52. ^ a b Team, National Records of Scotland Web (31 March 2022). "National Records of Scotland – Mid-2020 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  53. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Hereford parish (E04000921)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  54. ^ "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  55. ^ Team, National Records of Scotland Web (31 March 2022). "National Records of Scotland – Mid-2020 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  56. ^ Letters Patent dated 21 May 2012 "News: The National Records of Scotland seals Perth's city status". National Archives of Scotland. 6 July 2012. "'We really feel part of history being made' — Letters Patent makes Perth's city status official". The Courier (Dundee). 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  57. ^ Duncan, A. A. M. (24 March 1973). "Perth. The First Century of the Burgh" (PDF). Transactions of the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  58. ^ Created a royal burgh at some point under King David I (1124–53) although the earliest surviving charters date to 1209 or 1210; the status was abolished in 1975.[5][57]
  59. ^ Team, National Records of Scotland Web (31 March 2022). "National Records of Scotland – Mid-2020 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  60. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Salisbury parish (E04013046)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  61. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Lichfield civil parish (E04008932)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  62. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Chichester civil parish (E04009888)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  63. ^ "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  64. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Truro civil parish (E04013097)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  65. ^ Cathedral, Ely. "The Story of Ely – About". Ely Cathedral. Retrieved 6 April 2024.
  66. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Ely (East Cambridgeshire) civil parish (E04012829)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  67. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Ripon civil parish (E04007409)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  68. ^ "Census 2021 main statistics demography tables – age and sex". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. 7 September 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  69. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Bangor community (W04000046)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  70. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – Wells civil parish (E04008595)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  71. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – St. Asaph community (W04000175)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  72. ^ UK Census (2021). "2021 Census Area Profile – St. David's and the Cathedral Close community (W04000466)". Nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
  73. ^ Beckett (2005), p. 24.
  74. ^ O'Connor, Mary (20 May 2022). "Platinum Jubilee: Eight new cities created in Queen's honour". BBC News. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  75. ^ "Government re-affirms city status of Gibraltar".
  76. ^ "Local Government (Structural Changes) (Miscellaneous Amendments and Other Provision) Order 2009". Tow. Office of Public Sector Information. 2009. Retrieved 27 February 2009.
  77. ^ "New Parish Council for the City of Salisbury". Towards One Council. Wiltshire County Council. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  78. ^ "No. 46255". The London Gazette. 4 April 1974. p. 4400.
  79. ^ "No. 46303". The London Gazette. 28 June 1974. pp. 6485–6486.
  80. ^ "No. 46303". The London Gazette. 31 May 1974. p. 6485.
  81. ^ "No. 46352". The London Gazette. 24 September 1974. p. 7920.
  82. ^ a b "No. 54363". The London Gazette. 4 April 1996. p. 4925.
  83. ^ "No. 46522". The London Gazette. 20 March 1975. p. 3729.
  84. ^ "No. 47246". The London Gazette. 14 June 1977. p. 7656.
  85. ^ "No. 56573". The London Gazette. 21 May 2002. p. 6160.
  86. ^ a b "No. 56109". The London Gazette. 2 May 2001. p. 1431.
  87. ^ "No. 48364". The London Gazette. 7 November 1980. p. 15451.
  88. ^ "Lichfield City Council website". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
  89. ^ "No. 52874". The London Gazette. 26 March 1992. p. 5413.
  90. ^ Charters of Hereford City Council Archived 6 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ Lewis, Samuel (1849). ""Dale – St. David's"". A Topographical Dictionary of Wales. London: British History Online. pp. 278–288. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  92. ^ 46 & 47 Vict. c. 18, s.3 and Sch. II (Part I)
  93. ^ "No. 53798". The London Gazette. 23 September 1994. p. 13403.
  94. ^ "No. 27242". The London Gazette. 30 October 1900. p. 6613.
  95. ^ The Times: Leicester, a City: Sequel to the Recent Royal Visit, 17 June 1919
  96. ^ "Civic history: The making of a City, (Leicester City Council), accessed 14 February 2008". Archived from the original on 23 March 2008.
  97. ^ Leicester: The Dignity of a City 655–1926, Leicester's city status, its loss and its regaining over thirteen centuries by Daniel Williams
  98. ^ "No. 44986". The London Gazette. 12 December 1969. p. 12450.
  99. ^ "No. 33154". The London Gazette. 23 April 1926. pp. 2776–2777.
  100. ^ "No. 39201". The London Gazette. 13 April 1951. p. 2067.
  101. ^ "No. 34400". The London Gazette. 21 May 1937. p. 3296.
  102. ^ "No. 33433". The London Gazette. 26 October 1928. p. 6850.
  103. ^ "No. 33063". The London Gazette. 3 July 1925. p. 4449.
  104. ^ "No. 27849". The London Gazette. 31 October 1905. p. 7249.
  105. ^ London Gazette, 29 January 1889
  106. ^ From the London Gazette, 18 January 1889, The Times, 19 January 1889
  107. ^ "No. 21426". The London Gazette. 1 April 1853. p. 950.
  108. ^ "No. 59250". The London Gazette. 24 November 2009. p. 20329.
  109. ^ "No. 24502". The London Gazette. 11 September 1877. p. 5185. to ordain and declare that the Borough of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford, shall be a City, and shall be called and styled 'The City of Saint Albans, in the county of Hertford.'
  110. ^ "No. 60167". The London Gazette. 11 June 2012. p. 11125.
  111. ^ "Scotland (United Kingdom): Council Areas & Localities – Population Statistics, Charts and Map". citypopulation.de.
  112. ^ Application by Derry City Council for judicial review [2007] NIQB 5 Ref WEAF5707
  113. ^ "No. 63732". The London Gazette. 17 June 2022. p. 11466.
  114. ^ "No. 63791". The London Gazette. 18 August 2022. p. 15822. "THE QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 15 August 2022 to ordain that the Borough of Milton Keynes shall have the status of a City."
  115. ^ "No. 20146". The London Gazette. 30 September 1842. p. 2632.
  116. ^ "Crown Office". 5 September 2022. "THE QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 1 September 2022 to ordain that the County Borough of Wrexham shall have the status of a City."
  117. ^ "Crown Office – The Gazette". 29 September 2022. The Late QUEEN was pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 5 September 2022 to ordain that the Borough of Colchester shall have the status of a City.
  118. ^ @RoyalFamily (1 March 2022). "Today The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall were in Southend to celebrate its new city status, which was made official after the formal presentation of 'Letters Patent' on behalf of The Queen" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  119. ^ @RoyalFamily (3 October 2022). "'We gather to celebrate this great occasion but also to commemorate the life of Her late Majesty , whose deep love for Scotland was one of the foundations of her life.'" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  120. ^ @LieutenancySY (9 November 2022). "'Honoured to host Their Majesties King Charles III and The Queen Consort Camilla in #Doncaster today for the letters patent ceremony to grant City status.'" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  121. ^ "Bangor receives city status in Princess Anne visit". BBC News. 2 December 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2022.
  122. ^ "Douglas Letters Patent" (PDF). Ministry of Justice. 27 June 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.

Sources

  • Beckett, J. V. (2005). City Status in the British Isles, 1830–2002. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5067-7.