This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government. In some cases, mainly in presidential systems, one leader is head of state and head of government. In other cases, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of state and the head of government are different people. In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems, the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by the listed head of government and the head of state.

In one-party states, the ruling party's leader (i.e. General Secretary) is usually the de facto top leader of the state, though sometimes this leader also holds the presidency or premiership. In some countries like Andorra and Vatican City (Holy See), a clergy member also acts as the head of state for both countries (Bishop of Urgell as Co-Prince of Andorra and the Pope) and head of government for the latter (President of the Governorate of Vatican City State).

The list includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate, and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised.

Member and observer states of the United Nations

Colour key
  Green cells indicate leaders whose offices constitutionally administer the executive of their respective state/government.
  Blue cells indicate de facto executive branch leaders whose offices lack de jure constitutional power.
Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, interim, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.

Other states

The following states are in free association with another UN member state.

State Associated with Head of state Head of government
 Cook Islands  New Zealand King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Sir Tom Marsters
Prime Minister – Mark Brown
 Niue  New Zealand King – Charles III[ν]
King's Representative – Dame Cindy Kiro[ι]
Premier – Dalton Tagelagi

The following states control at least part of their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.

State Also claimed by Head of state Head of government
 Abkhazia  Georgia President – Aslan Bzhania Prime Minister – Aleksander Ankvab
 Republic of China (Taiwan)  People's Republic of China President – Lai Ching-te Premier – Cho Jung-tai
 Kosovo  Serbia President – Vjosa Osmani Prime Minister – Albin Kurti
 Northern Cyprus  Cyprus President – Ersin Tatar Prime Minister – Ünal Üstel
 Sahrawi Republic  Morocco General Secretary of the Polisario Front – Brahim Ghali
President – Brahim Ghali Prime Minister – Bouchraya Hammoudi Bayoun
 South Ossetia  Georgia President – Alan Gagloyev Prime Minister – Konstantin Dzhussoyev

The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.

State Also claimed by Head of state Head of government
 Somaliland  Somalia President – Muse Bihi Abdi
 Transnistria  Moldova President – Vadim Krasnoselsky Prime Minister – Aleksander Rozenberg

Other governments

These alternative governments control part of their territory and are recognised as legitimate by at least one UN member state.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Supreme Political Council  Yemen Leader of Ansar Allah – Abdul-Malik al-Houthi[15]
Chairman – Mahdi al-Mashat Prime Minister – Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour
 Syrian National Coalition  Syria President – Hadi al-Bahra Prime Minister – Abdurrahman Mustafa

These alternative governments control part of their territory, but are not recognized as legitimate by any UN member states.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Government of National Stability  Libya Supreme Commander of the Libyan National Army – Khalifa Haftar
Chairman of the Presidential Council – Mohamed al-Menfi[ξ] Acting Prime Minister – Osama Hammad[16]
Hamas government in Gaza  Palestine Hamas Chief in the Gaza Strip – Yahya Sinwar
President – Mahmoud Abbas[ο] Head of the Government Administrative Committee – Essam al-Da'alis
 National Unity Government  Myanmar Acting President – Duwa Lashi La Prime Minister – Mahn Win Khaing Than
 Syrian Salvation Government  Syria Commander-in-Chief of Tahrir al-Sham – Abu Mohammad al-Julani[17]
President of the General Shura Council – Mustafa al-Mousa Prime Minister – Ali Keda

These alternative governments do not control their territory but are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member state.

Government State Head of state Head of government
 Coordination Council  Belarus President and Head of the Cabinet – Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya
 National Assembly (2015)  Venezuela President of the National Assembly – Dinorah Figuera[18]

Sui generis entities

Entity Head of entity Head of government
 European Union President of the European Council – Charles Michel[19] President of the European Commission – Ursula von der Leyen[20] 
Sovereign Military Order of Malta Prince and Grand Master – John T. Dunlap Grand Chancellor – Riccardo Paternò di Montecupo

See also


  1. ^ a b The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Charles III is separately and equally monarch of 15 sovereign states known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states (with the exception of the United Kingdom, where he permanently resides), he is represented at the national level by a governor-general.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Kyrgyzstani Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Peruvian President of the Council of Ministers, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
  4. ^ The high representative is an international civilian overseer of the Dayton Agreement with authority to dismiss elected and non-elected officials and enact legislation.
  5. ^ The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
  6. ^ The council will exercise certain presidential powers until a new president is elected or until February 7, 2026, whichever comes first. The presidency has been vacant since the assassination of Jovenel Moïse in 2021.[4][5][6][7]
  7. ^ According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. The President is required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
  8. ^ The constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state, but the Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of this role.
  9. ^ a b The Governor-General of New Zealand and the King's Representative of Niue are positions held by the same person.
  10. ^ a b The Captain Regent representing the party with a plurality of seats in the legislature of San Marino, the Grand and General Council, exercises more legislative power than the Captain Regent belonging to the opposition.
  11. ^ The Transitional Sovereignty Council is the collective head of state of Sudan per the 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration. While the council was intended to be a unity government incorporating civilian and military elements that used consensus decision making, Chairman Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who is also Commander-in-Chief of the Sudanese Armed Forces, has monopolized power.[9][10][11]
  12. ^ The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
  13. ^ a b Charles III is head of state of the Cook Islands and Niue in his capacity as King in Right of New Zealand. He is represented in each of these states by a King's Representative.
  14. ^ Al-Menfi is also considered head of state by the internationally-recognized Government of National Unity. Hamada is disputing the premiership of Abdul Hamid Dbeibeh, with the backing of the House of Representatives and the Libyan National Army.
  15. ^ Internationally-recognized president also recognized by Hamas since the Palestinian Unity Government of June 2014


  1. ^ Rudenka, Arsien (16 April 2024). "У Беларусі фармуецца УНС. Топ-7 простых пытанняў пра новы дзяржаўны орган" [The ABPA is being formed in Belarus: Top 7 simple questions about the new state organ]. Belsat TV (in Belarusian). Retrieved 12 May 2024.
  2. ^ Cai, Derek; Head, Jonathan (7 August 2023). "Cambodia: PM's son Hun Manet appointed next ruler in royal formality". Singapore: BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023. Hun Sen will however retain leadership of the ruling Cambodian People's Party - a position political analysts say still gives him ultimate control. • Murphy, Matt (6 August 2023). "Hun Sen: Cambodia election result confirms expected win for PM". BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2023. [Hun Sen] is expected to become president of the Senate early next year and will serve as acting head of state when King Norodom Sihamoni is abroad.
  3. ^ "General Nguema appointed transitional president of Gabon following coup". Anadolu Agency. Kigali. 30 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  4. ^ "Haiti's Constitution of 1987 with Amendments through 2012" (PDF). Constitute Project. Retrieved 20 May 2023.
  5. ^ Fatton, Robert (23 July 2021). "Will Haitians get the chance to determine their future — without foreign interference?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 20 May 2023. On Tuesday, Henry was sworn in, pledging to hold new elections in 120 days. For now, Haiti has no president[...].
  6. ^ Sullivan, Becky (18 January 2023). "As its only remaining elected officials depart, Haiti reaches a breaking point". NPR. Retrieved 20 May 2023. The constitutional mandate of Haiti's de facto ruler, Prime Minister Ariel Henry — which some viewed as questionable from the start, as he was never technically sworn in — ended more than a year ago. The country has had no president since its last one, Jovenel Moïse, was assassinated in 2021.
  7. ^ Mendonca, Duarte (25 April 2024). "Haiti's prime minister resigns as council sworn in to lead political transition in violence-ravaged nation". CNN. Retrieved 25 April 2024.
  8. ^ "Niger military names 21-person cabinet ahead of key West African summit". Al Jazeera. 10 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Sudan's Constitution of 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  10. ^ "Sudan's reinstated PM Hamdok promises a path to democracy". Al Jazeera. 22 November 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2023. The 14-point deal between Hamdok and the military, signed in the presidential palace in Khartoum on Sunday, also provides for the release of all political prisoners detained during the coup and stipulates that a 2019 constitutional declaration be the basis for a political transition, according to details read out on state television.
  11. ^ Olewe, Dickens (20 February 2023). "Mohamed 'Hemeti' Dagalo: Top Sudan military figure says coup was a mistake". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  12. ^ "Sudan coup leader restores restructured Sovereignty Council". Radio Dabanga. Khartoum. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2023.
  13. ^ "Sudan's Burhan dismisses Hemedti of his position". Al Bawaba. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  14. ^ "Turkmenistan's president expands his father's power". Associated Press. Ashgabat. 22 January 2023. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  15. ^ Nasser, Afrah (18 December 2022). "'Republic of fear': A return to Yemen after 11 years". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  16. ^ "Libya parliament suspends rival eastern-based PM Bashagha". Al Jazeera. 16 May 2023. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  17. ^ "Syria's Idlib enclave: how does it work?". Agence France-Presse. Beirut, Lebanon. France 24. 28 June 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2023. The head of the Salvation Government is [the prime minister], who assumed his post late last year, but the region's strongman is HTS chief Abu Mohammed al-Jolani.
  18. ^ Goodman, Joshua; Rodriguez Montilla, Camille (8 January 2023). "Exiled Venezuela lawmakers chosen to lead anti-Maduro fight". Associated Press. Caracas. Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  19. ^ "Europese knoop ontward: Charles Michel wordt voorzitter van de Europese Raad". 2 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021.
  20. ^ "Von der Leyen elected EU Commission head after MEPs vote". BBC News. 16 July 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2022.