There are about 30 trillion (3×1013) human cells in the adult human body, varying from about 20 to 40 trillion depending on the sex, age and weight, and a roughly equal number of bacterial cells.[1][2][3][4][5][6] The human cells have been categorized into over 400 cell types[2] based on location and function within the body, of which about 230 types are listed here.

A family tree including all the known human cells. However, not all cells are linked to their precursor or progenitor yet.
The main cellular components of the human body by count[4]
Cell type % cell count
Erythrocytes (red blood cells) 84.0
Platelets 4.9
Bone marrow cells 2.5
Vascular endothelial cells 2.1
Lymphocytes 1.5
Hepatocytes 0.8
Neurons and glia 0.6
Bronchial endothelial cells 0.5
Epidermal cells 0.5
Respiratory interstitial cells 0.5
Adipocytes (fat cells) 0.2
Dermal fibroblasts 0.1
Muscle cells 0.001
Other cells 2.0
The above dataset provides a nested list of cell groups with over 400 human cell types with cell count, cell size, and aggregate cell mass (biomass). See Dataset S1, Cell Group by Subgroup Tab, in this reference.[7]

There are many different types of cells in the human body.

Major efforts to map all human cells

Several efforts have been made to make a list or a map of all human cells.[8][9][10] One of the largest and most recent is the HuBMAP (Human BioMolecular Atlas Program).[11] They managed to organize 1551 samples across 17 collections. However, this project still only mapped about 31 of the human bodies' 70 organs. Their datasets and visualisations place great emphasis on biomarkers and location in the body, but less on cell development and how cells can change over time. Usually specific surface proteins are used to identify cells, and based on this they are put into different categories. Another major effort to make an overview of these proteins that allows us to observe cell types is the Swedish Protein Atlas.[12]

The Human Brain Project has attempted to map the human brain,[13][14] although much of the publicly accessible model does not have cellular resolution.

Complete lists of human cells known so far

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2015)

Cells derived primarily from endoderm

The endodermal cells primarily generate the lining and glands of the digestive tube[15]

Cells derived primarily from ectoderm

Nervous system

There are nerve cells, also known as neurons, present in our human body. They are branched out. These cells make up nervous tissue. A neuron consists of a cell body with a nucleus and cytoplasm, from which long thin hair-like parts arise.

Central nervous system neurons and glial cells

See also: glial cell

(large variety of types, still poorly classified)

Cells derived primarily from mesoderm

Note: Cephalic connective tissue and bones are derived from the cranial neural crest which comes from the ectoderm germ layer

Name Progenitor

(precursor cell)

Predecessor Cells Location in Body Function Cell type Cell subtype Originally derived from Known biomarkers
Brunner's gland cell crypt basal stem cells Zymogen cell, Goblet cell, Entero-endocrine, Enterocyte in duodenum, duodenal submucosa[16] enzyme and alkaline mucus secretion Exocrine secretory epithelial cells Endoderm
Insulated goblet cell Respiratory and digestive tracts mucus secretion
Foveolar cell Stomach
Chief cell pepsinogen secretion
Parietal cell hydrochloric acid secretion
Pancreatic acinar cell Pancreas (confirmation needed) bicarbonate and digestive enzyme secretion
Paneth cell small intestine lysozyme secretion
Type II pneumocyte Lungs surfactant secretion
Club cell
Type I pneumocyte formation of the Blood-Gas Barrier Barrier cell
Gall bladder epithelial cell Gall bladder
Centroacinar cell Pancreas (salivary glands)
Intestinal brush border cell (with microvilli)
K cell gastric inhibitory peptide secretion Hormone-secreting cells Enteroendocrine cell
L cell glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY3-36, oxyntomodulin, and glucagon-like peptide-2) secretion
I cell cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion
G cell gastrin secretion
Enterochromaffin cell serotonin secretion
Enterochromaffin-like cell histamine secretion
N cell neurotensin secretion
S cell secretin secretion
D cell somatostatin secretion
Mo cell (or M cell) motilin secretion
other hormones secreted: vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, alpha and gamma-endorphin, bombesin
Thyroid epithelial cell Thyroid gland cells
Parafollicular cell
Parathyroid chief cell Parathyroid gland cells
Oxyphil cell
Alpha cell glucagon secretion Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans)
Beta cell insulin and amylin secretion
Delta cell somatostatin secretion
Epsilon cell ghrelin secretion
PP cell (gamma cell) pancreatic polypeptide secretion
Salivary gland mucous cell Exocrine secretory epithelial cells Ectoderm
Salivary gland serous cell
Von Ebner's gland cell in tongue (washes taste buds)
Mammary gland cell (milk secretion)
Lacrimal gland cell (tear secretion)
Ceruminous gland cell in ear (earwax secretion)
Eccrine sweat gland dark cell (glycoprotein secretion)
Eccrine sweat gland clear cell (small molecule secretion)
Apocrine sweat gland cell (odoriferous secretion, sex-hormone sensitive)
Gland of Moll cell in eyelid (specialized sweat gland)
Sebaceous gland cell (lipid-rich sebum secretion)
Bowman's gland cell in nose (washes olfactory epithelium)
Corticotropes Hormone-secreting cells Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Gonadotropes Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Lactotropes Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Melanotropes Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Somatotropes Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Thyrotropes Anterior/Intermediate pituitary cells
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells, secrete oxytocin and vasopressin
Parvocellular neurosecretory cells secrete thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin, oxytocin, neurotensin, and prolactin
Chromaffin cells (adrenal gland)
Keratinocyte (differentiating epidermal cell) Epithelial cells
Epidermal basal cell (stem cell)
Melanocyte
Trichocyte (gives rise to hair and nail cells)
Medullary hair shaft cell Trichocyte
Cortical hair shaft cell Trichocyte
Cuticular hair shaft cell Trichocyte
Huxley's layer hair root sheath cell Trichocyte
Henle's layer hair root sheath cell Trichocyte
Outer root sheath hair cell Trichocyte
Surface epithelial cell cornea, tongue, mouth, nasal cavity, distal anal canal, distal urethra, and distal vagina
basal cell (stem cell) cornea, tongue, mouth, nasal cavity, distal anal canal, distal urethra, and distal vagina
Striated duct cell (salivary glands)
Lactiferous duct cell (mammary glands)
Ameloblast (deposit tooth enamel)
Odontoblast (tooth dentin formation) Oral cells
Cementoblast (tooth cementum formation)
Auditory inner hair cells of organ of Corti Sensory transducer cells
Auditory outer hair cells of organ of Corti
Basal cells of olfactory epithelium (stem cell for olfactory neurons)
Cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Heat-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Merkel cells of epidermis
Olfactory receptor neurons
Pain-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Photoreceptor rod cells Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye
Photoreceptor blue-sensitive cone cells of eye Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye
Photoreceptor green-sensitive cone cells of eye Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye
Photoreceptor red-sensitive cone cells of eye Photoreceptor cells of retina in eye
Proprioceptive primary sensory neurons
Touch-sensitive primary sensory neurons
Chemoreceptor glomus cells of carotid body cell (blood pH sensor)
Outer hair cells of vestibular system of ear (acceleration and gravity)
Inner hair cells of vestibular system of ear
Taste receptor cells of taste bud
Cholinergic neurons (various types) Autonomic neuron cells
Adrenergic neural cells (various types)
Peptidergic neural cells (various types)
Inner pillar cells of organ of Corti Sense organ and peripheral neuron supporting cells
Outer pillar cells of the organ of Corti
Inner phalangeal cells of organ of Corti
Outer phalangeal cells of organ of Corti
Border cells of organ of Corti
Hensen's cells of organ of Corti
Vestibular apparatus supporting cells
Taste bud supporting cells
Olfactory epithelium supporting cells
Olfactory ensheathing cells
Schwann cells
Satellite glial cells
Enteric glial cells
Basket cells Central nervous system neurons and glial cells Neuron Interneurons
Cartwheel cells Interneurons
Stellate cells Interneurons
Golgi cells Interneurons
Granule cells Interneurons
Lugaro cells Interneurons
Interneurons
Martinotti cells Interneurons
Chandelier cells Interneurons
Cajal–Retzius cells Interneurons
Double-bouquet cells Interneurons
Neurogliaform cells Interneurons
Retina horizontal cells Interneurons
Starburst amacrine cells Interneurons - > Amacrine cells
Renshaw cells Interneurons - >Spinal interneurons
Spindle neurons Principal cells
Fork neurons Principal cells
Place cells Principal cells-> Pyramidal cells
Grid cells Principal cells-> Pyramidal cells
Speed cells Principal cells-> Pyramidal cells
Head direction cells Principal cells-> Pyramidal cells
Betz cells Principal cells-> Pyramidal cells
Boundary cells Principal cells->Stellate cells
Bushy cells Principal cells
Purkinje cells Principal cells
Medium spiny neurons Principal cells
Astrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Tanycytes Ependymal cells
Pituicytes
Anterior lens epithelial cell Lens cells
Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell
White fat cell Right Atrium, Atrioventricular junction, Left Atrium, left ventricle, Right ventricle, Epicardium myocardium, Atriventricular node Metabolism and storage cells Adipocytes Mesoderm (gene:)FASN, GPAM, LEP,[17]
Brown fat cell
Liver lipocyte
Cells of the Zona glomerulosa produce mineralocorticoids Secretory cells Cells of the Adrenal cortex
Cells of the Zona fasciculata produce glucocorticoids
Cells of the Zona reticularis produce androgens
Theca Interna cell ovarian follicle secreting estrogen
Corpus luteum cell ruptured ovarian follicle secreting progesterone
Granulosa lutein cells Corpus luteum cell
Theca lutein cells
Leydig cell testes secreting testosterone
Seminal vesicle cell (secretes seminal fluid components, including fructose for swimming sperm)
Prostate gland cell (secretes seminal fluid components)
Bulbourethral gland cell (mucus secretion)
Bartholin's gland cell (vaginal lubricant secretion)
Gland of Littre cell (mucus secretion)
Uterus endometrium cell (carbohydrate secretion)
Juxtaglomerular cell (renin secretion)
Macula densa cell kidney
Peripolar cell
Mesangial cell
Parietal epithelial cell Urinary system Barrier cells
Podocyte
Proximal tubule brush border cell
Loop of Henle thin segment cell
Kidney distal tubule cell
Principal cell Kidney collecting duct cell
Intercalated cell Epithelial / Barrier cells Mesoderm
Transitional epithelium (lining urinary bladder) Barrier cells Mesoderm
Duct cell (of seminal vesicle, prostate gland, etc.) Reproductive system Barrier cells
Efferent ducts cell
Epididymal principal cell
Epididymal basal cell
Endothelial cells Circulatory system, capillary ABCC9, KCNJ8, RGS5
Planum semilunar epithelial cell of vestibular system of ear (proteoglycan secretion) Extracellular matrix cells
Organ of Corti interdental epithelial cell (secreting tectorial membrane covering hair cells)
Loose connective tissue fibroblasts
Corneal fibroblasts (corneal keratocytes)
Tendon fibroblasts
Bone marrow reticular tissue fibroblasts
Other nonepithelial fibroblasts
Hepatic stellate cell (Ito cell) Liver? Pericyte
Nucleus pulposus cell intervertebral disc
Hyaline cartilage chondrocyte
Fibrocartilage chondrocyte
Elastic cartilage chondrocyte
Osteoblast/osteocyte
Osteoprogenitor cell (stem cell of osteoblasts)
Hyalocyte vitreous body of eye
Stellate cell perilymphatic space of the ear
Pancreatic stellate cell
Red skeletal muscle cell (slow twitch) Contractile cells Skeletal muscle cells
White skeletal muscle cell (fast twitch)
Intermediate skeletal muscle cell
Nuclear bag cell muscle spindle
Nuclear chain cell muscle spindle
Myosatellite cell (stem cell)
Cardiac muscle cell Cardiac muscle cells
SA node cell
Purkinje fiber cell
Smooth muscle cell (various types) iris
Myoepithelial cell exocrine glands
Erythrocyte (red blood cell) erythroblasts Blood and immune system cells
Megakaryocyte (platelet precursor)
Platelets if considered distinct cells, currently there's debate on the subject.
Monocyte (white blood cell)
Connective tissue macrophage (various types)
Epidermal Langerhans cell
Osteoclast in bone
Dendritic cell (in lymphoid tissues)
Microglial cell (in central nervous system)
Neutrophil granulocyte precursors (myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte)
Eosinophil granulocyte and precursors???
Basophil granulocyte and precursors???
Mast cell
Helper T cell
Regulatory T cell
Cytotoxic T cell
Natural killer T cell
B cell(/Lymphocyte) Left Artrium, Left Ventricle, Septum, right ventricle, Epikaridum Myocardium,
Plasma cell
Natural killer cell
Hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors for the blood and immune system (various types)
Oogonium/Oocyte Germ Cells
Spermatid
Spermatocyte
Spermatogonium cell Stem cell for spermatocyte
Spermatozoon
Granulosa cell in the ovaries Nurse Cells
Sertoli cell in The testis
Epithelial reticular cell In the Thymus
Interstitial kidney cells Kidney Interstitial cells

List of databases relevant to this list

Name Provider Sources of revenue/sponsers
HubMap[18] A series of US based universities Unknown

See also

References

  1. ^ Hatton IA, Galbraith ED, Merleau NS, Miettinen TP, Smith BM, Shander JA (September 2023). "The human cell count and size distribution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 120 (39): e2303077120. doi:10.1073/pnas.2303077120. PMC 10523466. PMID 37722043.
  2. ^ a b "Mapping the human body one cell at a time: New study reveals the intricate relationship between cell size and count". News-Medical.net. 2023-09-19. Retrieved 2023-10-18.
  3. ^ Society, Max Planck. "Cellular cartography: Charting the sizes and abundance of our body's cells reveals mathematical order underlying life". medicalxpress.com. Retrieved 2023-10-18.
  4. ^ a b Sender R, Fuchs S, Milo R (August 2016). "Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body". PLOS Biology. 14 (8): e1002533. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002533. PMC 4991899. PMID 27541692.
  5. ^ Hewings-Martin Y (12 July 2017). "How many cells are in the human body?". Medical News Today. Retrieved 28 June 2023.
  6. ^ Zimmer C (23 October 2013). "How Many Cells Are In Your Body?". National Geographic. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2023.
  7. ^ Hatton, Ian A.; Galbraith, Eric D.; Merleau, Nono S. C.; Miettinen, Teemu P.; Smith, Benjamin McDonald; Shander, Jeffery A. (2023-09-26). "The human cell count and size distribution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 120 (39). doi:10.1073/pnas.2303077120. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 10523466. PMID 37722043.
  8. ^ "Home". humancellatlas.org. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  9. ^ "NIH to build a detailed map of cells within the human body". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 26 September 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  10. ^ Davis D. "The ambitious quest to map every cell in our body". BBC. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  11. ^ "The HuBMAP Human BioMolecular Atlas Program". HuBMAP Consortium. Retrieved 5 May 2023.
  12. ^ "The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 19 July 2023.
  13. ^ "Siibra Explorer". atlases.ebrains.eu. Retrieved 2023-07-02.
  14. ^ "Medical Data Analytics". The Human Brain Project. Retrieved 2 July 2023.
  15. ^ Gilbert SF (2000). "Endoderm". Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates. Retrieved 2023-07-02.
  16. ^ "Brunner Gland - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2023-12-10.
  17. ^ "CCF ASCT+B Reporter". Hubmap Consortium.
  18. ^ "The Human BioMolecular Atlas Program (HuBMAP)". commonfund.nih.gov. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 2023-07-12.