This is a list of dynasties and dynastic regimes in the context of monarchy, both sovereign and non-sovereign, organized by geographic region. Extant dynasties are rendered in bold and highlighted.

Criteria for inclusion

This list includes defunct and extant monarchical dynasties of both sovereign and non-sovereign statuses. Monarchical regimes each ruled by a single family—that is, a dynasty, although not explicitly styled as such (e.g. Abbasid Caliphate, Golden Horde)—are included. Where possible, rival claimants to thrones and descendants of abolished thrones are also listed. Dynasties of micronations (e.g. Bertoleoni dynasty), political families (e.g. Roosevelt family, Chiang family), and family dictatorships (e.g. Mount Paektu bloodline, Duvalier dynasty) are not included.

This list is sorted by the territorial extent of dynasties. Listing a particular dynasty under a specific section need not necessarily denote affiliation—political, cultural, or otherwise—between the historical dynasty and the modern polity/polities existing in the region.

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Extant dynasties

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  Semi-constitutional monarchy
  Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)

List of extant dynasties ruling sovereign monarchies

There are 44 sovereign states with a monarch as head of state, of which 42 are ruled by dynasties.[a] There are currently 26 sovereign dynasties, two of which rule more than one sovereign entity.

Dynasty Realm Reigning monarch Dynastic founder[b] Dynastic place of origin[c]
House of Windsor[d][e]  Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II King-Emperor George V[f] Thuringia and Bavaria
(in modern Germany)
 Commonwealth of Australia[g]
 Commonwealth of The Bahamas
 Barbados[h]
 Belize
 Canada
 Grenada
 Jamaica
New Zealand[i]
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea
 Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
 Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Solomon Islands
 Tuvalu
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[j]
House of Khalifa  Kingdom of Bahrain King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Sheikh Khalifa bin Mohammed Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Belgium[k]  Kingdom of Belgium King Philippe King Albert I[l] Thuringia and Bavaria
(in modern Germany)
House of Wangchuck  Kingdom of Bhutan Druk Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Druk Gyalpo Ugyen Wangchuck Bhutan
House of Bolkiah  Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Sultan Muhammad Shah Tarim[m]
(in modern Yemen)
House of Norodom[n]  Kingdom of Cambodia King Norodom Sihamoni King Norodom Prohmbarirak Cambodia
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg[o]  Kingdom of Denmark[p] Queen Margrethe II Duke Friedrich Wilhelm Glücksburg
(in modern Germany)
 Kingdom of Norway King Harald V
House of Dlamini  Kingdom of Eswatini King Mswati III Chief Dlamini I East Africa
Imperial House of Japan[q]  Japan Emperor Naruhito Emperor Jimmu Nara
(in modern Japan)
House of Hashim[r]  Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan King Abdullah II King Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi Hejaz
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Sabah  State of Kuwait Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Sheikh Sabah I bin Jaber Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Moshesh  Kingdom of Lesotho King Letsie III Paramount Chief Moshoeshoe I Lesotho
House of Liechtenstein  Principality of Liechtenstein Prince Hans-Adam II Prince Karl I Lower Austria
(in modern Austria)
House of Luxembourg-Nassau[s]  Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duke Henri Grand Duke Adolphe Nassau
(in modern Germany)
Bendahara dynasty[t]  Malaysia[u] Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Bendahara Tun Habib Abdul Majid Johor
(in modern Malaysia)
House of Grimaldi  Principality of Monaco Prince Albert II François Grimaldi Genoa
(in modern Italy)
Alaouite dynasty  Kingdom of Morocco King Mohammed VI Sultan Abul Amlak Sidi Muhammad as-Sharif ibn 'Ali Tafilalt
(in modern Morocco)
House of Orange-Nassau[v]  Kingdom of the Netherlands[w] King Willem-Alexander Prince William I Nassau
(in modern Germany)
House of Said  Sultanate of Oman Sultan Haitham bin Tariq Sultan Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi Yemen
House of Thani  State of Qatar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Sheikh Thani bin Mohammed Najd
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Saud  Kingdom of Saudi Arabia King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Emir Saud I Diriyah
(in modern Saudi Arabia)
House of Borbón-Anjou[x]  Kingdom of Spain King Felipe VI King Philip V Bourbon-l'Archambault
(in modern France)
House of Bernadotte  Kingdom of Sweden King Carl XVI Gustaf King Charles XIV John Pau
(in modern France)
Chakri dynasty  Kingdom of Thailand King Vajiralongkorn King Rama I Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
(in modern Thailand)
House of Tupou  Kingdom of Tonga King Tupou VI King George Tupou I Tonga
House of Nahyan[y]  United Arab Emirates[z] President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Sheikh Dhiyab bin Isa Al Nahyan Liwa Oasis
(in modern United Arab Emirates)

List of sovereign states and territories with extant non-sovereign dynasties

Further information: Non-sovereign monarchy and List of current constituent monarchs

The following is a list of sovereign states and territories with existing dynasties ruling non-sovereign polities. Such dynasties usually possess and exercise authority over subnational divisions or people groups. Although non-sovereign dynasties may be conferred official status through constitutional arrangement or government recognition (like the dynasties ruling Botswana's subnational chiefdoms), there are also those that are not officially recognized (such as the Te Wherowhero dynasty of the Māori King Movement in New Zealand).

Continent Sovereign state or territory
Africa  Republic of Benin
 Republic of Botswana
 Republic of Chad
 Republic of Equatorial Guinea
 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 Republic of Malawi
 Islamic Republic of Mauritania
 Republic of Namibia
 Republic of the Niger
 Federal Republic of Nigeria
 Republic of Senegal
 Republic of South Africa
 Republic of South Sudan
 Republic of the Sudan
 United Republic of Tanzania
 Togolese Republic
 Republic of Uganda
 Republic of Zambia
Asia  People's Republic of Bangladesh
 Republic of India
 Republic of Indonesia
 Malaysia
 Republic of the Philippines
 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
 United Arab Emirates
Europe  Montenegro[aa]
North America  Republic of Panama
Oceania  Cook Islands
 Republic of the Marshall Islands
 Federated States of Micronesia
 New Caledonia
 New Zealand
 Republic of Palau
 Independent State of Samoa
 Tuvalu
Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

List of dynasties in Africa

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Algeria

Benin

Cabo Verde (Cape Verde)

Central African Republic

Chad

Congo

Egypt

See also: Dynasties of ancient Egypt and List of pharaohs

Eswatini (Swaziland)

See also: List of monarchs of Eswatini

Ethiopia

See also: Monarchies of Ethiopia and List of emperors of Ethiopia

Guinea

Libya

Lesotho

See also: List of monarchs of Lesotho

Madagascar

See also: List of Imerina monarchs

Mali

Mauritius

Morocco (+ Mauritania)

See also: List of rulers of Morocco

Niger

Nigeria

São Tomé and Príncipe

Senegambia

Seychelles

Somalia

Somaliland

South Africa

Sudan

Tunisia

Western Sahara

Zimbabwe

List of dynasties in Asia

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties
  Extant dynasties ruling both sovereign and non-sovereign polities

Afghanistan

Armenia

See also: List of Armenian kings

Azerbaijan

Bahrain

Bhutan

See also: List of rulers of Bhutan

Brunei

See also: List of sultans of Brunei

Cambodia

See also: Monarchy of Cambodia

Central Asia

Chagos Archipelago

Champa

China

Main article: Dynasties in Chinese history

See also: Monarchy of China and List of Chinese monarchs

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Cyprus

Georgia

See also: List of monarchs of Georgia

Indian Subcontinent

See also: List of Indian monarchs and List of rulers of Bengal

Note that many dates before the 9th century AD are disputed.[7]

Indonesia

See also: List of Indonesian monarchies and List of Indonesian monarchies

Iran (Persia)

See also: Islamic dynasties of Iran, List of Iranian dynasties and countries, and List of monarchs of Persia

Japan

See also: List of emperors of Japan

Jordan

See also: List of kings of Jordan

Korea

See also: List of monarchs of Korea

Kuwait

Laos

See also: List of monarchs of Laos

Lebanon

Malaysia

See also: Monarchies of Malaysia

The Maldives

See also: List of sultans of the Maldives

Mesopotamia

Main article: List of Mesopotamian dynasties

Mongolia

See also: List of Mongol states and List of Mongol rulers

Myanmar (Burma)

See also: List of Burmese monarchs

Nepal

Oman

See also: List of rulers of Oman

Palestine

The Philippines

Qatar

Ryukyu Islands

Saudi Arabia

See also: List of rulers of Saudi Arabia

Siberia

Singapore

Sri Lanka

See also: List of Sri Lankan monarchs

Thailand (Siam)

See also: Monarchy of Thailand and List of monarchs of Thailand

Timor-Leste (East Timor)

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

See also: Royal families of the United Arab Emirates and List of rulers of individual Emirates of the United Arab Emirates

Vietnam

Main article: List of Vietnamese dynasties

See also: List of monarchs of Vietnam

Yemen

List of dynasties in Europe

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Albania

See also: List of Albanian monarchs

Austria

See also: List of rulers of Austria

Barbarians

Bavarii

Franks

Burgundians

Huns

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

Scirii

Avars

Lombards

See also: Early kings of the Lombards

Ostrogoths

Suebi

Vandals

Visigoths

Belgium

See also: Monarchy of Belgium and List of Belgian monarchs

Medieval feudal states

Kingdom of Belgium

Bohemia/Czechia

See also: List of rulers of Czechs and List of Bohemian monarchs

Great Moravia

Duchy of Bohemia

Kingdom of Bohemia

Bosnia

See also: List of rulers of Bosnia

Bulgaria

See also: List of Bulgarian monarchs

Croatia

See also: List of rulers of Croatia

Denmark

See also: Monarchy of Denmark and List of Danish monarchs

England

See also: Monarchy of the United Kingdom, List of English monarchs, and List of British monarchs

Estonia

See also: List of rulers of Estonia

Faroe Islands

Finland

See also: Monarchy of Finland and List of monarchs and heads of state of Finland

France

See also: List of French monarchs

Germany

See also: Monarchy of Germany and List of German monarchs

Bavaria

Saxony

Greece

See also: Monarchy of Greece and List of kings of Greece

Hungary

See also: List of Hungarian monarchs

Iceland

See also: List of rulers of Iceland

Ireland

See also: Monarchy of Ireland

Italy

See also: Monarchy of Italy

Liechtenstein

See also: Monarchy of Liechtenstein and List of monarchs of Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

See also: Monarchy of Luxembourg and List of monarchs of Luxembourg

Malta

See also: List of monarchs of Malta

Monaco

See also: Monarchy of Monaco and List of rulers of Monaco

Montenegro

See also: List of rulers of Montenegro

Netherlands

See also: Monarchy of the Netherlands, List of rulers of the Netherlands, and List of monarchs of the Netherlands

Norway

See also: Monarchy of Norway and List of Norwegian monarchs

Poland

See also: List of Polish monarchs

Portugal

See also: List of Portuguese monarchs

County of Portugal

Kingdom of Portugal

Roman Empire

Main article: List of Roman dynasties

See also: List of Roman emperors, List of Byzantine emperors, List of Roman usurpers, and List of Byzantine usurpers

Romania

See also: List of rulers of Moldavia and List of rulers of Wallachia

Before the Unification

Moldavia

Wallachia

After the Unification

Russia

See also: List of Russian monarchs

Scotland

See also: Monarchy of the United Kingdom, List of Scottish monarchs, and List of British monarchs

Serbia

See also: List of Serbian monarchs

Spain

See also: Monarchy of Spain and List of Spanish monarchs

Sweden

See also: Monarchy of Sweden and List of Swedish monarchs

Ukraine

See also: List of Ukrainian rulers

Wales

See also: Monarchy of the United Kingdom, List of rulers of Wales, and List of British monarchs

List of dynasties in North America

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties

Alaska

Antigua and Barbuda

See also: Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda

The Bahamas

See also: Monarchy of the Bahamas

Barbados

See also: Monarchy of Barbados

Belize

See also: Monarchy of Belize

Bermuda

Canada

See also: Monarchy of Canada and List of Canadian monarchs

Costa Rica

Cuba

Dominica

El Salvador

Greenland

Grenada

Haiti

See also: List of monarchs of Haiti

Jamaica

See also: Monarchy of Jamaica

Maya

Mexico

Panama

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

See also: Monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Trinidad and Tobago

Conterminous United States

List of dynasties in South America

Argentina

Brazil

See also: List of monarchs of Brazil

Chile

Guyana

Peru

List of dynasties in Oceania

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties
  Extant non-sovereign dynasties

Australia

See also: Monarchy of Australia

Cook Islands

See also: Monarchy in the Cook Islands

Fiji

See also: Monarchy of Fiji

Gambier Islands

See also: List of monarchs of Mangareva

Hawaii

See also: List of Hawaiian monarchs

Kiribati

Micronesia

New Zealand

See also: Monarchy of New Zealand

Niue

Palau

Papua New Guinea

Samoa

Society Islands

See also: List of monarchs of Bora Bora, List of monarchs of Huahine, List of monarchs of Raiatea, and List of monarchs of Tahiti

Solomon Islands

See also: Monarchy of Solomon Islands

Tonga

See also: List of monarchs of Tonga

Tuvalu

See also: Monarchy of Tuvalu

Vanuatu

List of dynasties with claimed possessions in Antarctica

See also: Territorial claims in Antarctica

Note that modern territorial claims in Antarctica are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.[8]

Legend
  Extant sovereign dynasties

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Existing sovereign entities ruled by non-dynastic monarchs are:
  2. ^ The founder of a dynasty need not necessarily equate to the first monarch of a particular realm. For example, while William I was the dynastic founder of the House of Orange-Nassau which currently rules over the Kingdom of the Netherlands, he was never a monarch of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  3. ^ Not to be confused with dynastic seat.
  4. ^ The House of Windsor is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in AD 1917.
  5. ^ A sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state is known as a Commonwealth realm.
  6. ^ George V was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1917.
  7. ^ Including:
  8. ^ The Barbadian monarchy is to be abolished by November 2021.[5][6] In consequence, the House of Windsor will cease to be the ruling dynasty of Barbados.
  9. ^ The Realm of New Zealand consists of:
  10. ^ Including: The crown dependencies of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey, and the Isle of Man are neither part of the United Kingdom nor British overseas territories.
  11. ^ The House of Belgium is descended from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which is a branch of the House of Wettin. The dynastic name was changed from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Belgium" in AD 1920.
  12. ^ Albert I was formerly a member of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha prior to AD 1920.
  13. ^ Claimed by the royal house, but the historicity is questionable.
  14. ^ The House of Norodom is a branch of the Varman dynasty.
  15. ^ The House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  16. ^ Including:
  17. ^ The Imperial House of Japan, or the Yamato dynasty, is the world's oldest continuous dynasty. The dynasty has produced an unbroken succession of Japanese monarchs since the legendary founding year of 660 BC.
  18. ^ The House of Hashim is descended from Banu Qatada, which was a branch of the House of Ali.
  19. ^ The House of Luxembourg-Nassau is descended from the House of Nassau-Weilburg, which is a branch of the House of Nassau and the House of Bourbon-Parma.
  20. ^ The Bendahara dynasty is the ruling dynasty of Pahang Darul Makmur and Terengganu. The Sultan of Pahang is the reigning Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
  21. ^ The throne of Malaysia rotates among the nine constituent monarchies of Malaysia, each ruled by a dynasty. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers.
  22. ^ The House of Orange-Nassau is a branch of the House of Nassau. Additionally, Willem-Alexander is also linked to the House of Lippe through Beatrix of the Netherlands.
  23. ^ The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of:
  24. ^ The House of Borbón-Anjou is a branch of the House of Bourbon.
  25. ^ The House of Nahyan is the ruling dynasty of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Emir of Abu Dhabi is the incumbent President of the United Arab Emirates.
  26. ^ The President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council. The office has been held by the Emir of Abu Dhabi since the formation of the United Arab Emirates in AD 1971.
  27. ^ Since AD 2011, Montenegro officially recognizes the limited non-political role of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty in cultural promotion. The Petrović-Njegoš dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Montenegro between AD 1696 and AD 1918.
  28. ^ Including the County of Flanders, Marquisate of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Hainaut, Duchy of Limburg and County of Luxembourg

References

  1. ^ "The Realms". The British Monarchists Society. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  2. ^ Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(一)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  3. ^ Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(二)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  4. ^ Tan, Qixiang, ed. (1982). "唐时期全图(三)". The Historical Atlas of China.
  5. ^ "Barbados to remove Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and declare republic". The Independent. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  6. ^ "Barbados ready to dismiss Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state". The Washington Post. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  7. ^ Keay, John (2010). China: A History. ISBN 9780007372089.
  8. ^ Melton, John; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. p. 140. ISBN 9781598842043.