Earthquakes in the Netherlands occur mostly in the southeast and northeast of the country,[1] with mostly tectonic earthquakes in the southeast and induced earthquakes in the northeast. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute started with seismic registrations in 1904. The heaviest earthquake was the 1992 Roermond earthquake with a magnitude of 5.8.

Seismic registration

The first time that seismic activity in the Netherlands was registered by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in De Bilt was on 26 June 1904.[2]

Tectonic earthquakes

The natural earthquakes that occur in the southeast of the Netherlands are caused by active rifts of the European Cenozoic Rift System.[3] The 1992 Roermond earthquake in the southeastern province of Limburg was the heaviest registered earthquake in the Netherlands. It had a magnitude of 5.8 and occurred in Roermond on 13 April 1992.[4]

Induced earthquakes

Since 1986, there have been around 1,000 induced earthquakes in the northeast of the Netherlands caused by the exploitation of the Groningen gas field near Slochteren. The heaviest registered earthquake in the northeastern province of Groningen had a magnitude of 3.6 and occurred in Huizinge on 16 August 2013.[5] This event count shows a remarkable exponential growth in time, which would possibly lead to one event per day in 2025. While moderate in magnitude, the sheer number of events acts as a physical stressor to living conditions and gives an adverse outlook long term on structural integrity of homes and buildings. On March 29, 2018 the government therefore announced it would shut down the gas extraction on this field entirely by 2030 at the latest. It is projected the normal exploration will end by 2022, while still serving as a reserve for exceptionally cold winters. After peaking in 2013 the number of induced earthquakes with a magnitude > 1,5 has been decreasing.[6][7]

Heaviest earthquakes

List of earthquakes in the Netherlands is located in Netherlands
List of earthquakes in the Netherlands
List of earthquakes in the Netherlands
Locations of earthquakes with a magnitude of 4.0 or higher[8]

Since 1904, there were seven earthquakes in the Netherlands with a magnitude of 4.0 or higher. All were noninduced earthquakes in the southeastern provinces of Limburg and North Brabant.[8][9]

Date Location Mag.
31 August 1906 Grathem, Limburg 4.2[8]
20 November 1932 Uden, North Brabant 5.0[8]
23 November 1932 Boxtel, North Brabant 4.5[8]
28 November 1932 Vught, North Brabant 4.5[8]
4 January 1935 Roermond, Limburg 4.3[8]
13 April 1992 Roermond, Limburg 5.8[8]
13 April 1992 Roermond, Limburg 4.0[8]

References

  1. ^ (in Dutch) Aardbevingen in Nederland Archived 2015-03-23 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.
  2. ^ (in Dutch) Eerste seismische registratie in De Bilt Archived 2014-06-28 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2009. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.
  3. ^ (in Dutch) Natuurlijke aardbevingen in Zuid-Nederland Archived 2014-11-12 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2007. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.
  4. ^ (in Dutch) Aardbeving bij Roermond 13 april 1992 Archived 5 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2010. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.
  5. ^ (in Dutch) Aardbevingen door gaswinning in Noord-Nederland, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2013. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.
  6. ^ "KNMI - Aardbevingen door gaswinning".
  7. ^ [1] Archived 2017-03-14 at the Wayback Machine, van Putten, M.H.P.M., van Putten, A.F.P., & van Putten, M.J.A.M., 2016, Earthquakes and Structures, 11, 861
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i (in Dutch) Tectonische aardbevingen in Nederland, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2015. Retrieved on 19 March 2015
  9. ^ (in Dutch) Geïnduceerde aardbevingen in Nederland, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 2013. Retrieved on 17 March 2015.