Ecoregions of the world, spanning all land area (terrestrial) of the planet, were first defined and mapped in 2001[1] and subsequently revised in 2017.[2] Later, freshwater ecoregions[3] and marine ecoregions[4] of the world were identified. Within India, there are 46 terrestrial ecoregions, 14 freshwater ecoregions, and 6 marine ecoregions.

Terrestrial ecoregions

The terrestrial ecoregions of the world include 45 ecoregions that fall entirely or partly within the boundaries of India. These ecoregions fall within two biogeographic realms: Indomalayan and Palearctic. They also fall under ten biomes: Deserts and Xeric Shrublands,  Flooded Grasslands and Savannas, Mangroves, Montane Grasslands and Shrublands, Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Temperate Conifer Forests, Tropical and Subtropical Coniferous Forests, Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests, Tropical and Subtropical Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, and Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests. The ecoregion Rock and Ice is not included under any specific biome or biogeographic realm.[2]

Ecoregion State or union territories Biome Realm
Andaman Islands rain forests Andaman and Nicobar Islands Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests Arunachal Pradesh Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Assam
Meghalaya
Nagaland
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Jammu and Kashmir Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
East Deccan moist deciduous forests Andhra Pradesh Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Odisha
Telangana
West Bengal
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests Bihar Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Sikkim
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Assam Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Bihar
Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh
Odisha
Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
Malabar Coast moist forests Goa Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Karnataka
Kerala
Maharashtra
Tamil Nadu
Maldives–Lakshadweep–Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests Lakshadweep Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Meghalaya subtropical forests Assam Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Meghalaya
Tripura
Nagaland
Mizoram–Manipur–Kachin rain forests Assam Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Manipur
Mizoram
Nagaland
Tripura
Nicobar Islands rain forests Andaman and Nicobar Islands Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Goa
Gujarat
Karnataka
Maharashtra
North Western Ghats montane rain forests Goa Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Gujarat
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Odisha semi-evergreen forests Andhra Pradesh Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Odisha
South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests Karnataka Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
South Western Ghats montane rain forests Karnataka Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Kerala
Tamil Nadu
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests West Bengal Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests Bihar Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Delhi
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests Andhra Pradesh Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Chhattisgarh
Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Telangana
Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests Bihar Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Chhattisgarh
Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh
Odisha
Uttar Pradesh
West Bengal
East Deccan dry evergreen forests Andhra Pradesh Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Puducherry
Tamil Nadu
Khathiar–Gir dry deciduous forests Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Gujarat
Haryana
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests Chhattisgarh Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Gujarat
Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Uttar Pradesh
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert Jammu and Kashmir Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
North Deccan dry deciduous forests Chhattisgarh Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Odisha
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests Karnataka Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests Indomalayan
Tamil Nadu
Himalayan subtropical pine forests Himachal Pradesh Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests Indomalayan
Jammu and Kashmir
Sikkim
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Northeast India–Myanmar pine forests Manipur Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests Indomalayan
Nagaland
Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests Arunachal Pradesh Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Indomalayan
Assam
Nagaland
Sikkim
West Bengal
Western Himalayan broadleaf forests Himachal Pradesh Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Indomalayan
Jammu and Kashmir
Punjab
Uttarakhand
Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Arunachal Pradesh Temperate coniferous forests Indomalayan
Sikkim
West Bengal
Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Himachal Pradesh Temperate coniferous forests Indomalayan
Jammu and Kashmir
Ladakh
Uttarakhand
Terai–Duar savanna and grasslands Assam Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands Indomalayan
Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
West Bengal
Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh Gujarat Flooded grasslands and savannas Indomalayan
Deccan thorn scrub forests Andhra Pradesh Deserts and xeric shrublands Indomalayan
Karnataka
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
Tamil Nadu
Telangana
Aravalli west thorn scrub forests Chandigarh Deserts and xeric shrublands Indomalayan
Delhi
Gujarat
Haryana
Himachal Pradesh
Jammu and Kashmir
Punjab
Rajasthan
Thar Desert Gujarat Deserts and xeric shrublands Indomalayan
Haryana
Rajasthan
Godavari–Krishna mangroves Andhra Pradesh Mangrove Indomalayan
Odisha
Tamil Nadu
Indus River Delta–Arabian Sea mangroves Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu Mangrove Indomalayan
Gujarat
Maharashtra
Sundarbans mangroves West Bengal Mangrove Indomalayan
Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests Arunachal Pradesh Temperate coniferous forests Palearctic
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Arunachal Pradesh Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
Sikkim
Karakoram–West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe Ladakh Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Himachal Pradesh Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
Jammu and Kashmir
Ladakh
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Himachal Pradesh Montane grasslands and shrublands Palearctic
Uttarakhand
Baluchistan xeric woodlands Punjab Deserts and xeric shrublands Palearctic

Freshwater ecoregions

Freshwater ecoregions of the world have been defined[3] as "a large area encompassing one or more freshwater systems with a distinct assemblage of natural freshwater communities and species. The freshwater species, dynamics, and environmental conditions within a given ecoregion are more similar to each other than to those of surrounding ecoregions, and together form a conservation unit." The following 14 freshwater ecoregions occur within India.

Marine ecoregions

Marine ecoregions of the world have been described across the worlds oceans and seas.[4] India's seas are in the Western Indo-Pacific marine realm. This includes the following four provinces and six marine ecoregions.

Global 200 ecoregions in India

Main article: Global 200

The following are the ecoregions in India that are included in the Global 200 ecoregions:[5]

Terrestrial

See also

References

  1. ^ Olson, David M.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric D.; Burgess, Neil D.; Powell, George V. N.; Underwood, Emma C.; D'amico, Jennifer A.; Itoua, Illanga; Strand, Holly E.; Morrison, John C.; Loucks, Colby J. (2001-11-01). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth: A new global map of terrestrial ecoregions provides an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity". BioScience. 51 (11): 933–938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0006-3568. S2CID 26844434.
  2. ^ a b Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hedao, Prashant; Noss, Reed; Hansen, Matt (2017-06-01). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
  3. ^ a b Abell, Robin; Thieme, Michele L.; Revenga, Carmen; Bryer, Mark; Kottelat, Maurice; Bogutskaya, Nina; Coad, Brian; Mandrak, Nick; Balderas, Salvador Contreras; Bussing, William; Stiassny, Melanie L. J. (2008-05-01). "Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Biogeographic Units for Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation". BioScience. 58 (5): 403–414. doi:10.1641/B580507. ISSN 1525-3244. S2CID 85940785.
  4. ^ a b Spalding, Mark D.; Fox, Helen E.; Allen, Gerald R.; Davidson, Nick; Ferdaña, Zach A.; Finlayson, Max; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Jorge, Miguel A.; Lombana, Al; Lourie, Sara A.; Martin, Kirsten D. (2007-07-01). "Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas". BioScience. 57 (7): 573–583. doi:10.1641/B570707. ISSN 0006-3568. S2CID 29150840.
  5. ^ Olson, David M.; Dinerstein, Eric (2002). "The Global 200: Priority Ecoregions for Global Conservation" (PDF). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 89 (2): 199–224. doi:10.2307/3298564. ISSN 0026-6493. JSTOR 3298564.