This is a historical list of fastest computers and includes computers and supercomputers which were considered the fastest in the world at the time they were built.

Year Country of site Vendor Computer Performance[a] R
1938  Germany Zuse Z1 1.00 IPS [1]
1941 Z3 20.00 IPS [2]
1946  United States University of Pennsylvania ENIAC 5.00 kIPS [3]
1951 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Whirlwind I 20.00 kIPS [4]
1958 IBM AN/FSQ-7 75.00 kIPS [5]
1960  United States 7090 229.00 kIPS [6]
UNIVAC LARC 250.00 kIPS [7]
1961  United States IBM 7030 Stretch 1.20 MIPS [8]
1962  United Kingdom University of Manchester Atlas 1.00 MFLOPS [9]
1964  United States CDC 6600 3.00 MFLOPS [10]
1969 7600 36.00 MFLOPS [11]
1974 STAR-100 100.00 MFLOPS [12]
1976 Cray Cray-1 160.00 MFLOPS [13]
1980 CDC Cyber 205 400.00 MFLOPS [14]
1983 Cray X-MP/4 713.00 MFLOPS* [15]
1985  United States Cray Cray-2 1.41 GFLOPS* [16]
1988 Y-MP/832 2.14 GFLOPS* [15]
1990  Japan Fujitsu VP2600/10 4.00 GFLOPS* [15]
1992 NEC SX-3/44 20.00 GFLOPS* [15]
1993  United States Thinking Machines CM-5/1024 59.70 GFLOPS* [17]
 Japan Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel 124.20 GFLOPS* [18]
1994  United States Intel Paragon XP/S 140 143.40 GFLOPS* [19]
 Japan Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel 170.00 GFLOPS* [18]
1996 Hitachi SR2201 232.40 GFLOPS* [20]
CP-PACS 368.20 GFLOPS* [21]
1997  United States Intel ASCI Red 1.06 TFLOPS* [22]
2000 IBM ASCI White 4.93 TFLOPS* [23]
2001 7.20 TFLOPS*
2002  Japan NEC Earth Simulator 35.86 TFLOPS* [24]
2004  United States IBM Blue Gene/L 70.72 TFLOPS* [25]
2005 136.80 TFLOPS*
280.60 TFLOPS*
2007 478.20 TFLOPS*
2008  United States IBM Roadrunner 1.02 PFLOPS* [26]
1.10 PFLOPS*
2009 Cray Jaguar 1.75 PFLOPS* [27]
2010  China National University of Defense Technology Tianhe-1A 2.57 PFLOPS* [28]
2011  Japan Fujitsu K computer 10.51 PFLOPS* [29]
2012  United States IBM Sequoia (Blue Gene/Q) 16.32 PFLOPS* [30]
Cray Titan 17.59 PFLOPS* [31]
2013  China National University of Defense Technology Tianhe-2 33.86 PFLOPS* [32]
2016 NRCPC Sunway TaihuLight 93.01 PFLOPS* [33]
2018  United States IBM Summit 122.30 PFLOPS* [34]
2019 148.60 PFLOPS* [35]
2020  Japan Fujitsu Fugaku 415.53 PFLOPS* [36]
442.01 PFLOPS*

a. ^ An asterisk (*) denotes Rmax – the highest score measured using the LINPACK benchmarks suite.

See also

References

  1. ^ "History of Computers and Computing, Birth of the modern computer, Relays computer, Konrad Zuse". history-computer.com. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  2. ^ Reinhardt, Helmut (1996). Automatisierungstechnik : theoretische und gerätetechnische Grundlagen, SPS (in German). Berlin: Springer. p. 241. ISBN 3-540-60626-2. OCLC 68764206.
  3. ^ Koerner, Brendan I. (2014-11-25). "How the World's First Computer Was Rescued From the Scrap Heap". Wired. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  4. ^ Everett, R. R. (1951). "The Whirlwind I computer". Papers and Discussions Presented at the December 10–12, 1951, Joint AIEE-IRE Computer Conference: Review of Electronic Digital Computers. ACM: 70–74. doi:10.1145/1434770.1434781. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  5. ^ "IBM AN/FSQ-7". old-computers.com. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  6. ^ "IBM Archives: 7090 Data Processing System". IBM. 2003-01-23. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
  7. ^ "LARC Links". people.cs.clemson.edu. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  8. ^ Padua, David (2011). Encyclopedia of Parallel Computing. New York: Springer. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-387-09766-4. OCLC 772461594.
  9. ^ Lavington, Simon Hugh (1975). A History of Manchester Computers (2nd ed.). Swindon: British Computer Society. ISBN 978-1-902505-01-5. OCLC 156380308.
  10. ^ Anthony, Sebastian (2012-04-10). "The history of supercomputers". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  11. ^ Bell, Gordon. "CDC 7600". Microsoft Research. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  12. ^ LARGE COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND NEW ARCHITECTURES, T. Bloch, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, November 1978
  13. ^ "Company History". Cray. Archived from the original on 2014-07-12. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  14. ^ "PDS: The Performance Database Server (Linpack)". performance.netlib.org. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  15. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  16. ^ "CRAY-2/4-512". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  17. ^ "CM-5: Los Alamos National Lab". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  18. ^ a b "Numerical Wind Tunnel: National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  19. ^ "Intel XP/S 140 Paragon: Sandia National Labs". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  20. ^ "Hitachi SR2201: University of Tokyo". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  21. ^ "CP-PACS: University of Tsukuba". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  22. ^ "ASCI Red: Sandia National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  23. ^ "ASCI White: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  24. ^ "The Earth Simulator: Earth Simulator Center". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  25. ^ "BlueGene/L: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  26. ^ "Roadrunner: Los Alamos National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  27. ^ "Jaguar: Oak ridge National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  28. ^ "Tianhe-1A: National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  29. ^ "K Computer: RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  30. ^ "Sequoia: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  31. ^ "Titan: Oak Ridge National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  32. ^ "Tianhe-2 (MilkyWay-2) : National University of Defense Technology". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  33. ^ "Sunway TaihuLight: National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  34. ^ "Summit: DOE/SC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-03-01.
  35. ^ "Summit - IBM Power System AC922, IBM POWER9 22C 3.07GHz, NVIDIA Volta GV100, Dual-rail Mellanox EDR Infiniband". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  36. ^ "Supercomputer Fugaku - Supercomputer Fugaku, A64FX 48C 2.2GHz, Tofu interconnect D". TOP500 Supercomputer Sites. Retrieved 2020-11-16.