Standard of the governor of Oklahoma

The governor of Oklahoma is the head of government of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.

List of governors

Oklahoma Territory

Oklahoma Territory was organized on May 2, 1890.[1] It had seven governors appointed by the president of the United States.

Governors of the Territory of Oklahoma
No. Governor Term in office[a] Appointing president
1 George Washington Steele
(1839–1922)
[2]
May 14, 1890[b]

November 8, 1891
(resigned)[c]
Benjamin Harrison
2 Abraham Jefferson Seay
(1832–1915)
[5]
January 18, 1892[d]

May 7, 1893
(successor appointed)[e]
Benjamin Harrison
3 William Cary Renfrow
(1845–1922)
[9]
May 6, 1893[f]

May 11, 1897
(resigned)[g]
Grover Cleveland
4 Cassius McDonald Barnes
(1845–1925)
[12]
May 11, 1897[h]

April 20, 1901
(successor appointed)
William McKinley
5 William Miller Jenkins
(1856–1941)
[14]
April 20, 1901[i]

November 30, 1901
(removed)[j]
William McKinley
6 Thompson Benton Ferguson
(1857–1921)
[16]
November 30, 1901[k]

January 13, 1906
(successor appointed)
Theodore Roosevelt
7 Frank Frantz
(1872–1941)
[18]
January 13, 1906[l]

November 16, 1907
(lost election)
Theodore Roosevelt

State of Oklahoma

Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were combined and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma on November 16, 1907.[21]

The Constitution of Oklahoma calls for the election of a governor every four years, to take office on the second Monday in January after the election.[22] Originally, governors could not succeed themselves, with no limit on total terms;[23] a 1966 constitutional amendment allowed them to succeed themselves once.[24] An amendment in 2010 limited them to eight years in total, retroactively applying to all living former governors.[25] Should the office become vacant because of a death, resignation or removal of the governor, the lieutenant governor immediately succeeds to the governorship.[26] After Jack C. Walton was impeached and removed in 1923, Lieutenant Governor Martin E. Trapp served in the office for the remainder of the term. He styled himself "Acting Governor," as the constitution only specified that the powers of the office devolved upon the lieutenant governor, hoping that he would not be prevented from running in the next election. However, the Oklahoma Supreme Court ruled in 1926 that, in the case of a vacancy in the office, the lieutenant governor becomes governor, and he was ineligible to run for a consecutive term.[27][28] The governor and the lieutenant governor are not formally elected on the same ticket.

Governors of the State of Oklahoma
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[m]
1   Charles N. Haskell
(1860–1933)
[29][30]
November 16, 1907[31]

January 9, 1911
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1907   George W. Bellamy
2 Lee Cruce
(1863–1933)
[34][35]
January 9, 1911[36]

January 11, 1915
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1910 J. J. McAlester
3 Robert L. Williams
(1868–1948)
[37][38]
January 11, 1915[39]

January 13, 1919
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1914 Martin E. Trapp
4
JBA Robertson 1920.jpg
James B. A. Robertson
(1871–1938)
[40][41]
January 13, 1919[42]

January 8, 1923
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1918
5 Jack C. Walton
(1881–1949)
[43][44]
January 8, 1923[45]

November 19, 1923
(impeached and removed)[o]
Democratic[33] 1922
6 Martin E. Trapp
(1877–1951)
[27][47]
November 19, 1923[48]

January 10, 1927
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
[p]
Vacant
7 Henry S. Johnston
(1867–1965)
[49][50]
January 10, 1927[51]

March 20, 1929
(impeached and removed)[q]
Democratic[33] 1926 William J. Holloway
8 William J. Holloway
(1888–1970)
[53][54]
March 20, 1929[55]

January 12, 1931
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
[r]
Vacant
9 William H. Murray
(1869–1956)
[57][58]
January 12, 1931[59]

January 14, 1935
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1930 Robert Burns
10 E. W. Marland
(1874–1941)
[60][61]
January 14, 1935[62]

January 9, 1939
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1934 James E. Berry
11
Leon Phillips 1938.jpg
Leon C. Phillips
(1890–1958)
[63][64]
January 9, 1939[65]

January 11, 1943
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1938
12 Robert S. Kerr
(1896–1963)
[66][67]
January 11, 1943[68]

January 13, 1947
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1942
13 Roy J. Turner
(1894–1973)
[69][70]
January 13, 1947[71]

January 8, 1951
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1946
14 Johnston Murray
(1902–1974)
[72][73]
January 8, 1951[74]

January 10, 1955
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1950
15 Raymond D. Gary
(1908–1993)
[75][76]
January 10, 1955[77]

January 12, 1959
(term-limited)[n]
Democratic[33] 1954 Cowboy Pink Williams
16 J. Howard Edmondson
(1925–1971)
[78][79]
January 12, 1959[80]

January 6, 1963
(resigned)[s]
Democratic[33] 1958 George Nigh
17 George Nigh
(b. 1927)
[81][82]
January 6, 1963[83]

January 14, 1963
(successor took office)
Democratic[33] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Vacant
18 Henry Bellmon
(1921–2009)
[84][85]
January 14, 1963[86]

January 9, 1967
(term-limited)[n]
Republican[33] 1962 Leo Winters[t]
19 Dewey F. Bartlett
(1919–1979)
[87][88]
January 9, 1967[89]

January 11, 1971
(lost election)
Republican[33] 1966 George Nigh[t]
20 David Hall
(1930–2016)
[90][91]
January 11, 1971[92]

January 13, 1975
(lost nomination)[90]
Democratic[33] 1970
21 David Boren
(b. 1941)
[93][94]
January 13, 1975[95]

January 2, 1979
(resigned)[u]
Democratic[33] 1974
22 George Nigh
(b. 1927)
[81][82]
January 3, 1979[97]

January 12, 1987
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[82] Succeeded from
lieutenant
governor
Spencer Bernard
1978
1982
23 Henry Bellmon
(1921–2009)
[84][85]
January 12, 1987[99]

January 14, 1991
(did not run)
Republican[85] 1986 Robert S. Kerr III[t]
24 David Walters
(b. 1951)
[100]
January 14, 1991[101]

January 9, 1995
(did not run)
Democratic[100] 1990 Jack Mildren
25 Frank Keating
(b. 1944)
[102]
January 9, 1995[103]

January 13, 2003
(term-limited)[v]
Republican[102] 1994 Mary Fallin[w]
1998
26 Brad Henry
(b. 1963)
[104]
January 13, 2003[105]

January 10, 2011
(term-limited)[v]
Democratic[104] 2002
2006 Jari Askins
27 Mary Fallin
(b. 1954)
[106]
January 10, 2011[107]

January 14, 2019
(term-limited)[x]
Republican[106] 2010 Todd Lamb
2014
28 Kevin Stitt
(b. 1972)
[109]
January 14, 2019[110]

Incumbent[y]
Republican[109] 2018 Matt Pinnell
2022

Notes

  1. ^ The range given is from the date the governor was confirmed by the Senate, or appointed by the President during a Senate recess, to the date the governor's successor was confirmed, unless noted.
  2. ^ Steele was nominated on May 10, 1890;[3] confirmed by the Senate on May 14;[4] and arrived in the territory on May 22.[2]
  3. ^ Steele resigned due to frustration with the legislature. Territorial Secretary Robert Martin acted as governor until his successor arrived.[2]
  4. ^ Seay was nominated on January 5, 1892;[6] confirmed by the Senate on January 18;[7] and took the oath of office on February 2.[5]
  5. ^ McMullin says Seay resigned when Grover Cleveland became president, but Cleveland's nomination of his successor specifies he is being removed.[8]
  6. ^ Renfrow was appointed on May 6, 1893, during a Senate recess;[8] nominated on August 18;[8] and confirmed by the Senate on August 22.[10] He was inaugurated on May 10.[9]
  7. ^ The nomination of Renfrow's successor specifies that Renfrow resigned[11] but no reason is given.
  8. ^ Barnes was nominated on May 3, 1897;[11] confirmed by the Senate on May 11;[13] and took the oath of office on May 24.[12]
  9. ^ Jenkins was appointed on April 20, 1901, during a Senate recess, but was removed before he was formally nominated and confirmed.[15]
  10. ^ Jenkins was removed due to a corruption scandal, though he was later exonerated. Territorial Secretary William C. Grimes acted as governor until his successor arrived.[14]
  11. ^ Ferguson was appointed on November 30, 1901, during a Senate recess;[15] nominated on December 5, 1901;[15] and confirmed by the Senate on January 13, 1902.[17] He took the oath of office on December 9, 1901.[16]
  12. ^ Frantz was nominated on December 6, 1905, for a term beginning January 13;[19] confirmed by the Senate on January 10, 1906;[20] and was inaugurated on January 13, 1906.[18]
  13. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Under the original provisions of the 1907 constitution, governors were ineligible to immediately succeed themselves.[32]
  15. ^ Walton was convicted on multiple charges of corruption, abuse of power, and for violating the state constitution by suspending habeas corpus.[43][46]
  16. ^ Jack C. Walton was impeached on October 23, 1923, at which point Trapp began acting as governor; per the 1926 Oklahoma Supreme Court ruling, when Walton was removed from office on November 19, Trapp became governor.[27]
  17. ^ Johnston was convicted on a charge of general incompetence.[52]
  18. ^ Henry S. Johnston was impeached on January 21, 1923, at which point Holloway began acting as governor.[56]
  19. ^ Edmondson resigned to so that his successor would appoint him to the United States Senate.[78]
  20. ^ a b c Represented the Democratic Party
  21. ^ Boren resigned, having been elected to the United States Senate.[96]
  22. ^ a b c Under a 1966 amendment to the constitution, governors were ineligible to be elected more than two times in succession.[98]
  23. ^ Represented the Republican Party
  24. ^ Under a 2010 amendment to the constitution, governors are limited to serving eight years in total, not counting partial terms towards the limit.[108]
  25. ^ Stitt's second term began on January 9, 2023, and will expire January 11, 2027; he will be term-limited.

References

General
  • "Former Oklahoma Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 4, 2023.
  • McMullin, Thomas A. (1984). Biographical directory of American territorial governors. Westport, CT : Meckler. ISBN 978-0-930466-11-4. Retrieved January 19, 2023.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. III. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466008. Retrieved March 25, 2023.
  • Kallenbach, Joseph Ernest (1977). American State Governors, 1776-1976. Oceana Publications. ISBN 978-0-379-00665-0. Retrieved September 23, 2023.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (2014). United States Gubernatorial Elections, 1861-1911: The Official Results by State and County. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5646-8.
  • Glashan, Roy R. (1979). American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1978. Meckler Books. ISBN 978-0-930466-17-6.
  • "Our Campaigns - Governor of Oklahoma - History". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 25, 2023.
Specific
  1. ^ 26 Stat. 81
  2. ^ a b c McMullin 1984, pp. 265–266.
  3. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 51st Cong., 1st sess., 614, accessed June 5, 2023.
  4. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 51st Cong., 1st sess., 628, accessed June 5, 2023.
  5. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 266–267.
  6. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 52nd Cong., 1st sess., 108, accessed June 5, 2023.
  7. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 51st Cong., 1st sess., 133, accessed June 5, 2023.
  8. ^ a b c U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 53rd Cong., 1st sess., 32, accessed June 5, 2023.
  9. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 267–268.
  10. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 53rd Cong., 1st sess., 46, accessed June 5, 2023.
  11. ^ a b U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 55th Cong., 1st sess., 85, accessed June 5, 2023.
  12. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 268–269.
  13. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 55th Cong., 1st sess., 110, accessed June 5, 2023.
  14. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 269–270.
  15. ^ a b c U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 57th Cong., 1st sess., 134, accessed June 5, 2023.
  16. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 271–272.
  17. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 57th Cong., 1st sess., 248, accessed June 5, 2023.
  18. ^ a b McMullin 1984, pp. 272–273.
  19. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 59th Cong., 1st sess., 28, accessed June 5, 2023.
  20. ^ U.S. Congress. Senate Exec. Journal. 59th Cong., 1st sess., 157, accessed June 5, 2023.
  21. ^ 35 Stat. 2160
  22. ^ OK Const. Art. I, § 4
  23. ^ Constitution and Enabling Act of the State of Oklahoma Annotated and Indexed. Bunn brothers. 1907. p. 37.
  24. ^ "Oklahoma Succession of Office, State Question 436 (May 1966)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  25. ^ "Oklahoma Term Limits, State Question 747 (2010)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  26. ^ OK Const. Art. 4, § 16
  27. ^ a b c Sobel 1978, p. 1245.
  28. ^ Abel, Kevin M. (2013). "The Right of Succession by the Oklahoma Lieutenant Governor to the Office of the Governor and the Appointment of a Successor Lieutenant Governor". Tulsa Law Review. 36 (1): 217–229.
  29. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1241.
  30. ^ "Charles Nathaniel Haskell". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  31. ^ "Oklahoma State Is Now a Reality". Muskogee Times-Democrat. November 16, 1907. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  32. ^ "Ok. Const. art. VI, § 4, original". www.stateconstitutions.umd.edu. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Kallenbach 1977, pp. 475–476.
  34. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1242.
  35. ^ "Lee Cruce". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  36. ^ "Cruce Is Now Governor". Muskogee Times-Democrat. January 9, 1911. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  37. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1242–1243.
  38. ^ "Robert Lee Williams". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  39. ^ "Gov. Robt. L. Williams Takes Oath of Office at Capitol". The Daily Ardmoreite. January 11, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  40. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1243–1244.
  41. ^ "James Brooks Ayers Robertson". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  42. ^ "Oklahoma Governor Takes Oath". The Ponca City News. January 13, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  43. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1244–1245.
  44. ^ "John Callaway (Jack) Walton". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  45. ^ "Walton Now Is Governor". Nowata Daily Star. Associated Press. January 8, 1923. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  46. ^ Wyatt, Clarence C. (1937). Impeachment of J.C. "Jack" Walton (Thesis).
  47. ^ "Martin Edwin Trapp". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  48. ^ "Jack Walton Ousted". Okmulgee Daily Times. November 20, 1923. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  49. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1246.
  50. ^ "Henry Simpson Johnston". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  51. ^ "New Governor Inducted Into Office Amid Scenes of Impressive Inaugural". Bristow Daily Record. Associated Press. January 10, 1927. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  52. ^ Burke, Bob. "Johnston, Henry Simpson". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  53. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1246–1247.
  54. ^ "William Judson Holloway". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  55. ^ "Johnston Is Convicted". The Frederick Leader. United Press. March 20, 1929. p. 1. Retrieved June 6, 2023.
  56. ^ Governor's Impeachments in U.S. History, Illinois General Assembly Research Response, accessed June 5, 2023
  57. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1247–1248.
  58. ^ "William Henry Murray". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  59. ^ "'Sage' Is Sworn In As Oklahoma's Ninth Governor". Pawhuska Journal-Capital. United Press. January 12, 1931. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  60. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1248–1249.
  61. ^ "Ernest Whitworth Marland". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  62. ^ "Marland Ready With Plans". Daily American-Democrat. Associated Press. January 14, 1935. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  63. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1249–1250.
  64. ^ "Leon Chase Phillips". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  65. ^ "Phillips Demands Economy; 20-Point Program Outlined". The Norman Transcript. United Press. January 9, 1939. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  66. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1250.
  67. ^ "Robert Samuel Kerr". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  68. ^ "Robert S. Kerr Is Inaugurated". The Daily Ardmoreite. Associated Press. January 11, 1943. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  69. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1251.
  70. ^ "Roy Joseph Turner". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  71. ^ "Tax Reductions Pledged by Turner; Increased Pensions, Aid to Veterans Promised". The Lawton Constitution. United Press. January 13, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  72. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1251–1252.
  73. ^ "Johnston Murray". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  74. ^ Wilson, Howard (January 8, 1951). "5,000 Watch Second Murray Take Office in Capitol Ceremony". The Clinton Daily News. United Press. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  75. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1252–1253.
  76. ^ "Raymond Dancel Gary". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  77. ^ Bachman, Bill (January 11, 1955). "Gary Takes Over As 15th Governor of Oklahoma". Okmulgee Daily Times. Associated Press. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  78. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1253–1254.
  79. ^ "James Howard Edmondson". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  80. ^ Dessauer, Phil (January 13, 1959). "Edmondson Sworn In as Governor". Tulsa World. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  81. ^ a b Sobel 1978, p. 1254.
  82. ^ a b c "George Patterson Nigh". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  83. ^ Walsh, Travis (January 7, 1963). "Edmondson Resigns, Nigh at Once Makes Him Kerr's Successor". Tulsa World. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  84. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1254–1255.
  85. ^ a b c "Henry Louis Bellmon". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  86. ^ Parr, Ray (January 15, 1963). "Bellmon, GOP Mark Victory As New Governor Takes Reins". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  87. ^ Sobel 1978, pp. 1255–1256.
  88. ^ "Dewey Follett Bartlett". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  89. ^ Young, Jim (January 10, 1967). "Bartlett Challenges All Oklahomans to Excel". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 1. Retrieved June 7, 2023.
  90. ^ a b Sobel 1978, pp. 1256–1257.
  91. ^ "David Hall". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  92. ^ Standard, Jim (January 12, 1971). "New Directions Promised in Oklahoma Government As Hall Takes Over Office". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  93. ^ Sobel 1978, p. 1257.
  94. ^ "David Lyle Boren". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  95. ^ Montgomery, Ed (January 14, 1975). "4,500 See David Boren Become Governor". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  96. ^ Burke, Bob. "Nigh, George Patterson". The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  97. ^ Montgomery, Ed (January 3, 1979). "Boren Out at Midnight, Nigh In at Noon". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 3. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  98. ^ "Oklahoma Succession of Office, State Question 436 (May 1966)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  99. ^ Ervin, Chuck (January 13, 1987). "Bellmon Inaugurated As Governor". Tulsa World. p. A1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  100. ^ a b "David Lee Walters". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  101. ^ Ervin, Chuck (January 15, 1991). "Walters Sworn In as 24th Governor". Tulsa World. p. A1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  102. ^ a b "Francis Anthony Keating". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  103. ^ Ervin, Chuck (January 10, 1995). "Be Bold, Keating Tells Oklahomans". Tulsa World. p. 1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  104. ^ a b "Brad Henry". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  105. ^ English, Paul (January 14, 2003). "Budget Crisis Noted in Inaugural Address". Tulsa World. p. A1. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  106. ^ a b "Mary Fallin". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  107. ^ McNutt, Michael (January 11, 2011). "'There Truly Is No Place Like Oklahoma'". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 1A. Retrieved June 8, 2023.
  108. ^ "Oklahoma Term Limits, State Question 747 (2010)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved December 20, 2023.
  109. ^ a b "Kevin Stitt". National Governors Association. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  110. ^ Sweeney, Catherine (January 15, 2019). "J. Kevin Stitt, Oklahoma's 28th Governor". The Journal Record. Retrieved June 8, 2023.