Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming crowd at 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 27, 2002
Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming crowd at 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 27, 2002

This is a list of inmates of Manzanar, an American concentration camp in California used during World War II to hold people of Japanese descent.

Herzig-Yoshinaga and her husband, John "Jack" Herzig, pored over mountains of documents from the War Relocation Authority, a task that "was roughly equivalent to indexing all the information in a library, working from a card catalog that only gave a subject description by shelf, without giving individual book titles or authors."[4] Their efforts resulted in the discovery of evidence that the US Government perjured itself before the United States Supreme Court in the 1944 cases Korematsu v. United States, Hirabayashi v. United States, and Yasui v. United States which challenged the constitutionality of the relocation and incarceration. The government had presented falsified evidence to the Court, destroyed evidence, and had withheld other vital information.[5] This evidence provided the legal basis Japanese Americans needed to seek redress and reparations for their wartime imprisonment. The Herzigs' research was also valuable in their work with the National Coalition for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR), which filed a class-action lawsuit against the US Government on behalf of the incarcerated people. The US Supreme Court ruled against the plaintiff.[4]

...(The class action lawsuit) remained active until after Congress had passed the redress legislation. While it remained alive, it played a significant part in publicizing the issues. The NCJAR lawsuit demanded $220,000 for each individual whose liberties had been denied. This was more than 10 times greater than the $20,000 per surviving incarcerated person that the redress bills proposed, allowing proponents to portray the legislative solution as a moderate alternative.[4]

Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar
Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar
Photographer Toyo Miyatake
Photographer Toyo Miyatake
Karl Yoneda at Manzanar in 1942
Karl Yoneda at Manzanar in 1942

References

  1. ^ a b "Sue Kunitomi Embrey Obituary" (Press release). Embrey, Bruce. May 2006.
  2. ^ Gunji, Nao, Muranaka, Gwen (May 17, 2006). "Sue Embrey, 83, Led Movement to Preserve Manzanar". Rafu Shimpo. p. 1.
  3. ^ a b c Woo, Elaine (2010-02-14). "Henry Fukuhara Dies At 96; Watercolorist Led Annual Painting Workshops at Manzanar". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Fujita-Rony, Thomas Y. (2003). "Destructive Force: Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga's Gendered Labor in the Japanese American Redress Movement". Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies. 24 (1): 38–60. doi:10.1353/fro.2003.0017. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
  5. ^ Unrau, Harlan D. (1996). Manzanar National Historic Site: The Evacuation And Relocation Of Persons Of Japanese Ancestry During World War II: A Historical Study Of The Manzanar War Relocation Center: Historic Resource Study/Special History Study, Volume Two. National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. pp. 856–857.
  6. ^ a b Woo, Elaine (November 21, 2010). "William Hohri, 83; led battle for redress after being interned at Manzanar". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved May 13, 2018.
  7. ^ Hohri, William Minoru (1988). Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. Washington State University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-87422-034-6.
  8. ^ Hohri. Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. p. 203.
  9. ^ Unrau. Manzanar National Historic Site: The Evacuation And Relocation Of Persons Of Japanese Ancestry During World War II: A Historical Study Of The Manzanar War Relocation Center: Historic Resource Study/Special History Study, Volume Two. p. 857.
  10. ^ Hohri. Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. p. 210.
  11. ^ Magagnini, Stephen (October 8, 2001). "A Nation's Apology". Sacramento Bee.
  12. ^ a b c d e Rasmussen, Cecilia (May 27, 2007). "Following His Beliefs Led Him To Manzanar". Los Angeles Times. p. B2. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  13. ^ Yen, Janice. "Who Was Ralph Lazo?". National Coalition for Civil Rights and Redress. Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  14. ^ Nakayama, Takeshi (January 9, 1992). "Nikkei Community Loses Loyal Friend" (PDF). Rafu Shimpo. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 25, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
  15. ^ a b "Ralph Lazo – A True Friend". Los Angeles Almanac. Archived from the original on October 7, 2017. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
  16. ^ "Stand Up for Justice:The Ralph Lazo Story". National Coalition for Civil Rights and Redress. January 2004. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved April 23, 2007.
  17. ^ "Manzanar National Historic Site – Photo Gallery (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on June 26, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  18. ^ "Paid Notice: Deaths TAKAGI, PAUL TAKAO". The New York Times. 2015-09-27. Retrieved 2020-07-24.
  19. ^ Woo, Elaine (July 7, 2009). "Togo W. Tanaka Dies At 93; Journalist Documented Life At Manzanar Internment Camp". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 23, 2012. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  20. ^ a b c Oliver, Myrna (December 21, 2004). "Harry Ueno, 97; Hero to Japanese Americans in Internment Camps". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 15, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  21. ^ Embrey, Sue Kunitomi, Hansen, Arthur A., Kulberg, Betsy Mitson (1986). Manzanar Martyr: An Interview With Harry Ueno. The Oral History Program, California State University, Fullerton. pp. xvi, 30–37. ISBN 978-0-930046-07-1.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ "Rabbit in the Moon: About the Film – PBS". Public Broadcasting System. 1999. Archived from the original on November 9, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.
  23. ^ a b c d e Price, Tom (May 1999). "Karl Yoneda, Working Class Hero". International Longshore and Warehouse Union and Recollection Books. Archived from the original on May 3, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  24. ^ a b Yoneda, Karl (1983). Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, Regents of the University of California. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-934052-07-8.
  25. ^ Yoneda, Karl. Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. p. 126.
  26. ^ Yoneda, Karl. Ganbatte: Sixty-Year Struggle of a Kibei Worker. pp. 145–165.