This is a complete list of lieutenant generals in the United States Army before 1960. The grade of lieutenant general (or three-star general) is ordinarily the second-highest in the peacetime Army, ranking above major general and below general.

Originally created for George Washington during the Quasi-War with France, the grade lapsed for most of the 19th century and early 20th century because it was considered too lofty for the diminutive peacetime establishment. Unlike the grades of major general and below, the grade of lieutenant general was not considered a functional office during this period, but the penultimate military honor, reserved for only the most eminent of wartime generals. After the Spanish–American War, the lieutenant generalcy slowly transitioned from extraordinary accolade to routine appointment, and from permanent personal grade to temporary ex officio rank. The grade was revived permanently just before World War II and has been in continuous existence ever since.[1]

Before World War I, there was at most one lieutenant general on active duty at any time. In 1918 two field army commanders received wartime commissions as lieutenant generals to accord them rank equal to allied counterparts, the first time the grade had been conferred purely to facilitate future command instead of to reward past service. Dozens of lieutenant generals were appointed during World War II to lead the vastly expanded military establishment, and by January 1, 1960, the official Army register listed 33 lieutenant generals on active duty in the peacetime Army.[2]

Taxonomy

List of U.S. Army lieutenant generals before 1960

The following list of lieutenant generals includes all officers appointed to that rank in the United States Army prior to January 1, 1960, including brevet and temporary lieutenant generals.[4]

Entries are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was appointed to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the officer's name, date of rank,[5] date the officer vacated the active-duty rank,[6] number of years on active duty as lieutenant general (Yrs),[7] positions held as lieutenant general, and other biographical notes.[8]

The list is sortable by active-duty appointment order, last name, date of rank, date vacated, and number of years on active duty as lieutenant general.

Name Photo Date of rank[5] Date vacated[6] Yrs[7] Position Notes[8]
1 George Washington
Portrait of George Washington-transparent.png
3 Jul 1798   14 Dec 1799   1   (1732–1799) Promoted to General of the Armies posthumously, 4 Jul 1976. U.S. President, 1789–1797. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1776.
2 Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott by Fredricks, 1862.jpg
29 Mar 1847   1 Nov 1861   15   (1786–1866) Brevet rank. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1814.
3 Ulysses S. Grant
GenUSGrant.jpg
2 Mar 1864   25 Jul 1866   2   (1822–1885) Promoted to general, 25 Jul 1866. U.S. President, 1869–1877. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1863.
4 William T. Sherman
William-Tecumseh-Sherman.jpg
25 Jul 1866   4 Mar 1869   3   (1820–1891) Promoted to general, 4 Mar 1869. Superintendent, Louisiana Seminary of Learning and Military Academy, 1860–1861. Brother of U.S. Secretary of State John Sherman.
5 Philip H. Sheridan
Philip Sheridan 1-restored.jpg
4 Mar 1869   1 Jun 1888   19   (1831–1888) Promoted to general, 1 Jun 1888.
6 John M. Schofield
John M Schofield by CM Bell, c1860s (cropped).JPG
8 Feb 1895   29 Sep 1895   1   (1831–1906) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1892.
7 Nelson A. Miles
Nelson A. Miles by Brands Studios, 1898.jpg
6 Jun 1900   8 Aug 1903   3   (1839–1925)[9] Awarded Medal of Honor, 1892.
8 Samuel B. M. Young
YOUNG, S.B.M. GENERAL LCCN2016857332 (cropped).jpg
8 Aug 1903   9 Jan 1904   0   (1840–1924) Superintendent, Yellowstone National Park, 1907–1908.
9 Adna R. Chaffee
AdnaChaffee.jpg
9 Jan 1904   1 Feb 1906   2   (1842–1914) Father of Army major general Adna R. Chaffee Jr.
10 John C. Bates
Gen John Bates.jpg
1 Feb 1906   14 Apr 1906   0   (1842–1919)
11 Henry C. Corbin
Henry C Corbin.jpg
15 Apr 1906   15 Sep 1906   0   (1842–1909)
12 Arthur MacArthur Jr.
Arthur MacArthur Jr.jpg
15 Sep 1906   2 Jun 1909   3   (1845–1912) Awarded Medal of Honor, 1890. Father of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur.
13 Hunter Liggett
Hunter Liggett.jpg
16 Oct 1918   30 Jun 1920   2   (1857–1935)[10]
14 Robert L. Bullard
Lieutenant General Robert Lee Bullard - LCCN2014709815 (cropped).jpg
16 Oct 1918   30 Jun 1920   2   (1861–1947)[10]
* Edgar Jadwin
USACE Edgar Jadwin.jpg
7 Aug 1929   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1865–1931)
15 Hugh A. Drum
Hugh Drum.jpg
5 Aug 1939   15 Oct 1943   4   (1879–1951)[11][12] Commander, New York Guard, 1943–1948.
16 Stanley H. Ford
Stanley Hamer Ford profile.jpg
5 Aug 1939   30 Sep 1940   1   (1877–1954)[13]
17 Stanley D. Embick
Stanley D. Embick.jpg
5 Aug 1939   27 Jun 1946   6  
  • Commanding General, Third Army, 1938–1940.
  • Senior War Department Member, Permanent Joint Board on Defense for Canada and the United States, 1940–1942, and Mexico and the United States, 1942.
  • Chairman, Inter-American Defense Board, 1942–1943 and 1943–1946.
  • Senior War Department Member, Joint Strategic Survey Committee, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1942–1946.
(1877–1957)[11][14]
18 Albert J. Bowley
Albert Jesse Bowley.jpg
5 Aug 1939   30 Nov 1939   0   (1875–1945)[15]
19 John L. DeWitt
John Lesene Dewitt copy.PNG
5 Dec 1939   10 Jun 1947   8   (1880–1962)[16][17] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
20 Charles D. Herron
Charles D. Herron.jpg
31 Jul 1940   7 Feb 1941   1   (1877–1977)[18]
21 Daniel Van Voorhis
Daniel Van Voorhis.jpg
31 Jul 1940   18 Sep 1941   1   (1878–1956)[19]
22 Herbert J. Brees
Herbert J Brees.jpg
1 Oct 1940   15 May 1941   1   (1877–1958)[20][21]
23 Ben Lear
Ben Lear.jpg
1 Oct 1940   31 Dec 1945   5   (1879–1966)[11][22] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
24 Delos C. Emmons
Delos Emmons.gif
25 Oct 1940   30 Jun 1948   8   (1888–1965)[23][24]
25 Walter C. Short
Walter-short l.jpg
8 Feb 1941   16 Dec 1941   1   (1880–1949)[25]
26 Walter Krueger
Krueger only.jpg
16 May 1941   5 Mar 1945   4   (1881–1967)[26] Promoted to general, 5 Mar 1945.
27 Lesley J. McNair
Lesley James McNair (US Army General).jpg
9 Jun 1941   25 Jul 1944   3   (1883–1944) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Killed in action.
28 Douglas MacArthur
MacARTHUR, DOUGLAS. GENERAL LCCN2016859444.jpg
27 Jul 1941   18 Dec 1941   0   (1880–1964)[27] Promoted to general, 18 Dec 1941; to general of the Army, 18 Dec 1944. Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1919–1922. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1942; Congressional Gold Medal, 1962. Son of Army lieutenant general Arthur MacArthur Jr.
29 Frank M. Andrews
FMApic2.jpg
19 Sep 1941   3 May 1943   2   (1884–1943)[28] Died in office.
30 Henry H. Arnold
Henry H. Arnold 1947.jpg
15 Dec 1941   19 Mar 1943   1  
  • Additional Chief of Staff for Air, 1941–1942.
  • Commanding General, Army Air Forces, 1942–1946.
(1886–1950)[23] Promoted to general, 19 Mar 1943; to general of the Army, 21 Dec 1944; to general of the Air Force, 7 May 1949.
31 George H. Brett
George H. Brett.jpg
7 Jan 1942   10 May 1946   4   (1886–1963)[20][23][29]
32 William S. Knudsen
William S Knudsen.jpg
28 Jan 1942   1 Jun 1945   3   (1879–1948)[30] Resigned, 1945.
33 Joseph W. Stilwell
Stilwell001.jpg
25 Feb 1942   1 Aug 1944   2   (1883–1946) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1944.
34 Brehon B. Somervell
Brehon Somervell.jpg
9 Mar 1942   6 Mar 1945   3   (1892–1955)[31] Promoted to general, 6 Mar 1945.
35 Jonathan M. Wainwright IV
Lt. Gen. Jonathan W. Wainwright.jpg
19 Mar 1942   6 Sep 1945   3  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Forces in the Philippines, 1942.
(1883–1953) Promoted to general, 6 Sep 1945. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1945.
36 Joseph T. McNarney
Joseph T McNarney.jpg
15 Jun 1942   7 Mar 1945   3   (1893–1972)[23] Promoted to general, 7 Mar 1945.
37 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D Eisenhower.jpg
7 Jul 1942   11 Feb 1943   1   (1890–1969) Promoted to general, 11 Feb 1943; to general of the Army, 20 Dec 1944. President, Columbia University, 1948–1953; U.S. President, 1953–1961.
* James G. Harbord
James Harbord.jpg
9 Jul 1942   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1866–1947)
* William M. Wright
William Mason Wright (US Army Lieutenant General) 2.jpg
9 Jul 1942   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1863–1943)
38 Jacob L. Devers
Jacob L. Devers portrait.jpg
6 Sep 1942   8 Mar 1945   3   (1887–1979) Promoted to general, 8 Mar 1945.
39 Robert L. Eichelberger
Robert Eichelberger (2).jpg
15 Oct 1942   31 Dec 1948   6   (1886–1961) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954. Superintendent, U.S. Military Academy, 1940–1942.
40 George C. Kenney
Lt. Gen. George C. Kenney.jpg
15 Oct 1942   9 Mar 1945   2   (1889–1977)[23] Promoted to general, 9 Mar 1945. Commander, Air University, 1948–1951.
41 Mark W. Clark
Mark Wayne Clark 1943.jpg
11 Nov 1942   10 Mar 1945   2   (1896–1984) Promoted to general, 10 Mar 1945. President, The Citadel, 1954–1966.
42 Millard F. Harmon
Millard Fillmore Harmon Jr.jpg
2 Feb 1943   27 Feb 1946   3   (1888–1946) Died in office.
43 Courtney H. Hodges
Lt. Gen. Courtney P. Hodges (cropped).jpg
16 Feb 1943   26 Apr 1945   2   (1887–1966)[32] Promoted to general, 26 Apr 1945.
44 George S. Patton Jr.
GeorgeSPatton.jpg
12 Mar 1943   14 Apr 1945   2   (1885–1945) Promoted to general, 14 Apr 1945. Father-in-law of Army four-star general John K. Waters.
45 Carl A. Spaatz
Carl Spaatz.jpg
12 Mar 1943   11 Mar 1945   2   (1891–1974)[23] Promoted to general, 11 Mar 1945.
46 Simon B. Buckner Jr.
General Simon B. Buckner, Jr.jpg
4 May 1943   18 Jun 1945   2   (1886–1945) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Killed in action. Son of Kentucky Governor Simon Bolivar Buckner Sr.
47 Robert C. Richardson Jr.
Robert C RichardsonJr.jpg
1 Jun 1943   31 Oct 1946   3   (1882–1954)[11][33] Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954.
48 Lloyd R. Fredendall
L.R.Fredendall.jpg
1 Jun 1943   31 Mar 1946   3   (1883–1963)[11][34]
49 Omar N. Bradley
Omar-n-bradley-contrast-adjusted.jpg
2 Jun 1943   12 Mar 1945   2   (1893–1981) Promoted to general, 12 Mar 1945; to general of the Army, 22 Sep 1950. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1977.
50 Barton K. Yount
Barton Kyle Yount.jpg
13 Sep 1943   30 Jun 1946   3   (1884–1949)[11][23] President, American Institute for Foreign Trade, 1946–1949.
51 Ira C. Eaker
LTG Ira Eaker.jpg
13 Sep 1943   30 Aug 1947   4   (1896–1987)[20][23][35] Promoted to general on the retired list, 26 Apr 1985. Awarded Congressional Gold Medal, 1978.
52 George Grunert
Lieutenant General George Grunert.jpg
8 Oct 1943   31 Jul 1945   2   (1881–1971)[11][36]
53 William H. Simpson
William H. Simpson.jpg
13 Oct 1943   30 Nov 1946   3   (1888–1980)[11][37] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
54 Walter Bedell Smith
Lieutenant General Walter Bedell Smith, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing front, in uniform.jpg
13 Jan 1944   1 Jul 1951   7   (1895–1961) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1951. U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union, 1946–1949; U.S. Under Secretary of State, 1953–1954.
55 Richard K. Sutherland
Richard K. Sutherland.jpg
20 Feb 1944   30 Nov 1946   3   (1893–1966)[11]
56 John C. H. Lee
John C. H. Lee.jpg
21 Feb 1944   31 Dec 1947   4   (1887–1958)[11]
57 Raymond A. Wheeler
Raymond A. Wheeler.jpg
21 Feb 1944   28 Feb 1949   5   (1885–1974)
58 James H. Doolittle
Lt. General James Doolittle, head and shoulders.jpg
13 Mar 1944   10 May 1946   2   (1896–1993)[23][38] Promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Apr 1985. Awarded Medal of Honor, 1942; Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1989.
59 Lewis H. Brereton
General Brereton.jpg
28 Apr 1944   1 Sep 1948   4   (1890–1967)[23]
60 Barney M. Giles
Lt Gen Barney M. Giles.jpg
28 Apr 1944   30 Jun 1946   2   (1892–1984)[11][23]
61 Alexander M. Patch
Alexander Patch portrait.jpg
7 Aug 1944   21 Nov 1945   1   (1889–1945) Promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954. Died in office.
62 Daniel I. Sultan
Daniel Isom Sultan.jpg
2 Sep 1944   14 Jan 1947   2   (1885–1947) Died in office.
63 Thomas T. Handy
Thomas Handy.jpg
2 Sep 1944   13 Mar 1945   1   (1892–1982) Promoted to general, 13 Mar 1945.
64 Lucian K. Truscott Jr.
Lucian Truscott 8.jpg
2 Sep 1944   30 Sep 1947   3   (1895–1965)[11] Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
65 Wilhelm D. Styer
Wilhelm D Styer.jpg
7 Nov 1944   29 Apr 1947   2  
  • Deputy Commanding General/Chief of Staff, Army Service Forces, 1942–1945.
  • Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, 1945–1946.
(1893–1975)[16]
66 Leonard T. Gerow
Leonard T. Gerow.jpg
1 Jan 1945   31 Jul 1950   6   (1888–1972) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
67 Albert C. Wedemeyer
Albert C. Wedemeyer.jpg
1 Jan 1945   31 Jul 1951   7   (1897–1989) Promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
68 Harold L. George
Harold L. George.jpg
16 Mar 1945   30 Dec 1946   2   (1893–1986)[20][23]
69 John K. Cannon
John K Cannon.jpg
17 Mar 1945   29 Oct 1951   7   (1892–1955)[23] Promoted to general, 29 Oct 1951.
70 Hoyt S. Vandenberg
Hoyt Vandenberg, bw photo portrait, covered.jpg
17 Mar 1945   1 Oct 1947   3   (1899–1954)[23] Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1947. Director of Central Intelligence, 1946–1947. Nephew of U.S. Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg; son married daughter of Air Force four-star general Leon W. Johnson.
71 Edmund B. Gregory
Edmund B Gregory.jpg
14 Apr 1945   30 Jun 1946   1   (1882–1961)[11]
72 Oscar W. Griswold
Oscar Griswold.jpg
14 Apr 1945   31 Oct 1947   3   (1886–1959)[11]
73 Eugene Reybold
Eugene Reybold.jpg
15 Apr 1945   30 Jan 1946   1   (1884–1961)[16]
74 Walton H. Walker
Walton H. Walker (US Army General).jpg
15 Apr 1945   23 Dec 1950   6   (1889–1950) Promoted to general posthumously, 2 Jan 1951. Died in office.
75 Wade H. Haislip
Wade Haislip.jpg
15 Apr 1945   1 Oct 1949   4   (1889–1971) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1949.
76 Levin H. Campbell Jr.
Levin Hicks Campbell.jpg
16 Apr 1945   30 May 1946   1   (1886–1976)[16]
77 J. Lawton Collins
J-lawton-collins-1948.jpg
16 Apr 1945   24 Jan 1948   3   (1896–1987) Promoted to general, 24 Jan 1948. U.S. Special Representative to Vietnam, 1954–1955.
78 Geoffrey Keyes
Geoffrey Keyes2.jpg
17 Apr 1945   1 Aug 1954   9   (1888–1967)[39]
79 Lucius D. Clay
Lucius-d-clay-80-87.jpg
17 Apr 1945   28 Mar 1947   2   (1897–1978) Promoted to general, 28 Mar 1947. Special Representative of the President in Berlin, 1961–1962. Son of U.S. Senator Alexander S. Clay; father of Air Force four-star general Lucius D. Clay Jr.
80 George E. Stratemeyer
LtGen George E. Stratemeyer.jpg
28 May 1945   31 Jan 1952   7   (1890–1969)[23]
81 Alvan C. Gillem Jr.
Alvan C Gillem Jr.jpg
3 Jun 1945   31 Aug 1950   5  
  • Commanding General, XIII Corps, 1943–1945.
  • Commanding General, VII Corps, 1945–1946.
  • Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces in China, 1946–1947.
  • Commanding General, Third Army, 1947–1950.
(1888–1973)
82 Willis D. Crittenberger
Willis D. Crittenberger.JPG
3 Jun 1945   31 Dec 1952   8   (1890–1980)
83 Charles P. Hall
Charles P. Hall2.jpg
4 Jun 1945   31 Dec 1948   4   (1886–1953)
84 Matthew B. Ridgway
Lt. Gen. Matthew Ridgway.jpg
4 Jun 1945   11 May 1951   6   (1895–1993) Promoted to general, 11 May 1951. Awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1986; Congressional Gold Medal, 1990.
85 LeRoy Lutes
LeRoy Lutes.jpg
5 Jun 1945   31 Jan 1952   7   (1890–1980)
86 Troy H. Middleton
Middleton.Ardennes.NatArchives.jpg
5 Jun 1945   10 Aug 1945   0   (1889–1976)[40] President, Louisiana State University, 1951–1962.
87 Nathan F. Twining
Lt Gen Nathan F. Twining.jpg
5 Jun 1945   10 Oct 1950   5   (1897–1982)[23] Promoted to general, 10 Oct 1950. Brother of Marine Corps four-star general Merrill B. Twining.
88 Ennis C. Whitehead
Ennis Whitehead.jpg
5 Jun 1945   31 Jul 1951   6   (1895–1964)[23]
89 John R. Hodge
John reed hodge.jpg
6 Jun 1945   5 Jul 1952   7   (1893–1963) Promoted to general, 5 Jul 1952.
90 John E. Hull
32-hull l.jpg
6 Jun 1945   30 Jul 1951   6   (1895–1975) Promoted to general, 30 Jul 1951.
91 Raymond S. McLain
Raymondmclain.jpg
6 Jun 1945   30 Apr 1952   7   (1890–1954)[41]
92 Clarence R. Huebner
Clarence huebner.jpg
17 Mar 1947   30 Nov 1950   4   (1888–1972)
93 Manton S. Eddy
Menton S. Eddy.jpg
24 Jan 1948   31 Mar 1953   5   (1892–1962)
94 Stephen J. Chamberlin
Stephen J. Chamberlin.jpg
24 Jan 1948   31 Dec 1951   4   (1889–1971)
95 Henry S. Aurand
Henry S. Aurand.jpg
24 Jan 1948   31 Aug 1952   5   (1894–1980)
96 Willard S. Paul
Willard S. Paul.JPG
24 Jan 1948   31 Dec 1948   1   (1894–1966) President, Gettysburg College, 1956–1961.
97 Leslie R. Groves
Leslie Groves.jpg
24 Jan 1948   29 Feb 1948   0   (1896–1970)[42]
98 James A. Van Fleet
James A. Van Fleet.jpg
19 Feb 1948   31 Jul 1951   3  
  • Director, Joint U.S. Military Advisory and Planning Group in Greece, 1948–1950.
  • Commanding General, Second Army, 1950–1951.
  • Commanding General, Eighth Army, 1951–1953.
(1892–1992) Promoted to general, 31 Jul 1951. Special Representative of the President in the Far East, 1954.
99 Edward H. Brooks
LTG (USA) Edward H. Brooks, final formal military portrait.jpg
18 Mar 1949   30 Apr 1953   4   (1893–1978)
100 Thomas B. Larkin
Thomas B. Larkin (US Army general).jpg
21 Mar 1949   31 Dec 1952   4   (1890–1968)
101 Harold R. Bull
Harold R Bull.jpg
25 Jul 1949   31 Jul 1952   3   (1893–1976)
102 Alfred M. Gruenther
Gen. Alfred M. Gruenther.jpg
30 Sep 1949   1 Aug 1951   2   (1899–1983) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1951.
103 William H. H. Morris Jr.
William H. H. Morris Jr.jpg
1 Oct 1949   31 Mar 1952   2   (1890–1971)
104 Stafford L. Irwin
Stafford LeRoy Irwin.jpg
15 Oct 1950   31 May 1952   2  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Forces Austria, 1950–1952.
(1893–1955)
105 Frank W. Milburn
Frank W Milburn.jpg
8 Feb 1951   30 Apr 1952   1  
  • Commanding General, I Corps, 1950–1951.
  • Inspector of Infantry, Office of the Chief of Army Field Forces, 1951–1952.
(1892–1962)
106 Joseph M. Swing
LTG Joseph M. Swing (cropped).jpg
9 Feb 1951   28 Feb 1954   3   (1894–1984)
107 John W. Leonard
John W. Leonard2.jpg
10 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1952   1   (1890–1974)
108 John B. Coulter
John B Coulter.jpg
11 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1952   1   (1891–1983)
109 Edward M. Almond
Edward Almond.jpg
12 Feb 1951   31 Jan 1953   2   (1892–1979)
110 Charles L. Bolte
Charles L. Bolte.jpg
13 Feb 1951   30 Jul 1953   2   (1895–1989) Promoted to general, 30 Jul 1953.
111 William M. Hoge
William Hoge.jpg
31 May 1951   23 Oct 1953   2   (1894–1979) Promoted to general, 23 Oct 1953.
112 Doyle O. Hickey
Doyle O. Hickey (US Army brigadier general).jpg
1 Jun 1951   31 Jul 1953   2   (1891–1961)
113 Maxwell D. Taylor
Maxwell-d-taylor.58-520.jpg
29 Jul 1951   23 Jun 1953   2   (1901–1987) Promoted to general, 23 Jun 1953.
114 Andrew D. Bruce
A.D. Bruce in uniform.jpg
30 Jul 1951   31 Aug 1954   3   (1894–1969)
115 Lewis A. Pick
Lewis A Pick.jpg
31 Jul 1951   30 Nov 1952   1   (1890–1956)
116 Anthony C. McAuliffe
Anthony McAuliffe.jpg
1 Aug 1951   1 Mar 1955   4   (1898–1975) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1955.
117 John W. O'Daniel
John W. O
20 Dec 1951   29 Feb 1956   4   (1894–1975)[43]
118 Horace L. McBride
Horace L. McBride.jpg
29 Apr 1952   30 Jun 1954   2   (1894–1962)
119 Willard G. Wyman
Wyman Willard G (cropped).jpg
8 Jun 1952   1 Mar 1956   4   (1898–1969) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1956.
120 Williston B. Palmer
Williston B. Palmer.jpg
9 Jun 1952   1 May 1955   3   (1899–1973) Promoted to general, 1 May 1955.
121 George H. Decker
Decker.jpg
10 Jun 1952   31 May 1956   4   (1902–1980) Promoted to general, 31 May 1956.
122 John T. Lewis
John T. Lewis.jpg
4 Jul 1952   30 Sep 1954   2   (1894–1983)
123 George P. Hays
George Price Hays.jpg
5 Jul 1952   30 Apr 1953   1  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Forces Austria, 1952–1953.
(1892–1978)
124 Daniel Noce
Lt. Gen. Daniel Noce.jpg
29 Jul 1952   31 Oct 1954   2   (1894–1976)
125 Alexander R. Bolling
Alexander R Bolling.jpg
30 Jul 1952   31 Jul 1955   3   (1895–1964)
126 William B. Kean
William B Kean.JPG
31 Jul 1952   30 Sep 1954   2   (1897–1981)
127 Lyman L. Lemnitzer
Lyman Lemnitzer.JPG
1 Aug 1952   25 Mar 1955   3   (1899–1988) Promoted to general, 25 Mar 1955.
128 William K. Harrison Jr.
William Kelly Harrison Jr.jpg
5 Sep 1952   28 Feb 1957   4   (1895–1987)
129 Paul W. Kendall
Paul W. Kendal.jpg
16 Sep 1952   31 Aug 1955   3   (1898–1983)
130 Reuben E. Jenkins
Reuben Ellis Jenkins (cropped).jpg
6 Nov 1952   28 Feb 1954   1  
  • Commanding General, IX Corps, 1952–1953.
  • Commanding General, X Corps, 1953.
(1896–1975)
131 Isaac D. White
Isaac D. White.JPG
7 Nov 1952   22 Jun 1955   3   (1901–1990) Promoted to general, 22 Jun 1955.
132 Withers A. Burress
General Withers A Burress 1944.jpg
1 Jan 1953   30 Nov 1954   2   (1894–1977)
133 Ralph J. Canine
Ralph Canine, official military portrait.jpg
16 Mar 1953   30 Apr 1957   4   (1895–1969)
134 John E. Dahlquist
John E Dahlquist.jpg
1 May 1953   18 Aug 1954   1  
  • Commanding General, Fourth Army, 1953.
  • Assistant Chief, Army Field Forces, 1953.
  • Chief, Army Field Forces, 1953–1955.
(1896–1975) Promoted to general, 18 Aug 1954.
135 William H. Arnold
William Henry Arnold.jpg
22 Jun 1953   31 Jan 1961   8  
  • Commanding General, U.S. Forces Austria, 1953–1955.
  • Commanding General, Fifth Army, 1955–1961.
(1901–1976)
136 Bruce C. Clarke
Bruce C Clarke.jpg
23 Jun 1953   1 Aug 1958   5   (1901–1988) Promoted to general, 1 Aug 1958.
137 Cortlandt V. R. Schuyler
Cortlandt V R Schuyler.jpg
3 Jul 1953   18 May 1956   3   (1900–1993) Promoted to general, 18 May 1956.
138 Floyd L. Parks
33-parks m.jpg
13 Oct 1953   29 Feb 1956   2   (1896–1959)
139 Walter L. Weible
Walter Leo Weible.jpg
23 Oct 1953   31 Jan 1957   3   (1896–1980)
140 Thomas F. Hickey
T.f. hickey.jpg
25 Jan 1954   Sep 1961   7   (1898–1983)[44]
141 Blackshear M. Bryan
Blackshear M Bryan.jpg
26 Jan 1954   1 Mar 1960   6   (1900–1977)
142 Carter B. Magruder
Carter B. Magruder.jpg
6 Apr 1954   1 Jul 1959   5   (1900–1988) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1959.
143 Lemuel Mathewson
Lemuel Mathewson.jpg
7 Apr 1954   1 Jul 1961   6   (1899–1970)[45]
144 Henry I. Hodes
Henry I. Hodes.jpg
16 Aug 1954   1 Jun 1956   2   (1899–1962) Promoted to general, 1 Jun 1956.
145 John H. Collier
Lt. Gen. John H. Collier.jpg
17 Aug 1954   1 Oct 1958   4   (1898–1980)
146 Charles E. Hart
Don Edwards with Lt General Hart in 1960 (cropped).jpg
18 Aug 1954   1 Aug 1960   6   (1900–1991)
147 Hobart R. Gay
Hobart Gay.gif
30 Sep 1954   31 Aug 1955   1   (1894–1983)
148 Stanley R. Mickelsen
Lt. Gen. Stanley R. Mickelsen.jpg
1 Oct 1954   31 Oct 1957   3   (1895–1966)
149 Thomas W. Herren
General Thomas Herren 1954.jpg
9 Dec 1954   31 Jul 1957   3   (1895–1985)
150 Claude B. Ferenbaugh
Claude B. Ferenbaugh.jpg
10 Dec 1954   30 Sep 1955   1   (1899–1975)
151 Laurin L. Williams
Laurin L. Williams.jpg
1 Mar 1955   30 Jun 1957   2   (1895–1975)
152 James M. Gavin
JamesMGavin(LTG).jpeg
25 Mar 1955   31 Mar 1958   3   (1907–1990)
153 Robert N. Young
Robert N. Young 5.JPG
29 Jun 1955   30 Sep 1957   2   (1900–1964)
154 Robert M. Montague
Robert Miller Montague.jpg
13 Jul 1955   20 Feb 1958   3   (1899–1958) Died in office.
155 George W. Read Jr.
George Windle Read, Jr. 1958.jpg
14 Jul 1955   1 Aug 1960   5   (1900–1974)
156 Samuel D. Sturgis III
Sturgis SD LtGen.jpg
23 Jul 1955   30 Sep 1956   1   (1897–1964)
157 Clovis E. Byers
Clovis Byers.jpg
8 Aug 1955   1 Jun 1959   4   (1899–1973)
158 Charles D. Palmer
Lt Gen Charles Day Palmer.jpg
19 Aug 1955   1 Oct 1959   4   (1902–1999) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1959.
159 Samuel T. Williams
Samuel Tankersley William.jpg
15 Sep 1955   1 Sep 1960   5   (1897–1984)
160 Clyde D. Eddleman
Clyde Davis Eddleman.jpg
10 Oct 1955   1 Apr 1959   3   (1902–1992) Promoted to general, 1 Apr 1959.
161 Alonzo P. Fox
Alonzo P. Fox 3.jpg
12 Nov 1955   31 May 1959   4   (1895–1984)[46]
162 James E. Moore
James Edward Moore.JPG
17 Feb 1956   21 Apr 1960   4   (1902–1986) Promoted to general, 21 Apr 1960.
163 Edward T. Williams
Edward T. Williams.jpg
1 Mar 1956   28 Feb 1961   5   (1901–1973)
164 Lewis B. Hershey
Lt. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey.jpg
23 Jun 1956   23 Dec 1969   14   (1893–1977)[47] Promoted to general on the retired list, 23 Dec 1969.
165 Emerson L. Cummings
Lt. Gen. Emerson L. Cummings (2).jpg
18 Jul 1956   31 Mar 1962   6   (1902–1986)
166 Francis W. Farrell
Francis William Farrell.jpg
19 Jul 1956   1 Jul 1960   4   (1900–1981)
167 John F. Uncles
John F Uncles World War 2 (cropped).jpg
20 Jul 1956   1 Sep 1958   2   (1898–1967)
168 Ridgely Gaither
Ridgely Gaither as commander of the 11th Airborne Division in 1952.jpg
27 Jul 1956   30 Apr 1962   6   (1903–1992)
* Hanford MacNider
Hanford MacNider2.jpg
7 Aug 1956   (none) 0  
  • (none)
(1889–1968)
169 Arthur G. Trudeau
Arthur Trudeau.jpg
18 Oct 1956   30 Jun 1962   6   (1902–1991)
170 David A. D. Ogden
David Ayres Depue Ogden.jpg
24 Mar 1957   31 Oct 1957   1   (1897–1969)
171 Donald P. Booth
Donald Prentice Booth.JPG
21 Feb 1957   28 Feb 1962   5   (1902–1993)
172 Garrison H. Davidson
Gen Garrison Davidson West Point Superintendent 1956 1960.jpg
25 Mar 1957   30 Apr 1964   7   (1904–1992)
173 William S. Lawton
William Stevens Lawton.jpg
1 Jul 1957   1 Jun 1960   3   (1900–1993)
174 Robert M. Cannon
Robert Milchrist Cannon.jpg
30 Jun 1957   31 Aug 1961   4   (1901–1976)
175 Paul D. Harkins
Paul D. Harkins2.JPG
1 Jul 1957   2 Jan 1962   5   (1904–1987) Promoted to general, 2 Jan 1962.
176 Thomas J. H. Trapnell
Thomas Trapnell.jpg
4 Feb 1958   31 Jul 1962   4   (1902–2002)
177 James F. Collins
James F Collins.jpg
15 Mar 1958   1 Apr 1961   3   (1905–1989) Promoted to general, 1 Apr 1961.
178 Herbert B. Powell
Herbert B Powell.jpg
8 Apr 1958   1 Oct 1960   2   (1903–1998) Promoted to general, 1 Oct 1960.
179 Clark L. Ruffner
Clark L Ruffner.jpg
1 May 1958   1 Mar 1960   2   (1903–1982) Promoted to general, 1 Mar 1960.
180 James D. O'Connell
James Dunne O
11 Jul 1958   1 May 1959   1   (1899–1984)
181 Thomas L. Harrold
Thomas Leonard Harrold.jpg
1 Aug 1958   30 Jun 1961   3   (1902–1973)
182 Gordon B. Rogers
Gordon B. Rogers (US Army lieutenant general).jpg
1 Sep 1958   31 Aug 1961   3   (1901–1967)
183 Guy S. Meloy Jr.
Guy S Meloy Jr.jpg
1 Oct 1958   1 Jul 1961   3   (1903–1968) Promoted to general, 1 Jul 1961.
184 Paul D. Adams
Paul D. Adams portrait.jpg
1 Apr 1959   3 Oct 1961   3  
  • Commanding General, V Corps, 1959–1960.
  • Commanding General, Third Army, 1960–1961.
(1906–1987) Promoted to general, 3 Oct 1961.
185 Robert W. Colglazier Jr.
Robert Wesley Colglazier.jpg
17 Jul 1959   1 Feb 1966   7   (1904–1993)[48]
186 Emerson C. Itschner
Emerson C Itschner.jpg
6 Sep 1959   31 Aug 1961   2   (1903–1991)
187 John H. Hinrichs
John Honeycutt Hinrichs.jpg
7 Sep 1959   31 May 1962   3   (1904–1990)
188 Robert F. Sink
Lieutenant General Robert F Sink506e.png
8 Sep 1959   1 Feb 1961   1   (1905–1965)
189 Leonard D. Heaton
Leonard Dudley Heaton.jpg
9 Sep 1959   1 Sep 1969   10   (1902–1983)
190 John C. Oakes
Lt. Gen. John C. Oakes.jpg
1 Nov 1959   31 Dec 1963   3   (1906–1982)

Timeline

An officer held the active-duty grade of lieutenant general (Lt.gen.) in the U.S. Army until his death; retirement; resignation; reversion to lower permanent grade upon vacating a position carrying the ex officio rank; promotion to a higher grade such as general (Gen.) or general of the Army (Gen.Army); or transfer to the U.S. Air Force (USAF). A brevet lieutenant general (Bvt.lt.gen.) remained in the grade of major general. Grades in the Continental Army (CA) did not continue with the U.S. Army.

George Washington
Robert Lee BullardHunter LiggettArthur MacArthur, Jr.Henry Clarke CorbinJohn C. BatesAdna R. ChaffeeSamuel Baldwin Marks YoungNelson A. MilesJohn McAllister SchofieldPhilip H. SheridanWilliam T. ShermanUlysses S. GrantWinfield Scott
John Cogswell OakesLeonard D. HeatonRobert SinkJohn Honeycutt HinrichsEmerson C. ItschnerRobert Wesley Colglazier, Jr.Paul D. AdamsGuy S. Meloy, Jr.Gordon Byrom RogersThomas Leonard HarroldJames Dunne O'ConnellClark L. RuffnerHerbert B. PowellJames F. CollinsThomas J. H. TrapnellPaul D. HarkinsRobert Milchrist CannonWilliam Stevens LawtonGarrison H. DavidsonDonald Prentice BoothDavid Ayres Depue OgdenArthur TrudeauRidgely GaitherJohn Francis UnclesFrancis William FarrellEmerson LeRoy CummingsLewis B. HersheyEdward Thomas WilliamsJames Edward MooreAlonzo Patrick FoxClyde D. EddlemanSamuel Tankersley WilliamsCharles D. PalmerClovis E. ByersSamuel Davis Sturgis, Jr.George Windle Read, Jr.Robert Miller MontagueRobert Nicholas YoungJames M. GavinLaurin Lyman WilliamsClaude Birkett FerenbaughThomas W. HerrenStanley R. MickelsenHobart R. GayCharles E. HartJohn Howell CollierHenry I. HodesLemuel MathewsonCarter B. MagruderBlackshear M. BryanThomas Francis Hickey (general)Walter Leo WeibleFloyd Lavinius ParksCortlandt V. R. SchuylerBruce C. ClarkeWilliam Howard ArnoldJohn E. DahlquistRalph CanineWithers A. BurressIsaac D. WhiteReuben Ellis JenkinsPaul Wilkins KendallWilliam Kelly Harrison Jr.Lyman L. LemnitzerWilliam Benjamin KeanAlexander Russell BollingDaniel NoceGeorge Price HaysJohn Taylor LewisGeorge H. DeckerWilliston B. PalmerWillard G. WymanHorace L. McBrideJohn W. O'DanielAnthony C. McAuliffeLewis A. PickA. D. BruceMaxwell Davenport TaylorDoyle Overton HickeyWilliam M. HogeCharles L. BolteEdward AlmondJohn Breitling CoulterJohn William LeonardJoseph May SwingFrank W. MilburnStafford LeRoy IrwinWilliam Henry Harrison Morris, Jr.Alfred GruentherHarold R. BullThomas B. LarkinEdward H. BrooksJames A. Van FleetLeslie R. GrovesWillard Stewart PaulHenry AurandStephen Jones ChamberlinManton S. EddyClarence R. HuebnerRaymond S. McLainJohn E. HullJohn R. HodgeEnnis WhiteheadNathan Farragut TwiningTroy H. MiddletonLeroy LutesMatthew RidgwayCharles P. HallWillis D. CrittenbergerAlvan Cullom Gillem, Jr.George E. StratemeyerLucius D. ClayGeoffrey KeyesJ. Lawton CollinsLevin H. Campbell, Jr.Wade H. HaislipWalton WalkerEugene ReyboldOscar GriswoldEdmund B. GregoryHoyt VandenbergJohn K. CannonHarold L. GeorgeAlbert Coady WedemeyerLeonard T. GerowWilhelm D. StyerLucian TruscottThomas T. HandyDaniel Isom SultanAlexander M. PatchBarney M. GilesLewis H. BreretonJimmy DoolittleRaymond Albert WheelerJohn C. H. LeeRichard K. SutherlandWalter Bedell SmithWilliam Hood SimpsonGeorge GrunertIra C. EakerBarton K. YountOmar BradleyLloyd FredendallRobert C. Richardson, Jr.Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.Carl SpaatzGeorge S. PattonCourtney HodgesMillard HarmonMark Wayne ClarkGeorge KenneyRobert L. EichelbergerJacob L. DeversDwight D. EisenhowerJoseph T. McNarneyJonathan Mayhew Wainwright IVBrehon B. SomervellJoseph StilwellWilliam S. KnudsenGeorge H. BrettHenry H. ArnoldFrank Maxwell AndrewsDouglas MacArthurLesley J. McNairWalter KruegerWalter C. ShortDelos C. EmmonsBen LearHerbert J. BreesDaniel Van VoorhisCharles D. HerronJohn L. DeWittAlbert Jesse Bowley, Sr.Stanley Dunbar EmbickStanley H. FordHugh Aloysius Drum

History

Quasi-War

George Washington

The rank of lieutenant general in the United States Army was established in 1798 when President John Adams commissioned George Washington in that grade to command the armies of the United States during the Quasi-War with France. The next year, Congress replaced the office of lieutenant general with that of General of the Armies of the United States but Washington died before accepting the new commission, remaining a lieutenant general until posthumously promoted to General of the Armies in 1976.[49]

Mexican War

Winfield Scott

In 1855 Congress rewarded the Mexican War service of Major General Winfield Scott by authorizing his promotion to brevet lieutenant general, to rank from March 29, 1847, the date of the Mexican surrender at the Siege of Veracruz.[50] As a lieutenant general only by brevet, Scott remained in the permanent grade of major general but was entitled to be paid as a lieutenant general from the date of his brevet commission, resulting in a public tussle with Secretary of War Jefferson Davis over the amount of backpay Scott was owed. Congress resolved all issues in Scott's favor once Davis left office in 1857, and allowed Scott to retire at full pay in 1861.[51]

Civil War

John M. Schofield

The grade of lieutenant general was revived in February 1864 to allow President Abraham Lincoln to promote Major General Ulysses S. Grant to command the armies of the United States during the American Civil War. After the war, Grant was promoted to general and his vacant lieutenant general grade was filled by Major General William T. Sherman. When Grant became President in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as general and Major General Philip H. Sheridan succeeded Sherman as lieutenant general. Congress suspended further promotions to general and lieutenant general in 1870, but made an exception in 1888 to promote Sheridan on his deathbed by discontinuing the grade of lieutenant general and merging it with the grade of general.[52]

In 1895 Congress briefly revived the grade of lieutenant general to promote Sheridan's successor as commanding general of the Army, Major General John M. Schofield. Schofield had lobbied for the grade to be permanently reestablished in order to cement the primacy of all future commanding generals over the Army's other major generals. However, Congress regarded the lieutenant generalcy as the penultimate military accolade, second only to promotion to full general, and refused to devalue the title's significance by conferring it on any future commanding general less eminent than previous recipients. Instead, Schofield himself was promoted to lieutenant general as a one-time personal honor eight months before he retired.[53] In retirement Schofield argued that the rank of lieutenant general ought to be permanently associated with the office of commanding general, not the individual officers occupying it, and that an officer serving as commanding general should hold the ex officio rank of lieutenant general while so detailed but revert to his permanent grade of major general upon leaving office. Over the next five decades, Schofield's concept of lieutenant general as temporary ex officio rank would slowly prevail over the concept of lieutenant general as permanent personal grade.[54]

Spanish–American War

Henry C. Corbin

The question of whether the lieutenant generalcy should be a permanent personal grade or a temporary ex officio rank was phrased in terms of the line of the Army, whose officers commanded combat formations, and its staff, whose officers performed specialized support functions. Permanent personal promotions to general officer grades were only available in the line, but staff officers could temporarily acquire general officer rank while detailed to an office bearing that statutory rank, so officers holding the permanent grade of general officer were called general officers of the line and ex officio general officers were called general officers of the staff.[3]

Arthur MacArthur Jr.

In June 1900 Schofield's successor as commanding general, Major General Nelson A. Miles, was made a lieutenant general of the staff by an amendment to the United States Military Academy appropriations bill that granted the rank of lieutenant general to the senior major general of the line commanding the Army.[55] Eight months later, the 1901 Army reorganization bill replaced this ex officio rank with the permanent grade of lieutenant general of the line.[56] When Miles retired in 1903, the senior major general was Adjutant General Henry C. Corbin, but as a staff corps officer Corbin was ineligible to command the Army, so the lieutenant generalcy went instead to the senior major general of the line, Samuel B. M. Young. Young reached the statutory retirement age five months later and was succeeded by Adna R. Chaffee. Seniority and scheduled retirements suggested that Chaffee would be succeeded in 1906 by Arthur MacArthur Jr., but both Corbin and Major General John C. Bates were scheduled to retire for age that year and it was decided that MacArthur's ascension would not be materially delayed by first promoting Bates and Corbin to lieutenant general for the few months of active duty remaining to them.[57]

Corbin's promotion became controversial when he declined to be detailed as chief of staff of the Army. Corbin felt the chief of staff should be a younger officer with the time and energy to enact a long-range program, not a superannuated placeholder on the cusp of retirement, so when Bates retired Corbin became lieutenant general but Brigadier General J. Franklin Bell became chief of staff.[58] However, by divorcing the Army's highest grade from its highest office, Corbin had again reduced the lieutenant generalcy to a personal honor. Many in Congress believed Corbin was not in the same class as Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, and Schofield, and pressed to abolish the lieutenant generalcy immediately, but after a heated debate MacArthur's supporters managed to preserve the grade until after MacArthur's promotion.[59]

MacArthur was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1906. Since he was the last Civil War officer expected to succeed to the grade, Congress stopped further promotions to lieutenant general in March 1907 and stated that the active-duty grade would be abolished when MacArthur retired.[60] Later that month, MacArthur asked to be relieved of his duties, disgruntled at his anomalous position of being the ranking officer of the Army yet consigned to the command of a mere division and subject to orders from an officer he outranked, Chief of Staff Bell, whose four-year term extended beyond MacArthur's statutory retirement date. MacArthur returned home to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he marked time writing up travel reports until he retired in 1909.[61]

World War I

Hunter Liggett

In October 1917, Congress authorized the President to appoint as generals the chief of staff of the Army and the commander of the United States forces in France, and as lieutenant generals the commanders of the field armies and army corps, so that they would not be outranked by their counterparts in allied European armies. Unlike previous incarnations, these new grades were time-limited, authorized only for the duration of the World War I emergency, after which their bearers would revert to their lower permanent grades. The commander of the American Expeditionary Force, Major General John J. Pershing, was immediately appointed emergency general, as were two successive Army chiefs of staff, but no emergency lieutenant generals were named for over a year because the armies they would command had not yet been organized.[62]

On October 21, 1918, Major Generals Hunter Liggett, commander of the First Army, and Robert L. Bullard, commander of the Second Army, were nominated to be emergency lieutenant generals, less than three weeks before the Armistice.[63] With victory imminent, Secretary of War Newton D. Baker sought legislation to reward the Army's high commanders by making their emergency grades permanent. However, Army Chief of Staff Peyton C. March had alienated many members of Congress by unilaterally reorganizing the Army without their input and his enemies blocked every effort to honor any officer but Pershing with higher rank. In the end, Pershing was promoted to permanent General of the Armies, but March, Liggett, and Bullard reverted to their permanent grades of major general when their emergency grades expired on July 1, 1920.[64]

Edgar Jadwin

After the war, there were a number of unsuccessful attempts to retire as lieutenant generals a list of officers that variously included Major Generals March, Liggett, Bullard, Enoch H. Crowder, Joseph T. Dickman, Leonard Wood, John F. Morrison, James G. Harbord, James W. McAndrew, Henry P. McCain, Charles P. Summerall, Ernest Hinds, Harry F. Hodges, William Campbell Langfitt, and George W. Goethals; Surgeon General Merritte W. Ireland; and Colonel William L. Kenly.[65] Finally, on August 7, 1929, the Army chief of engineers, Major General Edgar Jadwin, was retired as a lieutenant general by a 1915 law that automatically promoted officers one grade upon retirement if they had helped build the Panama Canal.[66] There was some consternation that a peacetime staff corps officer had secured more or less by chance a promotion deliberately withheld from the victorious field commanders of World War I, so the year after Jadwin's promotion all World War I officers were advanced to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list, including Liggett and Bullard.[67]

In 1942, Congress allowed retired Army generals to be advanced one grade on the retired list or posthumously if they had been recommended in writing during World War I for promotion to a higher rank which they had not since received, provided they had also been awarded the Medal of Honor, the Distinguished Service Cross, or the Distinguished Service Medal; retired Major Generals James G. Harbord and William M. Wright were both advanced to lieutenant general under this provision.[68]

Interwar

Walter C. Short

After Pershing retired in 1924, the rank of the Army chief of staff reverted to major general, the highest permanent grade in the peacetime Army. However, the Navy continued to maintain three ex officio vice admirals and four ex officio admirals, including the chief of naval operations, so in 1929 Congress raised the ex officio rank of the Army chief of staff to full general.[69] In 1939 Congress also assigned the ex officio rank of lieutenant general to the major generals of the Regular Army specifically assigned to command each of the four field armies, allowing President Franklin D. Roosevelt to appoint the first new active-duty lieutenant generals since World War I: First Army commander Hugh A. Drum, Second Army commander Stanley H. Ford, Third Army commander Stanley D. Embick, and Fourth Army commander Albert J. Bowley. Congress extended similar rank in July 1940 to the major generals commanding the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.[70]

As general officers of the staff, these new lieutenant generals bore three-star rank only while actually commanding a field army or department, and reverted to their permanent two-star rank upon being reassigned or retired. However, during World War II most lieutenant generals of the staff received concurrent personal appointments as temporary lieutenant generals in the Army of the United States so that they could be reassigned without loss of rank. Postwar legislation allowed officers to retire in their highest temporary grades, so most lieutenant generals of the staff eventually retired at that rank.[71] Of the lieutenant generals of the staff who were never appointed temporary lieutenant generals, Albert J. Bowley, Stanley H. Ford, Charles D. Herron, Daniel Van Voorhis, Herbert J. Brees, and Walter C. Short retired as major generals upon reaching the statutory retirement age; and Lloyd R. Fredendall qualified to retire in grade due to physical disability incurred during his term as lieutenant general. After the war, Brees and Short both applied to be advanced to lieutenant general on the retired list under a 1948 law; Brees was promoted but the administration specifically declined to advance Short, who had been relieved of command of the Hawaiian Department a few days after the defeat at Pearl Harbor.[72]

World War II

Delos C. Emmons

In September 1940, Congress authorized the President to appoint Regular Army officers to temporary higher grades in the Army of the United States during time of war or national emergency. The first temporary lieutenant general appointed under this authority was Major General Delos C. Emmons, Commander, General Headquarters Air Force; followed by Major General Lesley J. McNair, Chief of Staff, General Headquarters, U.S. Army. In July 1941, retired four-star general Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty and appointed temporary lieutenant general as Commanding General, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East.[73]

Dozens of officers were promoted to temporary lieutenant general during World War II. Lieutenant generals typically commanded one of the numbered field armies or air forces; served as deputy theater commanders; or headed major headquarters staffs, administrative commands, or support organizations. Officers were only allowed to retire in their temporary grades if they were retired due to disability incurred in the line of duty, but those compelled by good health to retire in a lower grade were eventually restored to their highest wartime ranks on the retired list.[74]

Subject to Senate approval, anyone could be appointed temporary lieutenant general, even a civilian. In January 1942, the outgoing Director General of the Office of Production Management, William S. Knudsen, was commissioned temporary lieutenant general in the Army of the United States, the only civilian ever to join the Army at such a high initial rank.[75]

Postwar

John W. O'Daniel

The modern office of lieutenant general was established by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, which authorized the President to designate certain positions of importance and responsibility to carry the ex officio rank of general or lieutenant general, to be filled by officers holding the permanent or temporary grade of major general or higher. Officers could retire in their highest active-duty rank, subject to Senate approval. The total number of positions allowed to carry such rank was capped at 15 percent of the total number of general officers, which worked out initially to nine generals and thirty-five lieutenant generals, of whom four generals and seventeen lieutenant generals were required to be in the Air Corps. All Air Corps personnel were transferred in grade to the United States Air Force by the National Security Act of 1947.[76]

Lieutenant generals typically headed divisions of the General Staff in Washington, D.C.; field armies in Europe, Japan, and the continental United States; the Army command in the Pacific; the unified command in the Caribbean; the occupation force in Austria; and senior educational institutions such as the National War College, the Army War College, and the Armed Forces Staff College. During the Korean War, the commanding general of the Eighth Army was elevated to full general, and the Eighth Army deputy commanding general and subordinate corps commanders were elevated to lieutenant general.

By mid-1952, the number of active-duty general officers had swelled to nearly twice its World War II peak. In response, Congress enacted the Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954, which tied the maximum number of generals to the total number of officers. However, the real limit was the so-called Stennis ceiling imposed by Mississippi Senator John C. Stennis, whose Senate Armed Services Committee refused to confirm general or flag officer nominations beyond what he considered to be a reasonable total, which typically was much lower than the statutory limit. The Stennis ceiling remained in effect from the mid-1950s until the post-Vietnam War drawdown.[77]

Unlike the temporary general and flag officer ranks of World War II, the 1947 ranks were attached to offices, not individuals, and were lost if an officer was reassigned to a lesser job.[78] Army generals almost always preferred to retire rather than revert to a lower permanent grade. A rare exception was Lt. Gen. John W. O'Daniel, who temporarily relinquished his third star upon becoming chief of the Military Assistance Advisory Group in French Indochina so that he would not outrank the theater commander in chief, French lieutenant general Henri Navarre. O'Daniel got his star back five months later when France withdrew from Indochina following Navarre's defeat at Dien Bien Phu.[79]

Legislative history

The following list of Congressional legislation includes all acts of Congress pertaining to appointments to the grade of lieutenant general in the United States Army before 1960.[80]

Each entry lists an act of Congress, its citation in the United States Statutes at Large, and a summary of the act's relevance.

Legislation Citation Summary
Act of May 28, 1798    1 Stat. 558 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (George Washington).
Act of March 3, 1799    1 Stat. 752 Terminated grade of lieutenant general upon the appointment of a "general of the armies of the United States."
Joint Resolution No. 9 of February 15, 1855  10 Stat. 723 Authorized grade of lieutenant general to be specially conferred once by brevet to acknowledge eminent services of a major general of the Army during the Mexican War (Winfield Scott).
Act of August 3, 1861  12 Stat. 287 Authorized the brevet lieutenant general to retire for disability at full pay.
Act of February 29, 1864  13 Stat. 11 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, Philip H. Sheridan).
Act of July 15, 1870  16 Stat. 318 Terminated grade of lieutenant general at next vacancy.
Act of June 1, 1888  25 Stat. 165 Terminated grade of lieutenant general and merged with grade of general (Philip H. Sheridan).
Joint Resolution No. 9 of February 5, 1895  28 Stat. 968 Authorized grade of lieutenant general to be specially conferred once to acknowledge distinguished services of a major general of the Army (John M. Schofield).
Act of June 6, 1900  31 Stat. 655 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to the senior major general of the line commanding the Army (Nelson A. Miles).
Act of February 2, 1901  31 Stat. 748 Authorized one grade of lieutenant general (Nelson A. Miles, Samuel B. M. Young, Adna R. Chaffee, Henry C. Corbin, John C. Bates, Arthur MacArthur Jr.).
Act of March 2, 1907  34 Stat. 1160 Terminated grade of lieutenant general at next vacancy, except on retired list.
Act of March 4, 1915  38 Stat. 1191 Authorized one-grade promotion upon retirement of any officer detailed for more than three years in Panama with the Isthmian Canal Commission, if not otherwise promoted by this Act (Edgar Jadwin).
Act of October 6, 1917  40 Stat. 410 Authorized emergency grade of lieutenant general for each commander of an army or army corps during the World War I emergency (Hunter Liggett, Robert L. Bullard).
Act of June 4, 1920  41 Stat. 760 Terminated all emergency grades.
Act of June 21, 1930  45 Stat. 793 Authorized promotion on the retired list to highest grade held during World War I (Hunter Liggett, Robert L. Bullard).
Act of August 5, 1939  53 Stat. 1214 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to major generals commanding the four armies of the United States.
Act of July 31, 1940  54 Stat. 781 Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to major generals commanding the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Departments.
Act of September 22, 1941  55 Stat. 728 Authorized temporary general officer grades in the Army of the United States during the World War II emergency.
Act of July 9, 1942  56 Stat. 655 Authorized one-grade promotion on the retired list or posthumously of general officers who, for services rendered during World War I, were recommended in writing for promotion to increased rank not since received, and who also received the Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, or Distinguished Service Medal (James G. Harbord, William M. Wright).
Act of June 29, 1943  57 Stat. 149
Act of July 26, 1947

[National Security Act of 1947]

 61 Stat. 503
  • Established U.S. Air Force.
  • Transferred to U.S. Air Force all personnel in Army Air Forces, Air Corps, and General Headquarters Air Force.
Act of August 7, 1947

[Officer Personnel Act of 1947]

 61 Stat. 886
  • Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to general officers serving in positions designated by the President to carry that rank.
  • Assigned ex officio rank of lieutenant general to senior members of the Military and Naval Staff Committee of the United Nations.
  • Capped total positions with ex officio ranks above major general at 15 percent of the total number of active-duty general officers.
  • Capped total officers above grade of major general at 44, of whom not more than nine to be above grade of lieutenant general.
  • Capped total officers above grade of major general at 17 in the Air Corps and 27 not in the Air Corps.
  • Exempted from caps general officers serving as Chief of Staff to the President or specifically authorized by act of Congress to hold appointments to diplomatic or civil offices.
  • Authorized retirement in highest rank held on active duty.
  • Authorized promotion to general or lieutenant general on the retired list of Regular Army officers who served in those grades between December 7, 1941, and June 30, 1946 (John L. DeWitt, Brehon B. Somervell, Wilhelm D. Styer, Eugene Reybold, Levin H. Campbell Jr., Troy H. Middleton).
Act of June 24, 1948

[Private Law 80-394-A]

 62 Stat. 1393 Authorized promotion of Leslie R. Groves to lieutenant general on the retired list, with retired pay of a major general and honorary date of rank as lieutenant general from July 16, 1945.
Act of June 29, 1948

[Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948]

 62 Stat. 1085 Authorized promotion on the retired list of Regular Army and Regular Air Force officers to the highest temporary grades in which they served satisfactorily for at least six months between September 6, 1940, and June 30, 1946 (Herbert J. Brees, George H. Brett, Ira C. Eaker, Harold L. George).
Act of October 12, 1949

[Career Compensation Act of 1949]

 63 Stat. 806 Established pay grade O-8 for general, lieutenant general, and major general.
Joint Resolution of January 2, 1951

[Private Law 81-1083]

 64 Stat. A271 Authorized posthumous promotion of Walton H. Walker to general.
Act of May 5, 1954

[Officer Grade Limitation Act of 1954]

 68 Stat. 65
  • Capped total number of general officers as a function of total commissioned officer strength.
  • Capped total officers above grade of brigadier general at 50 percent of all general officers.
Act of July 19, 1954  68 Stat. 492 Authorized promotion to general on the retired list or posthumously of any officer who, while a lieutenant general, was:
Act of August 7, 1956

[Private Law 84-892]

 70 Stat. A201 Authorized promotion of Hanford MacNider to lieutenant general on the retired list.
Act of May 20, 1958  72 Stat. 124 Established pay grade O-9 for lieutenant general.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part One.
  2. ^ U.S. Army Register, 1960; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Parts One and Four.
  3. ^ a b c For statutory definitions of "general officer of the line" and "general officer of the staff," see Sec. 4, Act of June 3, 1916.
  4. ^ The list of lieutenant generals is taken from the 1947 World Almanac, pp. 809–810; the Army Almanac, pp. 330–331; and the Army Register.
  5. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken from the Army Register.
  6. ^ a b Dates vacated are taken from the Army Register. An officer could vacate the active-duty rank of lieutenant general via death, retirement, resignation, promotion to a higher permanent grade, or reversion to a lower permanent grade upon relinquishing an office bearing the statutory rank of lieutenant general.
  7. ^ a b The number of years on active duty as lieutenant general is taken to be the difference between the officer's date of rank and the date on which his active duty commission as lieutenant general was vacated, rounded to the nearest whole year.
  8. ^ a b Biographical notes include years of birth and death; dates of promotion to higher permanent grade; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and other unusual career events such as death in office or resignation. Dates are taken from Heitman, the Army Register, Eicher and Eicher, or Marquis Who's Who.
  9. ^ Senior major general of the line commanding the Army with rank of lieutenant general, 6 Jun 1900 – 1 Feb 1901; promoted to lieutenant general, 2 Feb 1901.
  10. ^ a b Emergency lieutenant general, 16 Oct 1918 – 30 Jun 1920. Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 21 Jun 1930.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Retired as lieutenant general for disability in line of duty.
  12. ^ Commanding General, First Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939 – 7 Oct 1943.
  13. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939 – 30 Sep 1940. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1941.
  14. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939 – 30 Sep 1940. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1941; recalled as major general, 1 Feb 1941; appointed temporary lieutenant general, 7 Jan 1942 – 27 Jun 1946; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 15 Feb 1946.
  15. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Aug 1939 – 30 Nov 1939. Retired as major general, 30 Nov 1939.
  16. ^ a b c d Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948.
  17. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 5 Dec 1939 – 15 Sep 1943. Retired as major general, 31 Jan 1944; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Feb 1944 – 10 Jun 1947; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  18. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1940 – 7 Feb 1941. Retired as major general, 31 Mar 1941.
  19. ^ Commanding General, Panama Canal Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1940 – 18 Sep 1941. Retired as major general, 31 Oct 1942.
  20. ^ a b c d Retired as major general; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  21. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940 – 15 May 1941. Retired as major general, 30 Jun 1941; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  22. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940 – 30 May 1943. Appointed temporary lieutenant general, 1 Oct 1940; retired as major general, 31 May 1943; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943 – 31 Dec 1945; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1943; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Transferred to United States Air Force, 26 Sep 1947.
  24. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 17 Dec 1941–1 Jun 1943.
  25. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 8 Feb 1941 – 16 Dec 1941. Retired as major general, 28 Feb 1942; recalled as major general, 3 Oct 1945 – 28 Feb 1946.
  26. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 16 May 1941 – 15 Feb 1943. Appointed temporary lieutenant general, 16 May 1941; retired as major general, 31 Jan 1945; recalled as temporary lieutenant general, 1 Feb 1945; promoted to temporary general, 5 Mar 1945 – 20 Jul 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 12 Jul 1946.
  27. ^ Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, with rank of general, 21 Nov 1930 – 1 Oct 1935; retired as general, 31 Dec 1937; recalled as major general, 26 Jul 1941; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 27 Jul 1941; promoted to temporary general, 18 Dec 1941, to rank from 16 Sep 1936; promoted to temporary general of the Army, 18 Dec 1944; promoted to general of the Army, 11 Apr 1946; restored to active list, 9 Jul 1948.
  28. ^ Commanding General, Panama Canal Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 19 Sep 1941 – 9 Nov 1942.
  29. ^ Chief of Air Corps with rank of major general, 31 May 1941 – 30 Apr 1945; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 7 Jan 1942; retired as major general, 30 Apr 1945; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 May 1945 – 10 May 1946; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948.
  30. ^ Directly commissioned as lieutenant general, largest known promotion in U.S. military history.
  31. ^ Retired as major general, 30 Apr 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Jun 1948.
  32. ^ Commanding General, Third Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 16 Feb 1943–26 Mar 1944.
  33. ^ Commanding General, Hawaiian Department, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943 – 16 Mar 1946; promoted to general posthumously, 19 Jul 1954.
  34. ^ Commanding General, Second Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 1 Jun 1943 – 31 Mar 1946. Not appointed temporary lieutenant general.
  35. ^ Retired as major general, 31 Aug 1947; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 29 Jun 1948; promoted to general on the retired list, 26 Apr 1985.
  36. ^ Commanding General, First Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 8 Oct 1943 – 28 Jan 1944.
  37. ^ Commanding General, Fourth Army, with rank of lieutenant general, 13 Oct 1943 – 7 Feb 1945; promoted to general on the retired list, 19 Jul 1954.
  38. ^ Army Air Corps Reserve. Appointed brigadier general in the Regular Army, 14 Mar 1946; reverted to inactive reserve status as lieutenant general, 10 May 1946; resigned as Regular Army brigadier general, 22 Jul 1946; promoted to general on the retired list, 4 Apr 1985.
  39. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 31 Oct 1950; recalled as lieutenant general, 26 Jan 1951 – 1 Aug 1954.
  40. ^ Retired as colonel, 31 Oct 1937; recalled as colonel, 20 Jan 1942; appointed temporary colonel, 1 Feb 1942; promoted to temporary brigadier general, 25 Jun 1942; promoted to temporary major general, 27 Oct 1942; promoted to temporary lieutenant general, 5 Jun 1945; retired as colonel, 10 Aug 1945; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 16 Aug 1948.
  41. ^ Oklahoma National Guard. Appointed brigadier general in the Regular Army, 14 Mar 1946; retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1952.
  42. ^ Retired as brigadier general, 29 Feb 1948; appointed major general, effective 29 Feb 1948, with retired pay as major general and honorary rank from 16 Jul 1945 as lieutenant general on the retired list.
  43. ^ Reverted to major general, 11 Apr 1954; reappointed lieutenant general, 30 Aug 1954, with date of rank 8 May 1952; retired as lieutenant general, 29 Feb 1956.
  44. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1958; recalled as lieutenant general, Dec 1958 – Sep 1961.
  45. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 30 Apr 1958; recalled as lieutenant general, 15 Sep 1959 – 1 Jul 1961.
  46. ^ Retired as lieutenant general, 31 Jul 1957; recalled as lieutenant general, 1 Aug 1957 – 31 May 1959.
  47. ^ Retired as major general, 31 Dec 1946; recalled as major general, 1 Jan 1947; promoted to lieutenant general, 23 Jun 1956; promoted to general, 23 Dec 1969; retired as general, 10 Apr 1973.
  48. ^ Army Reserve. Retired as major general, 1 Feb 1966; promoted to lieutenant general on the retired list, 14 Oct 1966.
  49. ^ Acts of May 28, 1798, and March 3, 1799. Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part One.
  50. ^ Senate Journal, 33rd Congress, 2nd session, 28 February 1855, 409: Nomination of Winfield Scott
  51. ^ Acts of March 3, 1857, and August 3, 1861. Fry, pp. 208–209; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Five.
  52. ^ Acts of July 28, 1866; July 15, 1870; and June 1, 1888. Bell, p. 24.
  53. ^ Act of February 5, 1895. Connelly, p. 313.
  54. ^ "Our Military Needs—Set Forth by General Miles to House Military Committee", The Daily Review, p. 1, December 13, 1898; Connelly, p. 331.
  55. ^ Act of June 6, 1900.
  56. ^ Act of February 2, 1901.
  57. ^ "Sumner And Wood To Be Major Generals; Thirty-three Officers to be Promoted and Retired", The New York Times, p. 3, July 18, 1903; "Bates To Succeed Chaffee; He Will Be Retired Soon to Make Way for Corbin", The New York Times, p. 3, June 18, 1905.
  58. ^ "The Chief Of Staff", The New York Times, p. 6, December 17, 1905; "Gen. Corbin", The New York Times, p. 10, April 22, 1906.
  59. ^ "Corbin And MacArthur Win - Plan to Abolish Grade of Lieutenant General Is Defeated", The New York Times, p. 3, February 28, 1906.
  60. ^ Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Three.
  61. ^ Act of March 2, 1907. "Gen. MacArthur Plans To Retire; Ranking Officer of the Army Tires of His Anomalous Position", The New York Times, p. 6, March 30, 1907; Young, The General's General, pp. 332–334.
  62. ^ Acts of July 15, 1870, and October 6, 1917. "Pershing To Be Given Rank Solely Of "General"—Measure Providing for Chief of Staff and Other Promotions—Need Prestige—American Officers in Europe Now Too Far Outranked", The Fresno Morning Republican, p. 1, October 3, 1917.
  63. ^ "Liggett Promoted, Bullard Also - Commanders of First and Second Field Armies to be Lieutenant Generals", The New York Times, p. 10, October 22, 1918.
  64. ^ Act of June 4, 1920. Coffman, pp. 194–195.
  65. ^ "Chamberlain Wants Wood and Goethals Made Lieutenant Generals With Crowder", The New York Times, p. 21, October 7, 1919; "Senate Votes Rank To Crowder Only - Rejects Chamberlain's Amendment to Promote Other Army Leaders Also", The New York Times, p. 5, October 8, 1919; "Pershing For His Generals - Asks Higher Rank for Liggett, Bullard, Harbord, McAndrew, Dickman", The New York Times, p. 12, November 6, 1919; "Six Lieutenant Generals; House Bill Names Liggett, Bullard, Dickman, Crowder, Wood, Morrison", The New York Times, p. 48, January 10, 1923.
  66. ^ Act of March 4, 1915. "Jadwin To Get Pay Of Obsolete Rank - Retired Officer Is on List as Lieutenant General; Grade Abolished", The Washington Post, p. R9, September 22, 1929.
  67. ^ Act of June 21, 1930. "Promotion Deserved And Withheld", The New York Times, p. 12, August 10, 1929; "Retired Officers Get Army War Rank - Under Law Passed in June 695 Are Advanced Without Increased Pay", The New York Times, p. 37, August 20, 1930.
  68. ^ Acts of June 13, 1940, and July 9, 1942. Army Register.
  69. ^ Act of February 23, 1929. "Proposes Rankings Of General In Army; War Secretary Submits Bill to Raise Chief of Staff and Territorial Heads", The New York Times, p. 12, January 22, 1928; Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Four.
  70. ^ Acts of August 5, 1939, and July 31, 1940. "Army Renews Rank of Lieutenant General; H.A. Drum, S.H. Ford, S.D. Embick and A.J. Bowley Advanced to World War Grade", The New York Times, p. 38, August 8, 1939.
  71. ^ Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]. Army Register.
  72. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943, and June 29, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948]. Army Register; Anderson, pp. 193–197; Dorn, p. I-1.
  73. ^ Act of September 9, 1940. Wiener, "Three Stars and Up," Part Four.
  74. ^ Acts of June 29, 1943; August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947]; and June 24, 1948 [Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act of 1948].
  75. ^ "Knudsen the Only Civilian To Enter Army at His Rank", The New York Times, p. 9, January 17, 1942.
  76. ^ Acts of July 27, 1947 [National Security Act of 1947], and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947].
  77. ^ Mylander, pp. 26–27.
  78. ^ Norris, John G. (December 16, 1947), "Truman Picks Five Generals For High Command Promotion", The Washington Post, p. 1
  79. ^ Eckhardt, p. 11; "'Iron Mike' O'Daniel Gets Back Third Star", Associated Press, September 6, 1954
  80. ^ Legislative history compiled from: Wiener; Callan; Eicher and Eicher; Military Laws of the United States, 1915; Military Laws of the United States, 1939; the Army Register; and the Army Almanac.

Bibliography

Biographical registers

Other publications