The following list of mathematical symbols by subject features a selection of the most common symbols used in modern mathematical notation within formulas, grouped by mathematical topic. As it is impossible to know if a complete list existing today of all symbols used in history is a representation of all ever used in history, as this would necessitate knowing if extant records are of all usages, only those symbols which occur often in mathematics or mathematics education are included. Many of the characters are standardized, for example in DIN 1302 General mathematical symbols or DIN EN ISO 80000-2 Quantities and units – Part 2: Mathematical signs for science and technology.

The following list is largely limited to non-alphanumeric characters. It is divided by areas of mathematics and grouped within sub-regions. Some symbols have a different meaning depending on the context and appear accordingly several times in the list. Further information on the symbols and their meaning can also be found in the respective linked articles.

Guide

The following information is provided for each mathematical symbol:

Symbol
The symbol as it is represented by LaTeX. If there are several typographic variants, only one of the variants is shown.
Usage
An exemplary use of the symbol in a formula. Letters here stand as a placeholder for numbers, variables or complex expressions. Different possible applications are listed separately.
Articles with usage
Examples of Wikipedia articles in which the symbol is used.
LaTeX
The LaTeX command that creates the icon. Characters from the ASCII character set can be used directly, with a few exceptions (e.g., pound sign #, backslash \, braces {}, and percent sign %). High-and low-position is indicated via the ^ and _ characters, and is not explicitly specified.
HTML
The icon in HTML, if it is defined as a named mark. Non-named characters can be indicated in the form &#xnnnn by specifying the Unicode code point of the next column. High-and low-position can be indicated via <sup></sup> and <sub></sub>. The character × whose HTML code is times can be displayed by typing &times;.
Unicode
The code point of the corresponding Unicode character. Some characters are combining and require the entry of additional characters. For brackets, the code points of opening and closing forms are specified. The Unicode character ⨯ whose hexadecimal value is U+2A2F can be displayed by typing &#x2A2F; where #x indicates that the value in hexadecimal.

Numbers

Number sets

Symbol Unicode character Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
𝔸 Algebraic number \mathbb{A} &Aopf; U+1D538
Complex number \mathbb{C}, \Complex &Copf; U+2102
Quaternion \mathbb{H}, \H &quaternions; U+210D
Natural number \mathbb{N}, \N &Nopf; U+2115
𝕆 Octonion \mathbb{O} &Oopf; U+1D546
Rational number \mathbb{Q}, \Q &Qopf; U+211A
Real number \mathbb{R}, \R &Ropf; U+211D
𝕊 Sedenion \mathbb{S} &Sopf; U+1D54A
Integer \mathbb{Z}, \Z &Zopf; U+2124

Intervals

Symbol Usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
( )
[ ]
&lpar; &rpar;
&lsqb; &rsqb;
U+0028/9
U+005B/D

Mathematical constants

Symbol Unicode character Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Template Unicode Hex Note
π Pi \pi &pi; ((pi)) U+03C0
or e e (mathematics) e or \mathrm{e} e U+0065 Recommend ((mvar|e)) or ((math|e)) over e
ϕ Golden ratio \phi &phi; ((phi)) U+03C6
φ \varphi &straightphi; ((varphi)) U+03D5
or i Imaginary unit i or \mathrm{i} i U+0069 Recommend ((mvar|i)) or ((math|i)) over i
γ Euler–Mascheroni constant \gamma &gamma; ((gamma)) U+03B3
ε Vacuum permittivity \epsilon &epsi; ((epsilon)) U+03B5
ϵ Dual number \varepsilon &varepsilon; ((varepsilon)) U+03F5
θ Mills' constant \theta &theta; ((theta)) U+03B8
ϑ \vartheta &vartheta; ((vartheta)) U+03D1
σ Somos' quadratic recurrence constant \sigma &sigma; ((sigma)) U+03C3
ς \varsigma &varsigma; ((varsigma)) U+03C2
κ Einstein gravitational constant \kappa &kappa; ((kappa)) U+03BA
λ Prouhet–Thue–Morse constant \lambda &lambda; ((lambda)) U+03BB
μ Ramanujan–Soldner constant \mu &mu; ((mu)) U+03BC
τ Prouhet–Thue–Morse constant \tau &tau; ((tau)) U+03C4

For for symbols of additional mathematical constants, see Mathematical constant.

Complex numbers

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Complex number \Im &image; U+2111
Im \operatorname{Im} Im
\Re &Rfr; U+211C
Re \operatorname{Re} Re
◌̄ Complex conjugate \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̄̄ \bar{\bar{)) &#x304;&#x304;
◌̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
◌̅̅ \overline{\overline{)) &#x305;&#x305;
* {}^\ast &ast; U+002A
| Absolute value \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
Polar coordinate system \arg
Remark: real and imaginary parts of a complex number are often also denoted by and .

Elementary arithmetic operations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
+ Addition + &plus; U+002B
Subtraction - &minus; U+2212
Multiplication \cdot &sdot; U+22C5
\times &times; U+2A2F
: or ∶ Division (mathematics) : &ratio; U+003A or U+2236
/ &#x2215; U+2215
÷ \div &divide; U+00F7
\frac &frasl; U+2044
Multiplicative inverse ^{-1} U+207B
Unary minus - &minus; U+2212
± Plus or minus sign \pm &plusmn; U+00B1
\mp &mnplus; U+2213

Elementary functions

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
nth root \sqrt &radic; U+221A
\sqrt[n]{x}
% Percentage \% &percnt; U+0025
[ ] Floor and ceiling functions [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
| | Absolute value \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
{ } Fractional part \{ \} &lcub; &rcub; U+007B/D
⌈ ⌉ Floor and ceiling functions \lceil \rceil &lceil; &rceil; U+2308/9
⌊ ⌋ \lfloor \rfloor &lfloor; &rfloor; U+230A/B
⌜ ⌝ \ulcorner \urcorner &ulcorner; &urcorner; U+231C/D
⌞ ⌟ \llcorner \lrcorner &llcorner; &lrcorner; U+231E/F
( ) Bracket ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
[ ] [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
 ⌢​ Cap product \frown &frown; U+2322
 ⌣​ Cup product \smile &smile; U+2323

Note: the power function is not represented by its own icon, but by the positioning of the exponent as a superscript.

Arithmetic comparison

See also: Order relations, Set relations
Symbol Unicode character Usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
< < &lt; U+003C
> > &gt; U+003E
\le, \leq &le; U+2264
\ge, \geq &ge; U+2265
\leqq &LessFullEqual; U+2266
\geqq &GreaterFullEqual; U+2267
\leqslant &LessSlantEqual U+2A7D
\geqslant &GreaterSlantEqual U+2A7E
\ll &NestedLessLess; U+226A
\gg &NestedGreaterGreater; U+226B
\lesssim &lsim; U+2272
\gtrsim &GreaterTilde; U+2273
\lessapprox &lessapprox; U+2A85
\gtrapprox &gap; U+2A86
Symbol Unicode character Usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
\lessgtr &LessGreater U+2276
\gtrless &GreaterLess; U+2277
\lesseqgtr &LessEqualGreater; U+22DA
\gtreqless &GreaterEqualLess; U+22DB
\lesseqqgtr &lesseqqgtr; U+2A8B
\gtreqqless &gtreqqless; U+2A8C

Number theory

Divisibility and modulo

Symbol Unicode character Usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
\mid &VerticalBar; U+2223
\nmid &NotVerticalBar; U+2224
\perp &perp; U+22A5
\sqcap &SquareIntersection; U+2293
\wedge &and; U+2227
\sqcup &SquareUnion; U+2294
\vee &or; U+2228
Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex Other information
Modulo operation \equiv &equiv; U+2261
mod \mod m mod <math>\mod</math> without a trailing symbol (e.g. ) will product an error.
(mod) \pmod m (mod) <math>\pmod</math> without a trailing symbol (e.g. ) will product an error.

Combinatorics

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
! Factorial ! &excl; U+0021
Derangement
Double factorial
( ) Combination \binom &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
Multinomial coefficient
(( )) Multiset (( )) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
◌̄ Pochhammer symbol \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
◌̲ \underline &#x332; U+0332
# Primorial \# &num; U+0023

Stochastics

Probability theory

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Probability measure P U+2119
Conditional probability \mid &VerticalLine; U+007C
/ U+2215
𝔼 Expected value E &Eopf; U+1D53C
𝕍 Variance V &Vopf; U+1D54D
σ Standard deviation \sigma &sigma; U+03C3
Covariance
ρ Correlation \rho &rho; U+03C1
Probability distribution \sim &sim; U+223C
\approx &asymp; U+2248
Independence (probability theory) \perp &perp; U+22A5
Remark: for operators there are several notational variants; instead of round brackets also square brackets are used

Statistics

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
◌̅ Average \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
⟨ ⟩ \langle \rangle &lang; &rang; U+27E8/9
◌̂ Estimator \hat ̂ U+0302

Calculus

Sequences and series

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Summation \sum &sum; U+2211
Product (mathematics) \prod &prod; U+220F
Coproduct \coprod &Coproduct; U+2210
( ) Sequence ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
Limit of a sequence \to \rarr &rarr; U+2192
Infinity \infty &infin; U+221E

Limits

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Limit of a function \to
\rightarrow
&rarr;
&rightarrow;
U+2192
\longrightarrow &LongRightArrow; U+27F6
\uparrow &uarr;
&ShortUpArrow;
U+2191
\nearrow &UpperRightArrow; U+2197
\searrow &LowerRightArrow; U+2198
\downarrow &darr;
&ShortDownArrow;
U+2193
\swarrow &LowerLeftArrow; U+2199
\leftarrow &larr;
&ShortLeftArrow;
U+2190
\longleftarrow &longleftarrow; U+27F5
\nwarrow &UpperLeftArrow; U+2196
^+ &#8314; U+207A
^- &#8315; U+207B
\lim
Limit inferior and limit superior \liminf
\limsup

Differential calculus

Main article: Differential calculus

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex


Lagrange's notation
Prime (symbol)
'
^\prime
&prime; U+2032


''
^{\prime\prime}
&Prime; U+2033


'''
^{\prime\prime\prime}
&tprime; U+2034


''''
^{\prime\prime\prime\prime}
&qprime; U+2057
^{IV} ^V ^{VI} <sup>IV</sup>
^{iv} ^v ^{vi} <sup>iv</sup>
⁽ ⁾ ^{( )} <sup>( )</sup> U+207D/E
◌̇ Newton's notation \dot &#x0307; U+0307
◌̈ \ddot &#x0308; U+0308
d Leibniz's notation d d U+0064
Partial derivative \partial &part; U+2202
∂ and | \left. \frac{\partial }{\partial x} \right\vert_x &part; and
&VerticalLine;
U+2202 and
U+007C

Integral calculus

See also: Extensions of the integral symbol

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
, Integral \int &int; U+222B
Surface integral \iint &Int; U+222C
Volume integral \iiint &tint; U+222D
Curve integral \oint &ContourIntegral; U+222E
\oiint \oiint Surface integral \oiint &DoubleContourIntegral; U+222F
\oiiint \oiiint Volume integral \oiiint &Cconint; U+2230

Vector calculus

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Gradient \nabla &nabla; U+2207
Divergence
Curl (mathematics)
Laplace operator \Delta &Delta; U+2206
D'Alembert operator \square &#9633; U+25A1

Asymptotic behaviour

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Asymptotic analysis \sim &sim; U+223C
o Big O notation o U+006F
𝒪 \mathcal{O} &Oscr; U+1D4AA
Θ \Theta &Theta; U+0398
Ω \Omega &Omega; U+03A9
ω \omega &omega; U+03C9

Linear algebra

Vectors and matrices

Symbol Articles with usage LaTeX
Vector (mathematics and physics) \begin{pmatrix}
...
\end{pmatrix}

or

\left(
\begin{array}{...}
...
\end{array}
\right)
Matrix (mathematics)

Vector operations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Dot product

Inner product space

\cdot &sdot; U+22C5
( ) ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
⟨ ⟩
\langle \rangle &lang; &rang; U+27E8/9
Cross product \times &times; U+2A2F
[ ] [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
( ) Triple product ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
Dyadic product \otimes &otimes; U+2297
Exterior algebra \wedge &and; U+2227
| | Euclidean norm \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
Norm (mathematics) \Vert, \| &Vert; U+2016
̂ Unit vector \hat{} &#x302; U+0302

Matrix operations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Matrix multiplication \cdot &sdot; U+22C5
Hadamard product \circ &SmallCircle; U+2218
Hadamard division \oslash &osol; U+2298
Kronecker product \otimes &otimes; U+2297
Transposed matrix ^\intercal &intercal; U+22BA
^\top &top; U+22A4
T ^{\mathrm T} U+0054
* Conjugate transpose ^\ast &ast; U+002A
^\dagger &dagger; U+2020
H ^H U+0048
Inverse matrix ^{-1} U+207B
+ Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse ^+ &plus; U+002B
| A | Determinant |, \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
Matrix norm \|, \Vert &Vert; U+2016

Vector spaces

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
+ Direct sum of modules + &plus; U+002B
\oplus &oplus; U+2295
Direct product \times &times; U+2A2F
Tensor product \otimes &otimes; U+2297
/ Quotient space (linear algebra) / &frasl; U+002F
Orthogonal complement \perp &perp; U+27C2
* Dual space \ast &lowast; U+002A
0 0 U+0030
⟨ ⟩ Linear hull \langle \rangle &lang; &rang; U+27E8/9

Functional analysis

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Dual space \prime &prime; U+2032/3
◌̂ Complete metric space \hat U+0302
Embedding \hookrightarrow U+21AA

Logic

See also: List of logic symbols, Wikipedia:WikiProject Logic/Standards for notation, and MOS:MATH § TONE

The current Wikipedia guidelines advise against unnecessary use of ∀, ∃, and ⇔ and instead recommend writing out "for all", "there exists", and "if and only if." The same is true of abbreviations such as "iff", "s.t.", and "WLOG".

Equality signs

See also: Wiktionary:Appendix:Variations of "="

See also: Equals sign

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
= Equality = &equals; U+003D
# Apartness relation \# &num; U+0023
Inequality \neq
\ne
\not=
&ne; U+2260
Identity \equiv &equiv; U+2261
Approximation \approx &asymp; U+2248
Equivalence class \sim &sim; U+223C
Proportionality \propto &prop; U+221D
Bijection \widehat{=} &wedgeq; U+2259
Asks "is it equal to" \overset{?}{=} &questeq; U+225F
Equal to by definition \overset{\operatorname{def)){=} &#x225D; U+225D
\triangleq &trie; U+225C
Assignment := &coloneq; U+2254
=: &eqcolon; U+2255
Approaches the limit \doteq &esdot; U+2250
Relational operator == &Equal; U+2A75

Logical operators

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Logical conjunction \land &and; U+2227
Logical disjunction \lor &or; U+2228
Logical equivalence \Leftrightarrow &hArr; U+21D4
\leftrightarrow &harr; U+2194
\iff &Longleftrightarrow; U+27FA
Logical consequence \Rightarrow &rArr; U+21D2
\rightarrow &rarr; U+2192
\implies &DoubleLongRightArrow; U+27F9
\Longrightarrow
Exclusive or \oplus &oplus; U+2295
\veebar &veebar; U+22BB
\dot\lor U+2A52
¬ Logical negation \lnot &not; U+00AC
◌̄ \bar &#x304; U+0304
̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
◌̸
\not
(ex: \not= \not\in)
&#x338;
(ex: =&#x338; &isin;&#x338;)
U+0338
Converse implication \leftarrow &ShortLeftArrow; U+2190

See also: Further symbols for binary connectives

Quantifiers

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Universal quantification \forall &forall; U+2200
\bigwedge &Wedge; U+22C0
Existential quantification \exists &exist; U+2203
\bigvee &xvee; U+22C1
∃! Uniqueness quantification \exists! &exist;! U+2203!
\dot\bigvee U+2A52
Existential quantification \nexists &NotExists; U+2204

Deduction symbols

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Propositional calculus, Turnstile \vdash &vdash; U+22A2
Inference \models &DoubleRightTee; U+22A8
Tautology (logic)
\top &top; U+22A4
Contradiction \bot &perp; U+22A5
Deductive reasoning \therefore &therefore; U+2234
\because &because; U+2235

End of proof symbols

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
...as desired. Q.E.D. \blacksquare &#x25A0; U+25A0
\Box &squ; U+25A1
Tombstone &#x220E; U+220E

Functions and category theory

Functions

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Function (mathematics) \to &rarr; U+2192
\mapsto &mapstoright; U+21A6
( ) Image (mathematics) ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
[ ] [ ] &lbrack; or &rbrack; U+005B/D
| Restriction (mathematics) \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
Free variable \cdot &sdot; U+22C5
Inverse function -1 U+207B
Function composition \circ &#8728; U+2218
Convolution \ast &lowast; U+2217
◌̂ Fourier transform \hat U+0302

Morphisms

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Morphism \to &rarr; U+2192
\mapsto &mapstoright; U+21A6
Isomorphism \tilde{\rightarrow} U+22B2
Monomorphism \hookrightarrow &#8618 U+021AA
Epimorphism \twoheadrightarrow &#8608 U+021A0

Set theory

Definition symbols

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
: Definition \colon &colon; U+003A

Set construction

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex Notes
Empty set \varnothing &varnothing;
&empty;
U+2205
\emptyset
{ } Set (mathematics) \{ \} &lcub;&rcub; U+007B/D
| \mid &VerticalLine; U+007C
: \colon &colon; U+003A In LaTeX, : adds whitespace that \colon does not.
:

To scale a set's braces \{ \} to the size of the set's content, use \left\{ \right\}. For example,

\left\{ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} x^n : x \in \Q \cap [0, 1) \right\}

produces

Set operations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Union (set theory) \cup &cup; U+222A
\bigcup &xcup; U+22C3
Intersection (set theory) \cap &cap; U+2229
\bigcap &Intersection; U+22C2
Difference (set theory) \setminus &smallsetminus; U+2216
Symmetric difference \triangle &Delta; U+2206
Cartesian product \times &times; U+2A2F
Disjoint union \dot\cup &cupdot; U+228D
\uplus &uplus; U+228E
\sqcup &SquareUnion; U+2294
Intersection (set theory) \dot\cap &capdot; U+2A40
\sqcap &SquareIntersection; U+2293
\capwedge &capand; U+2A44
Transversal intersection \mlcp &mlcp; U+2ADB
Complement (set theory) \mathrm{C} &complement; U+2201
◌̄ \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̅ \overline{A} U+0305
𝒫 Power set \mathcal{P} &Pscr; U+1D4AB
𝔓 \mathfrak{P} &Pfr; U+1D513
\wp &wp; U+2118
Infimum and supremum \bigwedge &Wedge; U+22C0
\bigvee &xvee; U+22C1

Set relations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Subset \subset &sub; U+2282
\subsetneq &subne; U+228A
\subseteq &sube; U+2286
AB \subsetcirc &#x27C3; U+27C3
Superset \supset &sup; U+2283
\supsetneq &supne; U+228B
\supseteq &supe; U+2287
AB \supsetcirc &#x27C4; U+27C4
\not\subset &nsub; U+2284
Superset \not\supset &nsup; U+2285
\not\subseteq &NotSubsetEqual; U+2288
Superset \not\supseteq &NotSupersetEqual; U+2289
Element (mathematics) \in &isin; U+2208
\ni, \owns &ni; U+220B
\notin, \not\in &notin; U+2209
\not\ni &NotReverseElement; U+220C
Substring \sqsubset &SquareSubset; U+228F
\sqsupset &SquareSuperset; U+2290
\sqsubseteq &sqsubseteq; U+2291
\sqsupseteq &SquareSupersetEqual; U+2292

Note: The symbols and are used inconsistently and often do not exclude the equality of the two quantities.

Cardinality

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
| | Cardinality \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
# \# &num; U+0023
𝔠 Cardinality of the continuum \mathfrak{c} &cfr; U+1D520
, , ... Aleph number \aleph &aleph; U+2135
, , ... Beth number \beth &beth; U+2136

Equivalence classes/relations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
[ ] Equivalence class [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
/ Quotient set / &sol; U+002F
Equivalence relation \sim &sim;, &Tilde; U+223C
\backsim &bsim; U+223D
\not\sim, \nsim &nsim; U+2241
\eqsim &EqualTilde; U+2242
\simeq &TildeEqual; U+2243
\cong &TildeFullEqual; U+2245
\not\cong, \ncong &NotTildeFullEqual; U+2247

Order theory

Comparions

See also: Arithmetic comparison, Set relations
Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Order relation \leq, \le &leq;, &le; U+2264
\geq, \ge &geq;, &ge; U+2265
\nless &nlt;, &NotLess; U+226E
\ngtr &ngt;, &NotGreater; U+226F
\not\leq, \nleq &nle;, &NotLessEqual; U+2270
\not\geq, \ngeq &nge;, &NotGreaterEqual; U+2271
Inequality (mathematics) \lesssim &lsim;, &LessTilde; U+2272
\gtrsim &gsim;, &GreaterTilde; U+2273
\not\lesssim &NotLessTilde; U+2274
\not\gtrsim &NotGreaterTilde; U+2275
Successor ordinal \prec &prec; U+227A
\succ &succ; U+227B
\preccurlyeq &PrecedesSlantEqual; U+227C
\succcurlyeq &SucceedsSlantEqual; U+227D
\precsim &PrecedesTilde; U+227E
\succsim &SucceedsTilde; U+227F
\preceq &PrecedesEqual; U+2AAF
\succeq &SucceedsEqual; U+2AB0
\curlyeqprec &curlyeqprec; U+22DE
\curlyeqsucc &curlyeqsucc; U+22DF
\not\preceq &NotPrecedesSlantEqual; U+22E0
\not\succeq &NotSucceedsSlantEqual; U+22E1
Partially ordered set \sqsubset &sqsubset;
&SquareSubset;
U+228F
\sqsupset &sqsupset;
&SquareSuperset;
U+2290
\sqsubseteq &sqsubseteq;
&SquareSubsetEqual;
U+2291
\sqsupseteq &sqsupseteq;
&SquareSupersetEqual;
U+2292
\not\sqsubseteq &NotSquareSubsetEqual; U+22E2
\not\sqsupseteq &NotSquareSupersetEqual; U+22E3

Binary relations

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Composition of relations \circ &SmallCircle; U+2218
Operation (mathematics)
\bullet &bull; U+2219
\ast &lowast; U+2217
Inverse relation (set theory) -1 U+207B
+ Transitive closure + U+002B
* Reflexive closure \ast &lowast; U+002A

Algebra

Group theory

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Group isomorphism \simeq U+2243
\cong &cong; U+2245
Direct product \times &times; U+2A2F
Semidirect product \rtimes &rtimes; U+22CA
Wreath product \wr &VerticalTilde; U+2240
Subgroup \leq &le; U+2264
< \lt &lt; U+003C
Normal subgroup \vartriangleleft &RightTriangle; U+22B3
\trianglelefteq &LeftTriangleEqual; U+22B4
\not\vartriangleleft &ntriangleleft; U+22EA
\not\trianglelefteq &NotLeftTriangleEqual; U+22EC
\vartriangleright &RightTriangle; U+22B3
\trianglerighteq &RightTriangleEqual; U+22B5
\not\vartriangleright &NotRightTriangle; U+22EB
\not\trianglerighteq &NotRightTriangleEqual; U+22ED
/ Quotient group / &frasl; U+002F
: Index of a subgroup \colon &colon; U+003A
⟨ ⟩ Generating set of a group \langle \rangle &lang; &rang; U+27E8/9
[ ] Commutator [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D

Field theory

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
/ Field extension / &frasl; U+002F
| \mid &VerticalLine; U+007C
: \colon &colon; U+003A
Degree of a field extension
◌̄ Algebraic closure \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
( ) Field extension, Algebraic number field ( ) &lpar; &rpar; U+0028/9
𝕂 Field (mathematics) \mathbb{K} &Kopf; U+1D542
𝔽 Finite field \mathbb{F} &Fopf; U+1D53D

Ring theory

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Group of units \ast &lowast; U+2217
\times &times; U+2A2F
Ideal (ring theory) \vartriangleleft &LeftTriangle; U+22B2
/ Quotient ring / &frasl; U+002F
[ ] Polynomial ring [ ] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
[ ] Formal power series [[ ]] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D

Geometry

Elementary geometry

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
[ ] Line segment [ ] \left[ \right] &lsqb; &rsqb; U+005B/D
| | \vert &VerticalLine; U+007C
̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
̲ \underline &#x332; U+0332
Euclidean vector
and Affine space
\vec &#x20D7; U+20D7
Angle \angle &ang; U+2220
Triangle \triangle &bigtriangleup; U+25B3
Quadrilateral \square &squ; U+25A1
Parallel (geometry) \parallel &shortparallel; U+2225
\nparallel &NotDoubleVerticalBar; U+2226
Orthogonality \perp &perp; U+27C2

Topology

Symbol Unicode character Usage Articles with usage LaTeX HTML Unicode Hex
Boundary (topology) \partial &part; U+2202
˚ Interior (topology) \circ &deg; U+02DA
◌̄ Closure (topology) \bar &#x304; U+0304
◌̅ \overline &#x305; U+0305
◌̇ Punctured neighbourhood \dot U+0307

Alphanumeric Symbols

Main article: Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols

Digits

Caption: Digits
Name Digits
Double-struck 𝟘 𝟙 𝟚 𝟛 𝟜 𝟝 𝟞 𝟟 𝟠 𝟡

Alphabets

Caption: Alphabets
Name Sub-type Alphabet
Double-struck 𝔸 𝔹 ℂ 𝔻 𝔼 𝔽 𝔾 ℍ 𝕀 𝕁 𝕂 𝕃 𝕄 ℕ 𝕆 ℙ ℚ ℝ 𝕊 𝕋 𝕌 𝕍 𝕎 𝕏 𝕐 ℤ
𝕒 𝕓 𝕔 𝕕 𝕖 𝕗 𝕘 𝕙 𝕚 𝕛 𝕜 𝕝 𝕞 𝕟 𝕠 𝕡 𝕢 𝕣 𝕤 𝕥 𝕦 𝕧 𝕨 𝕩 𝕪 𝕫
Italic ⅆ ⅇ ⅈ ⅉ ℽ ℾ ℼ ℿ ⅀
Script/Calligraphy 𝒜 ℬ 𝒞 𝒟 ℰ ℱ 𝒢 ℋ ℐ 𝒥 𝒦 ℒ ℳ 𝒩 𝒪 𝒫 𝒬 ℛ 𝒮 𝒯 𝒰 𝒱 𝒲 𝒳 𝒴 𝒵
𝒶 𝒷 𝒸 𝒹 ℯ 𝒻 ℊ 𝒽 𝒾 𝒿 𝓀 𝓁 𝓂 𝓃 ℴ 𝓅 𝓆 𝓇 𝓈 𝓉 𝓊 𝓋 𝓌 𝓍 𝓎 𝓏
Bold 𝓐 𝓑 𝓒 𝓓 𝓔 𝓕 𝓖 𝓗 𝓘 𝓙 𝓚 𝓛 𝓜 𝓝 𝓞 𝓟 𝓠 𝓡 𝓢 𝓣 𝓤 𝓥 𝓦 𝓧 𝓨 𝓩
𝓪 𝓫 𝓬 𝓭 𝓮 𝓯 𝓰 𝓱 𝓲 𝓳 𝓴 𝓵 𝓶 𝓷 𝓸 𝓹 𝓺 𝓻 𝓼 𝓽 𝓾 𝓿 𝔀 𝔁 𝔂 𝔃
Fraktur 𝔄 𝔅 ℭ 𝔇 𝔈 𝔉 𝔊 ℌ ℑ 𝔍 𝔎 𝔏 𝔐 𝔑 𝔒 𝔓 𝔔 ℜ 𝔖 𝔗 𝔘 𝔙 𝔚 𝔛 𝔜 ℨ
𝔞 𝔟 𝔠 𝔡 𝔢 𝔣 𝔤 𝔥 𝔦 𝔧 𝔨 𝔩 𝔪 𝔫 𝔬 𝔭 𝔮 𝔯 𝔰 𝔱 𝔲 𝔳 𝔴 𝔵 𝔶 𝔷
Bold 𝕬 𝕭 𝕮 𝕯 𝕰 𝕱 𝕲 𝕳 𝕴 𝕵 𝕶 𝕷 𝕸 𝕹 𝕺 𝕻 𝕼 𝕽 𝕾 𝕿 𝖀 𝖁 𝖂 𝖃 𝖄 𝖅
𝖆 𝖇 𝖈 𝖉 𝖊 𝖋 𝖌 𝖍 𝖎 𝖏𝖐 𝖑 𝖒 𝖓 𝖔 𝖕 𝖖 𝖗 𝖘 𝖙 𝖚 𝖛 𝖜 𝖝 𝖞 𝖟
Mono-space 𝙰 𝙱 𝙲 𝙳 𝙴 𝙵 𝙶 𝙷 𝙸 𝙹 𝙺 𝙻 𝙼 𝙽 𝙾 𝙿 𝚀 𝚁 𝚂 𝚃 𝚄 𝚅 𝚆 𝚇 𝚈 𝚉
𝚊 𝚋 𝚌 𝚍 𝚎 𝚏 𝚐 𝚑 𝚒 𝚓 𝚔 𝚕 𝚖 𝚗 𝚘 𝚙 𝚚 𝚛 𝚜 𝚝 𝚞 𝚟 𝚠 𝚡 𝚢 𝚣
Greek Α Β Γ ᴦ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Ῥ ☧ Σ Ϲ Τ Υ υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
α β ᵝ ᵦ γ ᵞ ᵧ δ ᵟ ε ϵ ϶ ζ η Ͱ ͱ θ ϑ ϴ ᶿ ι ᶥ ℩ κ ϰ λ ᴧ μ µ ν ξ ο π ϖ ρ ῥ ῤ ϱ ϼ ᴩ ᵨ σ ς ϲ Ͻ ͻ Ͼ ͼ Ͽ ͽ τ ϒ φ ϕ χ ᵡ ᵪ ψ ᴪ ω
Italic 𝛢 𝛣 𝛤 𝛥 𝛦 𝛧 𝛨 𝛩 𝛪 𝛫 𝛬 𝛭 𝛮 𝛯 𝛰 𝛱 𝛲 𝛳 𝛴 𝛵 𝛶 𝛷 𝛸 𝛹 𝛺 𝛻
𝛼 𝛽 𝛾 𝛿 𝜕 𝜀 𝜖 𝜁 𝜂 𝜃 𝜗 𝜄 𝜅 𝜆 𝜇 𝜈 𝜉 𝜊 𝜋 𝜛 𝜌 𝜚 𝜍 𝜎 𝜏 𝜐 𝜑 𝜙 𝜒 𝜘 𝜓 𝜔
Non-Latin Italic 𝛼 𝛽 𝛤 𝛾 𝛥 𝛿 𝜀 𝜁 𝜂 𝛩 𝜃 𝛳 𝜗 𝜄 𝜅 𝜘 𝛬 𝜆 𝜇 𝜈 𝛯 𝜉 𝛱 𝜋 𝜌 𝜚 𝛴 𝜎 𝜍 𝜏 𝛶 𝜐 𝛷 𝜑 𝜙 𝜒 𝛹 𝜓 𝛺 𝜔
Bold 𝚨 𝚩 𝚪 𝚫 𝚬 𝚭 𝚮 𝚯 𝚰 𝚱 𝚲 𝚳 𝚴 𝚵 𝚶 𝚷 𝚸 𝚹 𝚺 𝚻 𝚼 𝚽 𝚾 𝚿 𝛀 𝛁
𝛂 𝛃 𝛄 𝛅 𝛛 𝛆 𝛜 𝛇 𝛈 𝛉 𝛝 𝛊 𝛋 𝛞 𝛌 𝛍 𝛎 𝛏 𝛐 𝛑 𝛡 𝛒 𝛠 𝛓 𝛔 𝛕 𝛖 𝛗 𝛟 𝛘 𝛙 𝛚
Bold Italic 𝜜 𝜝 𝜞 𝜟 𝜠 𝜡 𝜢 𝜣 𝜤 𝜥 𝜦 𝜧 𝜨 𝜩 𝜪 𝜫 𝜬 𝜭 𝜮 𝜯 𝜰 𝜱 𝜲 𝜳 𝜴 𝜵
𝜶 𝜷 𝜸 𝜹 𝝏 𝜺 𝝐 𝜻 𝜼 𝜽 𝝑 𝜾 𝜿 𝝀 𝝁 𝝂 𝝃 𝝄 𝝅 𝝕 𝝆 𝝔 𝝇 𝝈 𝝉 𝝊 𝝋 𝝓 𝝌 𝝒 𝝍 𝝎
Double-struck ℽ ℾ ℼ ℿ ⅀

Greek Letters

Greek alphabet
Name Greek Letter Bold Italic Bold Italic Sans-Serif Bold Sans-Serif Bold Italic APL Double struck bold Misc
Alpha Α α 𝚨 𝛂 𝛢 𝛼 𝜜 𝜶 𝝖 𝝰 𝞐 𝞪 ⍺ ⍶
Beta Β β ᵝ ᵦ 𝚩 𝛃 𝛣 𝛽 𝜝 𝜷 𝝗 𝝱 𝞑 𝞫
Gamma Γ γ ᴦ ᵞ ᵧ 𝚪 𝛄 𝛤 𝛾 𝜞 𝜸 𝝘 𝝲 𝞒 𝞬 ℾ ℽ
Delta Δ δ ᵟ 𝚫 𝛅 𝛥 𝛿 𝜟 𝜹 𝝙 𝝳 𝞓 𝞭
Epsilon Ε ε ϵ ϶ 𝚬 𝛆 𝛦 𝜀 𝜠 𝜺 𝝚 𝝴 𝞔 𝞮
Zeta Ζ ζ 𝚭 𝛇 𝛧 𝜁 𝜡 𝜻 𝝛 𝝵 𝞕 𝞯
Eta Η η Ͱ ͱ 𝚮 𝛈 𝛨 𝜂 𝜢 𝜼 𝝜 𝝶 𝞖 𝞰
Theta Θ θ ϑ ϴ ᶿ 𝚯 𝛉 𝚹 𝛝 𝛩 𝜃 𝛳 𝜗 𝜣 𝜽 𝜭 𝝑 𝝝 𝝷 𝚹 𝞋 𝞗 𝞱 𝜭 𝟅
Iota Ι ι ᶥ ℩ 𝚰 𝛊 𝛪 𝜄 𝜤 𝜾 𝝞 𝝸 𝞘 𝞲 ⍳ ⍸
Kappa Κ κ ϰ 𝚱 𝛋 𝛞 𝛫 𝜅 𝜘 𝜥 𝜿 𝝒 𝝟 𝝹 𝞌 𝞙 𝞳 𝟆
Lambda Λ λ ᴧ 𝚲 𝛌 𝛬 𝜆 𝜦 𝝀 𝝠 𝝺 𝞚 𝞴
Mu Μ μ µ 𝚳 𝛍 𝛭 𝜇 𝜧 𝝁 𝝡 𝝻 𝞛 𝞵
Nu Ν ν 𝚴 𝛎 𝛮 𝜈 𝜨 𝝂 𝝢 𝝼 𝞜 𝞶
Xi Ξ ξ 𝚵 𝛏 𝛯 𝜉 𝜩 𝝃 𝝣 𝝽 𝞝 𝞷
Omicron Ο ο 𝚶 𝛐 𝛰 𝜊 𝜪 𝝄 𝝤 𝝾 𝞞 𝞸
Pi Π π ϖ 𝚷 𝛑 𝛱 𝜋 𝜫 𝝅 𝝥 𝝿 𝞟 𝞹 ℿ ℼ ∏ ∐
Rho Ρ ρ Ῥ ῥ ῤ ϱ ϼ ᴩ ᵨ ☧ 𝚸 𝛒 𝛠 𝛲 𝜌 𝜚 𝜬 𝝆 𝝔 𝝦 𝞀 𝞎 𝞠 𝞺 𝟈
Sigma Σ σ ς Ϲ ϲ Ͻ ͻ Ͼ ͼ Ͽ ͽ 𝚺 𝛔 𝛓 𝛴 𝜎 𝜍 𝜮 𝝈 𝝇 𝝨 𝞂 𝞁 𝞢 𝞼 𝞻
Tau Τ τ 𝚻 𝛕 𝛵 𝜏 𝜯 𝝉 𝝩 𝞃 𝞣 𝞽
Upsilon Υ υ ϒ 𝚼 𝛖 𝛶 𝜐 𝜰 𝝊 𝝪 𝞄 𝞤 𝞾
Phi Φ φ ϕ 𝚽 𝛗 𝛟 𝛷 𝜑 𝜙 𝜱 𝝋 𝝓 𝝫 𝞅 𝞍 𝞥 𝞿 𝟇
Chi Χ χᵡᵪ☧ 𝚾 𝛘 𝛸 𝜒 𝜲 𝝌 𝝬 𝞆 𝞦 𝟀
Psi Ψ ψ ᴪ 𝚿 𝛙 𝛹 𝜓 𝜳 𝝍 𝝭 𝞇 𝞧 𝟁
Omega Ω ω 𝛀 𝛚 𝛺 𝜔 𝜴 𝝎 𝝮 𝞈 𝞨 𝟂 ⍵ ⍹

See also

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Note: This article is a translation of the German Wikipedia article de:Liste mathematischer Symbole.

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