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Since the first synthetic cannabinoids were discovered in recreational drug products in 2008, new synthetic cannabinoids with no precedent in the scientific literature continue to be identified. These synthetic cannabinoids appear to be rationally designed by clandestine medicinal chemists. These unprecedented synthetic cannabinoids often feature alphanumeric code names intended to mimic the style of chemical nomenclature used by academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies, and there is generally little, if any, information available regarding their pharmacology and toxicology at the time of first discovery.

See also


  1. ^ Banister, S. D.; Moir, M.; Stuart, J.; Kevin, R. C.; Wood, K. E.; Longworth, M.; Wilkinson, S. M.; Beinat, C.; Buchanan, A. S.; Glass, M.; Connor, M.; McGregor, I. S.; Kassiou, M. (Sep 2015). "Pharmacology of Indole and Indazole Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, and 5F-ADBICA". ACS Chem Neurosci. 6 (9): 1546–59. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00112. PMID 26134475.
  2. ^ a b c Banister, SD; Stuart, J; Kevin, RC; Edington, A; Longworth, M; Wilkinson, SM; Beinat, C; Buchanan, AS; Hibbs, DE; Glass, M; Connor, M; McGregor, IS; Kassiou, M (2015). "Effects of Bioisosteric Fluorine in Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs JWH-018, AM-2201, UR-144, XLR-11, PB-22, 5F-PB-22, APICA, and STS-135". ACS Chem Neurosci. 6 (8): 1445–58. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00107. PMID 25921407.
  3. ^ a b c Banister, SD; Wilkinson, SM; Longworth, M; Stuart, J; Apetz, N; English, K; Brooker, L; Goebel, C; Hibbs, DE; Glass, M; Connor, M; McGregor, IS; Kassiou, M (2013). "The Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of Adamantane-Derived Indoles: Cannabimimetic Drugs of Abuse". ACS Chem Neurosci. 4 (7): 1081–92. doi:10.1021/cn400035r. PMC 3715837. PMID 23551277.
  4. ^ Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "URB-754: A new class of designer drug and 12 synthetic cannabinoids detected in illegal products". Forensic Science International. 227 (1–3): 21–32. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.08.047. PMID 23063179.
  5. ^ Blaazer, A. R.; Lange, J. H. M.; Van der Neut, M. A. W.; Mulder, A.; Den Boon, F. S.; Werkman, T. R.; Kruse, C. G.; Wadman, W. J. (2011). "Novel indole and azaindole (pyrrolopyridine) cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists: Design, synthesis, structure–activity relationships, physicochemical properties and biological activity". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 46 (10): 5086–5098. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.08.021. PMID 21885167.
  6. ^ Wilkinson, S. M.; Banister, S. D.; Kassiou, M. (2015). "Bioisosteric Fluorine in the Clandestine Design of Synthetic Cannabinoids". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 68: 4. doi:10.1071/CH14198.
  7. ^ a b Xingxing Diao; Ariane Wohlfarth; Shaokun Pang; Karl B. Scheidweiler; Marilyn A. Huestis (October 2015). "High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Characterizing the Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoid THJ-018 and Its 5-Fluoro Analog THJ-2201 after Incubation in Human Hepatocytes". Clinical Chemistry. 62 (1): 157–69. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2015.243535. PMID 26430074.
  8. ^ Shevyrin, Vadim; Melkozerov, Vladimir; Nevero, Alexander; Eltsov, Oleg; Morzherin, Yuri; Shafran, Yuri (2014). "3-Naphthoylindazoles and 2-naphthoylbenzoimidazoles as novel chemical groups of synthetic cannabinoids: Chemical structure elucidation, analytical characteristics and identification of the first representatives in smoke mixtures". Forensic Science International. 242: 72–80. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.06.022. PMID 25036783.
  9. ^ Nahoko Uchiyama; Yoshihiko Shimokawa; Maiko Kawamura; Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri; Takashi Hakamatsuka (August 2014). "Chemical analysis of a benzofuran derivative, 2-(2-ethylaminopropyl)benzofuran (2-EAPB), eight synthetic cannabinoids, five cathinone derivatives, and five other designer drugs newly detected in illegal products". Forensic Toxicology. 32 (2): 266–281. doi:10.1007/s11419-014-0238-5. S2CID 11873421.
  10. ^ Xingxing Diao; Karl B. Scheidweiler; Ariane Wohlfarth; Mingshe Zhu; Shaokun Pang; Marilyn A. Huestis (2016). "Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes". Forensic Toxicology. 34 (2): 256–267. doi:10.1007/s11419-016-0312-2. PMC 4971051. PMID 27547265.