Of the Solar System's eight planets and its nine most likely dwarf planets, six planets and seven dwarf planets are known to be orbited by at least 300 natural satellites, or moons. At least 19 of them are large enough to be gravitationally rounded; of these, all are covered by a crust of ice except for Earth's Moon and Jupiter's Io.[1] Several of the largest ones are in hydrostatic equilibrium and would therefore be considered dwarf planets or planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun and not in their current states (orbiting planets or dwarf planets).

Moons are classed into two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries, only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primary

Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale (major planets not to scale)
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and two, Titan and Triton, have substantial atmospheres
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi).[2] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons,[3] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has more than 20 known co-orbitals, including the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, and the occasional temporary satellite, like 2020 CD3; however, since they do not permanently orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd).[4]

Jupiter has 95 moons with known orbits; 72 of them have received permanent designations, and 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They were named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Among them is Ganymede, the largest and most massive moon in the Solar System. Its 87 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 146 moons with known orbits; 66 of them have received permanent designations, and 63 have been named. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 122 are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies the groups are named after. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus, a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 28 known moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are 13 moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another ten outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock.

Neptune has 16 known moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and eight outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.[5]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself.[6] Eris has one large known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 350±57.5 km.[7]

Two objects were named as dwarf planets, under the expectation that they would prove to be so (though this remains uncertain). Haumea has two moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively.[8] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016.

A number of other objects in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk may turn out to be dwarf planets. Orcus, Quaoar, Gonggong, and Sedna are generally agreed to be dwarf planets among astronomers, and all but Sedna are known to have moons.[9] A number of other smaller objects, such as Huya, Salacia, 2002 UX25, Varda, and 2013 FY27, also have moons, although their dwarf planethood is more doubtful. This list includes all objects with a best estimated diameter above 400 km that are considered likely or official dwarf planets by other sources and astronomers,[10][11][12] including 2003 AZ84 whose satellite has not been seen since its initial discovery.

As of October 2022, 365 asteroid moons and 128 trans-Neptunian moons (including those of Pluto and the other dwarf planets) had been discovered.[13]

Summary – number of moons
Planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons 0 0 1 2 95 146 28 16
Consensus dwarf planets Ceres Orcus Pluto Haumea Quaoar Makemake Gonggong Eris Sedna
Number of moons 0 1 5 2 1 1 1 1 0
Minor planets
See list

Due to Earth's varying distance from these planets (as well as their distance to the Sun), the limits at which we are able to detect new moons are very inconsistent. As the below graph demonstrates, the maximum absolute magnitude (total inherent brightness, abbreviated H) of moons we have detected around planets occurs at H = 18 for Jupiter, H = 17 for Saturn, H = 14 for Uranus, and H = 12 for Neptune. Smaller moons may (and most likely do) exist around each of these planets, but are currently undetectable from Earth. Although spacecraft have visited all of these planets, Earth-based telescopes continue to outperform them in moon-detection ability due to their greater availability for wide-field surveys.[citation needed]

Planetary moons by absolute magnitude
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

List

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest potential dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. Moons that do not yet have official Roman numeral designations (because their orbits are not yet known well enough) are listed after those that do.

The 19 moons that are known to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because a moon's speed depends both on the mass of its primary and its distance from it.

Satellites of planets
Satellite of Earth Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of generally agreed dwarf planets
Satellite of Orcus Satellites of Pluto Satellites of Haumea
Satellite of Quaoar Satellite of Makemake Satellite of Gonggong
Satellite of Eris
Name Image Parent Numeral Mean radius (km) Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery year Year Announced Discovered by Notes Ref(s)
Moon
Earth I (1) 1,738 384,399 27.321582 Prehistoric Prehistory Synchronous rotation (Binary) [14]
Phobos
Mars I (1) 11.267 9,380 0.319 1877 1877 Hall Synchronous rotation [15][16][17]
Deimos
Mars II (2) 6.2±0.18 23,460 1.262 1877 1877 Hall Synchronous rotation [15][16][17]
Io
Jupiter I (1) 1,821.6±0.5 421,800 1.769 1610 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [17][18]
Europa
Jupiter II (2) 1,560.8±0.5 671,100 3.551 1610 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [17][18]
Ganymede
Jupiter III (3) 2,634.1±0.3 1,070,400 7.155 1610 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [17][18]
Callisto
Jupiter IV (4) 2,410.3±1.5 1,882,700 16.69 1610 1610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [17][18]
Amalthea
Jupiter V (5) 83.5±2 181,400 0.498 1892 1892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [16][17][19]
Himalia
Jupiter VI (6) 69.8 11,461,000 250.56 1904 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [16][17][20][21]
Elara
Jupiter VII (7) 43 11,741,000 259.64 1905 1905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [16][17][22]
Pasiphae
Jupiter VIII (8) 30 23,624,000 743.63 (r) 1908 1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][23]
Sinope
Jupiter IX (9) 19 23,939,000 758.90 (r) 1914 1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][24]
Lysithea
Jupiter X (10) 18 11,717,000 259.20 1938 1938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [16][17][25]
Carme
Jupiter XI (11) 23 23,404,000 734.17 (r) 1938 1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][25]
Ananke
Jupiter XII (12) 14 21,276,000 629.77 (r) 1951 1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][26]
Leda
Jupiter XIII (13) 10 11,165,000 240.92 1974 1974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [16][17][27]
Thebe
Jupiter XIV (14) 49.3±2.0 221,900 0.675 1979 1980 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [16][17][28]
Adrastea
Jupiter XV (15) 8.2±2.0 129,000 0.298 1979 1979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [16][17][29]
Metis
Jupiter XVI (16) 21.5±2.0 128,000 0.295 1979 1980 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [16][17][30]
Callirrhoe
Jupiter XVII (17) 4.5 24,103,000 758.77 (r) 1999 2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][31]
Themisto
Jupiter XVIII (18) 4 7,284,000 130.02 1975/2000 1975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery) Prograde irregular (Themisto) [16][17][32][33]
Megaclite
Jupiter XIX (19) 2.7 23,493,000 752.86 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][34]
Taygete
Jupiter XX (20) 2.5 23,280,000 732.41 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][34]
Chaldene
Jupiter XXI (21) 1.9 23,100,000 723.72 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][34]
Harpalyke
Jupiter XXII (22) 2.2 20,858,000 623.32 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][34]
Kalyke
Jupiter XXIII (23) 2.6 23,483,000 742.06 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][34]
Iocaste
Jupiter XXIV (24) 2.6 21,060,000 631.60 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][34]
Erinome
Jupiter XXV (25) 1.6 23,196,000 728.46 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][34]
Isonoe
Jupiter XXVI (26) 1.9 23,155,000 726.23 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][34]
Praxidike
Jupiter XXVII (27) 3.5 20,908,000 625.39 (r) 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, Evans Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][34]
Autonoe
Jupiter XXVIII (28) 2 24,046,000 760.95 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae)
Thyone
Jupiter XXIX (29) 2 20,939,000 627.21 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][35]
Hermippe
Jupiter XXX (30) 2 21,131,000 633.9 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][35]
Aitne
Jupiter XXXI (31) 1.5 23,229,000 730.18 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][35]
Eurydome
Jupiter XXXII (32) 1.5 22,865,000 717.33 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][35]
Euanthe
Jupiter XXXIII (33) 1.5 20,797,000 620.49 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][35]
Euporie
Jupiter XXXIV (34) 1 19,304,000 550.74 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][35]
Orthosie
Jupiter XXXV (35) 1 20,720,000 622.56 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17][35]
Sponde
Jupiter XXXVI (36) 1 23,487,000 748.34 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17][35]
Kale
Jupiter XXXVII (37) 1 23,217,000 729.47 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][35]
Pasithee
Jupiter XXXVIII (38) 1 23,004,000 719.44 (r) 2001 2002 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][35]
Hegemone Jupiter XXXIX (39) 1.5 23,577,000 739.88 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
Mneme
Jupiter XL (40) 1 21,035,000 620.04 (r) 2003 2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17]
Aoede Jupiter XLI (41) 2 23,980,000 761.50 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
Thelxinoe Jupiter XLII (42) 1 21,164,000 628.09 (r) 2003 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17]
Arche
Jupiter XLIII (43) 1.5 23,355,000 731.95 (r) 2002 2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17][35]
Kallichore Jupiter XLIV (44) 1 23,288,000 728.73 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17]
Helike
Jupiter XLV (45) 2 21,069,000 626.32 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17]
Carpo
Jupiter XLVI (46) 1.5 17,058,000 456.30 2003 2003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [16][17]
Eukelade
Jupiter XLVII (47) 2 23,328,000 730.47 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17]
Cyllene Jupiter XLVIII (48) 1 23,809,000 752 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
Kore
Jupiter XLIX (49) 1 24,543,000 779.17 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
Herse Jupiter L (50) 1 22,983,000 714.51 (r) 2003 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][17]
S/2010 J 1
Jupiter LI (51) 1 23,314,300 723.2 (r) 2010 2011 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
S/2010 J 2
Jupiter LII (52) 0.5 20,307,200 588.1 (r) 2010 2011 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
Dia
Jupiter LIII (53) 2 12,118,000 287.0 2000 2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia) [36]
S/2016 J 1
Jupiter LIV (54) 1 20,595,500 602.7 (r) 2016 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
S/2003 J 18
Jupiter LV (55) 1 20,274,000 588.0 (r) 2003 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
S/2011 J 2 Jupiter LVI (56) 0.5 23,329,700 726.8 (r) 2011 2012 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [36]
Eirene Jupiter LVII (57) 2 23,731,800 759.7 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
Philophrosyne Jupiter LVIII (58) 1 22,820,000 701.3 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [36]
S/2017 J 1
Jupiter LIX (59) 2 23,484,000 734.2 (r) 2017 2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [36]
Eupheme
Jupiter LX (60) 1 21,199,710 627.8 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
S/2003 J 19 Jupiter LXI (61) 1 22,757,000 697.6 (r) 2003 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
Valetudo
Jupiter LXII (62) 0.5 18,928,100 532.0 2016 2018 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [36]
S/2017 J 2
Jupiter LXIII (63) 1 23,241,000 723.8 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
S/2017 J 3
Jupiter LXIV (64) 1 20,639,300 605.8 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
Pandia
Jupiter LXV (65) 1.5 11,494,800 251.8 2017 2018 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [36]
S/2017 J 5 Jupiter LXVI (66) 1 23,169,400 720.5 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
S/2017 J 6 Jupiter LXVII (67) 1 22,394,700 684.7 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [36]
S/2017 J 7 Jupiter LXVIII (68) 1 20,571,500 602.8 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
S/2017 J 8
Jupiter LXIX (69) 0.5 23,174,400 720.7 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
S/2017 J 9 Jupiter LXX (70) 1 21,430,000 640.9 (r) 2017 2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [36]
Ersa
Jupiter LXXI (71) 1.5 11,453,000 250.4 2018 2018 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [36]
S/2011 J 1 Jupiter LXXII (72) 0.5 20,155,300 580.7 (r) 2011 2012 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
S/2003 J 2
Jupiter 1 20,554,400 602.02 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17]
S/2003 J 4
Jupiter 1 22,048,600 668.85 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
S/2003 J 9
Jupiter 0.5 24,168,700 767.6 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [16][37]
S/2003 J 10
Jupiter 1 22,896,000 707.78 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [16][17]
S/2003 J 12
Jupiter 0.5 21,557,700 646.64 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][17]
S/2003 J 16
Jupiter 1 20,512,500 600.18 (r) 2003 2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [16][38]
S/2003 J 23
Jupiter 1 24,678,100 792.00 (r) 2003 2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [16][17]
S/2003 J 24 Jupiter 1.5 23,088,000 715.4 (r) 2003 2021 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Veillet Retrograde irregular (Carme) [39]
S/2011 J 3 Jupiter 1.5 11,797,200 261.77 2011 2022 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [40]
S/2016 J 3 Jupiter 1 22,213,500 676.37 (r) 2016 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [41]
S/2016 J 4 Jupiter 1 23,664,100 743.69 (r) 2016 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [42]
S/2018 J 2 Jupiter 1.5 11,467,500 250.88 2018 2022 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [43]
S/2018 J 3 Jupiter 0.5 22,826,600 704.56 (r) 2018 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [44]
S/2018 J 4 Jupiter 1 16,504,300 433.16 2018 2023 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Carpo) [45]
S/2021 J 1 Jupiter 0.5 20,667,200 606.99 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [46]
S/2021 J 2 Jupiter 0.5 21,140,600 627.96 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [47]
S/2021 J 3 Jupiter 1 21,495,700 643.85 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [48]
S/2021 J 4 Jupiter 0.5 22,946,700 710.13 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [49]
S/2021 J 5 Jupiter 1 22,831,800 704.80 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard, Tholen, Trujillo Retrograde irregular (Carme) [50]
S/2021 J 6 Jupiter 0.5 23,427,200 732.55 (r) 2021 2023 Sheppard, Tholen, Trujillo Retrograde irregular (Carme) [51]
S/2022 J 1 Jupiter 0.5 22,015,500 667.34 (r) 2022 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [52]
S/2022 J 2 Jupiter 0.5 22,413,200 685.51 (r) 2022 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [53]
S/2022 J 3 Jupiter 0.5 20,912,400 617.82 (r) 2022 2023 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [54]
Mimas
Saturn I (1) 198.2±0.4 185,540 0.942 1789 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [16][17]
Enceladus
Saturn II (2) 252.1±0.2 238,040 1.370 1789 1789 Herschel Main-group moon [16][17]
Tethys
Saturn III (3) 533.1±0.7 294,670 1.888 1684 1686 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [16][17]
Dione
Saturn IV (4) 561.4±0.4 377,420 2.737 1684 1686 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [16][17]
Rhea
Saturn V (5) 763.8±1.0 527,070 4.518 1672 1673 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [16][17]
Titan
Saturn VI (6) 2,574.73±0.09 1,221,870 15.95 1655 1656 Huygens Main-group moon [16][17]
Hyperion
Saturn VII (7) 135 1,500,880 21.28 1848 1848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [16][17]
Iapetus
Saturn VIII (8) 735.6±1.5 3,560,840 79.33 1671 1673 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [16][17]
Phoebe
Saturn IX (9) 106.5±0.7 12,947,780 550.31 (r) 1898 1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Janus
Saturn X (10) 89.5±1.4 151,460 0.695 1966 1967 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [16][17]
Epimetheus Saturn XI (11) 58.1±1.8 151,410 0.694 1966 1967 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [16][17]
Helene
Saturn XII (12) 17.6±0.4 377,420 2.737 1980 1980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [16][17]
Telesto
Saturn XIII (13) 12.4±0.4 294,710 1.888 1980 1980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1) Main-group trojan [16][17]
Calypso
Saturn XIV (14) 10.7±0.7 294,710 1.888 1980 1980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [16][17]
Atlas
Saturn XV (15) 15.1±0.9 137,670 0.602 1980 1980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Prometheus
Saturn XVI (16) 43.1±2.7 139,380 0.613 1980 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Pandora
Saturn XVII (17) 40.7±1.5 141,720 0.629 1980 1980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Pan
Saturn XVIII (18) 14.1 133,580 0.575 1981 1990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Ymir
Saturn XIX (19) 9 23,140,400 1,315.58 (r) 2000 2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Paaliaq
Saturn XX (20) 11 15,200,000 686.95 2000 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Paaliaq) [16][17]
Tarvos
Saturn XXI (21) 7.5 17,983,000 926.23 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [16][17]
Ijiraq
Saturn XXII (22) 6 11,124,000 451.42 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Kiviuq) [16][17]
Suttungr
Saturn XXIII (23) 3.5 19,459,000 1,016.67 (r) 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Kiviuq
Saturn XXIV (24) 8 11,110,000 449.22 2000 2000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Kiviuq) [16][17]
Mundilfari
Saturn XXV (25) 3.5 18,628,000 952.77 (r) 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Albiorix
Saturn XXVI (26) 16 16,182,000 783.45 2000 2000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [16][17]
Skathi
Saturn XXVII (27) 4 15,540,000 728.20 (r) 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Erriapus
Saturn XXVIII (28) 5 17,343,000 871.19 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [16][17]
Siarnaq
Saturn XXIX (29) 20 18,015,400 896.44 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [16][17]
Thrymr
Saturn XXX (30) 3.5 20,314,000 1,094.11 (r) 2000 2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Narvi
Saturn XXXI (31) 3.5 19,007,000 1,003.86 (r) 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Methone
Saturn XXXII (32) 1.45 194,440 1.010 2004 2004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [17]
Pallene
Saturn XXXIII (33) 2.22 212,280 1.154 2004 2004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [17]
Polydeuces
Saturn XXXIV (34) 1.3 377,200 2.737 2004 2004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Main-group trojan [17]
Daphnis
Saturn XXXV (35) 3.8±0.8 136,500 0.594 2005 2005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [17]
Aegir Saturn XXXVI (36) 3 20,751,000 1,117.52 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Bebhionn
Saturn XXXVII (37) 3 17,119,000 834.84 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [16][17]
Bergelmir
Saturn XXXVIII (38) 3 19,336,000 1,005.74 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Bestla
Saturn XXXIX (39) 3.5 20,192,000 1,088.72 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Farbauti Saturn XL (40) 2.5 20,377,000 1,085.55 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Fenrir Saturn XLI (41) 2 22,454,000 1,260.35 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Fornjot
Saturn XLII (42) 3 25,146,000 1,494.2 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Hati
Saturn XLIII (43) 3 19,846,000 1,038.61 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
Hyrrokkin
Saturn XLIV (44) 4 18,437,000 931.86 (r) 2004 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Kari
Saturn XLV (45) 3.5 22,089,000 1,230.97 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Loge
Saturn XLVI (46) 3 23,058,000 1,311.36 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Skoll
Saturn XLVII (47) 3 17,665,000 878.29 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Surtur Saturn XLVIII (48) 3 22,704,000 1,297.36 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Anthe
Saturn XLIX (49) 0.9 197,700 1.0365 2007 2007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [55]
Jarnsaxa Saturn L (50) 3 18,811,000 964.74 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Greip
Saturn LI (51) 3 18,206,000 921.19 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
Tarqeq
Saturn LII (52) 3.5 18,009,000 887.48 2007 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [17]
Aegaeon
Saturn LIII (53) 0.33 167,500 0.808 2008 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [56][57]
Gridr Saturn LIV (54) 3 19,418,000 1,010.55 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [58]
Angrboda Saturn LV (55) 3 20,636,000 1,107.13 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [59]
Skrymir Saturn LVI (56) 4 21,163,000 1,149.82 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [60]
Gerd Saturn LVII (57) 4 21,174,000 1,150.69 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [61]
S/2004 S 26 Saturn LVIII (58) 4 26,676,000 1,627.18 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [62]
Eggther Saturn LIX (59) 6 19,976,000 1,054.45 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden, Jacobson Retrograde irregular (Norse) [63]
S/2004 S 29 Saturn LX (60) 4 16,981,000 826.44 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [64]
Beli Saturn LXI (61) 3 20,396,000 1,087.84 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [65]
Gunnlod Saturn LXII (62) 4 21,214,000 1,153.96 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [66]
Thiazzi Saturn LXIII (63) 4 24,168,000 1,403.18 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [67]
S/2004 S 34 Saturn LXIV (64) 3 24,299,000 1,414.59 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [68]
Alvaldi Saturn LXV (65) 6 22,412,000 1,253.08 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [69]
Geirrod Saturn LXVI (66) 4 21,908,000 1,211.02 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [70]
S/2004 S 7 Saturn 3 20,999,000 1,140.24 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [16][17]
S/2004 S 12 Saturn 2.5 19,878,000 1,046.19 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16][17]
S/2004 S 13 Saturn 3 18,404,000 933.48 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [16][17]
S/2004 S 17 Saturn 2 19,447,000 1,014.70 (r) 2004 2005 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [16][17]
S/2004 S 21 Saturn 3 22,645,000 1,272.61 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [71]
S/2004 S 24 Saturn 3 22,901,000 1,294.25 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic) [72]
S/2004 S 28 Saturn 4 22,020,000 1,220.31 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [73]
S/2004 S 31 Saturn 4 17,568,000 869.65 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [74]
S/2004 S 36 Saturn 3 23,192,000 1,319.07 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [75]
S/2004 S 37 Saturn 4 15,892,000 748.18 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [76]
S/2004 S 39 Saturn 3 23,575,000 1,351.83 (r) 2004 2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [77]
S/2004 S 40 Saturn 2 16,075,600 765.92 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [78]
S/2004 S 41 Saturn 2 18,095,000 895.76 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [79]
S/2004 S 42 Saturn 2 18,240,800 910.61 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [80]
S/2004 S 43 Saturn 2 18,935,000 971.48 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [81]
S/2004 S 44 Saturn 2.5 19,515,400 1,014.98 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [82]
S/2004 S 45 Saturn 2 19,693,600 1,058.95 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [83]
S/2004 S 46 Saturn 1.5 20,513,000 1,107.57 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [84]
S/2004 S 47 Saturn 2 16,050,600 755.69 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [85]
S/2004 S 48 Saturn 2 22,136,700 1,248.52 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [86]
S/2004 S 49 Saturn 2 22,399,700 1,290.34 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [87]
S/2004 S 50 Saturn 1.5 22,346,000 1,219.11 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [88]
S/2004 S 51 Saturn 2 25,208,200 1,544.65 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [89]
S/2004 S 52 Saturn 1.5 26,448,100 1,573.49 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [90]
S/2004 S 53 Saturn 2 23,279,800 1,367.72 (r) 2004 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [91]
S/2005 S 4 Saturn 2.5 11,324,500 448.63 2005 2023 Sheppard et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Kiviuq) [92]
S/2005 S 5 Saturn 1.5 21,366,200 1,138.62 (r) 2005 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [93]
S/2006 S 1 Saturn 3 18,790,000 963.37 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
S/2006 S 3 Saturn 3 22,096,000 1,227.21 (r) 2006 2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
S/2006 S 9 Saturn 1.5 14,406,600 648.71 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [94]
S/2006 S 10 Saturn 1.5 18,979,900 965.26 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [95]
S/2006 S 11 Saturn 1.5 19,711,900 1,018.45 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [96]
S/2006 S 12 Saturn 2 19,569,800 1,043.16 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic) [97]
S/2006 S 13 Saturn 2 19,953,800 1,061.74 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [98]
S/2006 S 14 Saturn 1.5 21,062,100 1,150.64 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [99]
S/2006 S 15 Saturn 2 21,799,400 1,183.57 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [100]
S/2006 S 16 Saturn 1.5 21,720,700 1,217.36 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [101]
S/2006 S 17 Saturn 2 22,384,900 1,262.48 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [102]
S/2006 S 18 Saturn 2 22,760,700 1,324.09 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [103]
S/2006 S 19 Saturn 2 23,801,100 1,324.68 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [104]
S/2006 S 20 Saturn 2.5 13,193,800 563.89 (r) 2006 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [105]
S/2007 S 2 Saturn 3 16,725,000 808.08 (r) 2007 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [17]
S/2007 S 3 Saturn 3 18,975,000 977.8 (r) 2007 2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [17]
S/2007 S 5 Saturn 2 15,835,700 748.50 (r) 2007 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [106]
S/2007 S 6 Saturn 1.5 18,544,900 944.31 (r) 2007 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [107]
S/2007 S 7 Saturn 2 15,931,700 742.79 (r) 2007 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [108]
S/2007 S 8 Saturn 2 17,049,000 826.94 2007 2023 Sheppard et al. Prograde irregular (Gallic) [109]
S/2007 S 9 Saturn 2 20,174,600 1,099.69 (r) 2007 2023 Sheppard et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [110]
S/2009 S 1
Saturn 0.15 117,000 0.471 2009 2009 Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [111]
S/2019 S 1
Saturn 3 11,221,000 443.8 2019 2021 Ashton, Gladman, Petit, Alexandersen Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Kiviuq) [112]
S/2019 S 2 Saturn 1.5 16,559,900 796.22 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [113]
S/2019 S 3 Saturn 2 17,077,200 836.68 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [114]
S/2019 S 4 Saturn 1.5 17,956,700 898.40 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [115]
S/2019 S 5 Saturn 1.5 19,076,900 971.54 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [116]
S/2019 S 6 Saturn 2 18,198,700 905.41 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [117]
S/2019 S 7 Saturn 2 20,181,300 1,093.86 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [118]
S/2019 S 8 Saturn 2 20,284,400 1,080.60 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [119]
S/2019 S 9 Saturn 2 20,359,000 1,104.27 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [120]
S/2019 S 10 Saturn 1.5 20,713,400 1,129.53 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [121]
S/2019 S 11 Saturn 2 20,663,700 1,097.33 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [122]
S/2019 S 12 Saturn 2 20,904,500 1,130.40 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [123]
S/2019 S 13 Saturn 1.5 20,965,800 1,132.90 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [124]
S/2019 S 14 Saturn 2 17,853,000 902.00 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [125]
S/2019 S 15 Saturn 1.5 21,189,700 1,156.21 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [126]
S/2019 S 16 Saturn 1.5 23,266,700 1,360.26 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [127]
S/2019 S 17 Saturn 2 22,724,100 1,322.15 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [128]
S/2019 S 18 Saturn 1.5 23,140,700 1,349.74 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [129]
S/2019 S 19 Saturn 1.5 23,047,200 1,342.57 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [130]
S/2019 S 20 Saturn 1.5 23,678,600 1,343.58 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [131]
S/2019 S 21 Saturn 2 26,439,000 1,572.06 (r) 2019 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [132]
S/2020 S 1 Saturn 2 11,338,700 450.83 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Kiviuq) [133]
S/2020 S 2 Saturn 1.5 17,869,300 907.00 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [134]
S/2020 S 3 Saturn 1.5 18,054,700 896.35 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [135]
S/2020 S 4 Saturn 1.5 18,235,500 910.34 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Gallic) [136]
S/2020 S 5 Saturn 1.5 18,391,300 933.52 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Prograde irregular (Inuit) (Siarnaq) [137]
S/2020 S 6 Saturn 1.5 21,265,300 1,149.11 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [138]
S/2020 S 7 Saturn 1.5 17,400,000 844.85 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [139]
S/2020 S 8 Saturn 1.5 21,966,700 1,201.72 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [140]
S/2020 S 9 Saturn 2 25,434,100 1,565.23 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [141]
S/2020 S 10 Saturn 1.5 25,314,800 1,479.87 (r) 2020 2023 Ashton et al. Retrograde irregular (Norse) [142]
Ariel
Uranus I (1) 578.9±0.6 190,900 2.520 1851 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [16][17]
Umbriel
Uranus II (2) 584.7±2.8 266,000 4.144 1851 1851 Lassell Main-group moon [16][17]
Titania
Uranus III (3) 788.9±1.8 436,300 8.706 1787 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [16][17]
Oberon
Uranus IV (4) 761.4±2.6 583,500 13.46 1787 1787 Herschel Main-group moon [16][17]
Miranda
Uranus V (5) 235.8±0.7 129,900 1.413 1948 1949 Kuiper Main-group moon [16][17]
Cordelia
Uranus VI (6) 20.1±3 49,800 0.335 1986 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Ophelia
Uranus VII (7) 21.4±4 53,800 0.376 1986 1986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [16][17]
Bianca
Uranus VIII (8) 25.7±2 59,200 0.435 1986 1986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Cressida
Uranus IX (9) 39.8±2 61,800 0.464 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Desdemona
Uranus X (10) 32±4 62,700 0.474 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Juliet
Uranus XI (11) 46.8±4 64,400 0.493 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Portia
Uranus XII (12) 67.6±4.0 66,100 0.513 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Rosalind
Uranus XIII (13) 36±6 69,900 0.558 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Belinda
Uranus XIV (14) 40.3±8 75,300 0.624 1986 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Puck
Uranus XV (15) 81±2 86,000 0.762 1985 1986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Caliban
Uranus XVI (16) 36.4 7,231,100 579.73 (r) 1997 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Caliban) [143][17]
Sycorax
Uranus XVII (17) 93 12,179,400 1,288.38 (r) 1997 1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [143][17]
Prospero
Uranus XVIII (18) 25 16,256,000 1,978.29 (r) 1999 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Setebos
Uranus XIX (19) 24 17,418,000 2,225.21 (r) 1999 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Stephano
Uranus XX (20) 16 8,004,000 677.36 (r) 1999 1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular (Caliban) [16][17]
Trinculo Uranus XXI (21) 9.5 8,504,000 749.24 (r) 2001 2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Francisco Uranus XXII (22) 11 4,276,000 266.56 (r) 2001 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Margaret
Uranus XXIII (23) 10 14,345,000 1,687.01 2003 2003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [16][17]
Ferdinand
Uranus XXIV (24) 10 20,901,000 2,887.21 (r) 2001 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al. Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Perdita
Uranus XXV (25) 15 76,417 0.638 1986 1999/2003 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [17]
Mab
Uranus XXVI (26) 12 97,736 0.923 2003 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [17]
Cupid
Uranus XXVII (27) 9 74,392 0.613 2003 2003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [17]
S/2023 U 1 Uranus 4 7,978,000 680.76 (r) 2023 2024 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Caliban) [144]
Triton
Neptune I (1) 1,353.4±0.9 354,800 5.877 (r) 1846 1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Nereid
Neptune II (2) 170±25 5,513,820 360.14 1949 1949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [145][17]
Naiad
Neptune III (3) 33±3 48,224 0.294 1989 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Thalassa
Neptune IV (4) 41±3 50,075 0.311 1989 1989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Despina
Neptune V (5) 78±4.7 52,526 0.335 1989 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Galatea
Neptune VI (6) 88±4 61,953 0.429 1989 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Larissa
Neptune VII (7) 97±3 73,548 0.555 1981/1989 1981/1989 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Proteus
Neptune VIII (8) 210±7 117,647 1.122 1989 1989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16][17]
Halimede
Neptune IX (9) 31 15,728,000 1,879.71 (r) 2002 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [16][17]
Psamathe
Neptune X (10) 20 46,695,000 9,115.91 (r) 2003 2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Neso) [16][17]
Sao
Neptune XI (11) 22 22,422,000 2,914.07 2002 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular (Sao) [16][17]
Laomedeia
Neptune XII (12) 21 23,571,000 3,167.85 2002 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular (Sao) [16][17]
Neso
Neptune XIII (13) 30 48,387,000 9,740.73 (r) 2002 2003 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular (Neso) [16][17]
Hippocamp Neptune XIV (14) 17.4 105,283 0.9362 2004/2013 2013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [146]
S/2002 N 5 Neptune 19 23,365,200 3,141.26 2002 2024 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser Prograde irregular (Sao) [147]
S/2021 N 1 Neptune 12.5 50,623,600 10,017.93 (r) 2021 2024 Sheppard, Tholen, Trujillo, Lykawka Retrograde irregular (Neso) [148]
Vanth Orcus I (1) 221±5 9,000±9 9.539 2005 2007 Brown & Suer Synchronous rotation (Binary) [149]
Charon Pluto I (1) 606±0.5 19,591 6.387 1978 1978 Christy Synchronous rotation (Binary) [16][17]
Nix Pluto II (2) 22.5 48,671 24.85 2005 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [16][17]
Hydra Pluto III (3) 27.5 64,698 38.20 2005 2005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [16][17]
Kerberos Pluto IV (4) 7 57,729 32.17 2011 2011 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [16][17][150][151]
Styx Pluto V (5) 5.5 42,393 20.16 2012 2012 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [16][17][152]
Hiʻiaka Haumea I (1) ≈160 49,880 49.12 2005 2005 Brown et al. assuming a chaotic rotation [8][153][154]
Namaka Haumea II (2) ≈85 25,657 18.2783 2005 2005 Brown et al. assuming a chaotic rotation [8][153][154]
Weywot Quaoar I (1) 40.5±5.5[155] 14,500±800 12.438 2006 2007 Brown Binary system [155][156]
S/2015 (136472) 1 Makemake ≈87.5 >21,000 >12.4 2015 2016 Parker et al. [157][158]
Xiangliu Gonggong I (1) <100[159] 24,020±200 25.221 2010 2016 Marton, Kiss & Müller assuming a prograde orbit [159]
Dysnomia
Eris I (1) 350±60[7] 37,273±64 15.786 2005 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. Synchronous rotation (Binary) [160]

See also

References

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