This article lists political parties in People's Republic of Bangladesh.

Bangladesh has a fading two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of another party.

However, though the center-left Awami League (AL) and center-right Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) dominated Bangladesh politics for a long time, currently both are heading coalitions of like-minded parties with the AL leading the secular and liberal elements while BNP is rallying the right-of-centre parties.

A party is recognised as a registered party only if it fulfils any two of the conditions listed below:[1]

  1. A party needs to secure at least one seat with its electoral symbol in two previous parliamentary elections.
  2. Securing of five percent of total votes cast in the constituencies in which its candidates took part in any of the aforesaid parliamentary elections.
  3. It needs to set up a functional central office, by whatever name it may be called with a central committee, having offices at least in one-third administrative districts, and offices at least in 100 upazilas or metropolitan thanas. And the party must have a minimum 200 voters as its members in each upazila.

Currently in the Parliament

Jatiya Sangsad july2020.svg

These are all of the political parties that holds at least a seat in the Bangladeshi Parliament

Name Founded Ideology Leader MPs Most MPs
(numerically)
Most MPs
(proportionally)
Political
position
Affiliation Local government
Municipalities Cities Villages
Bangladesh Awami League
বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ
বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগের ব্যাজ.svg
1949 Sheikh Hasina
300 / 350
306 (2020) 76.88% (2018) Centre to
centre-left
GA
136 / 330
9 / 12
2,133 / 4,562
Jatiya Party (Ershad)
জাতীয় পার্টি
JP-E logo variation.png
1986 GM Quader
25 / 350
256 (1988) 68.4% (1988) Centre-right GA
1 / 330
1 / 12
16 / 4,562
Bangladesh Nationalist Party
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল
BNP logo variation.png
1978 Khaleda Zia
7 / 350
300 (1996) 100% (1996) Centre-right to
right-wing
3 / 330
1 / 12
0 / 4,562
Workers Party of Bangladesh
বাংলাদেশের ওয়ার্কার্স পার্টি
Workers Party of Bangladesh logo.svg
1980 Socialism
(Marxism-Leninism)
Rashed Khan Menon
4 / 350
Far-left GA
0 / 330
0 / 12
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal
জাতীয় সমাজতান্ত্রিক দল
JASAD logo variation.png
1972 Socialism Hasanul Haque Inu
2 / 350
Left-wing GA
1 / 330
0 / 12
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh
বিকল্প ধারা বাংলাদেশ
2004 A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury
2 / 350
Centre GA
0 / 330
0 / 12
Gano Forum
গণফোরাম
Gano Forum logo.png
1992 Secularism Kamal Hossain
2 / 350
Centre JOF
0 / 330
0 / 12
Jatiya Party (Manju)
জাতীয় পার্টি-জেপি
2014 Secularism Anwar Hossain Manju
1 / 350
Centre-right GA
0 / 330
0 / 12
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation
বাংলাদেশ তরিকত ফেডারেশন
2005 Sufism
(Maizbhandarism)

Secularism

Syed Najibul Bashar Maizbhandari
1 / 350
Right-wing GA
0 / 330
0 / 12
Independents
স্বতন্ত্র
Non-Partisan Association (Vancouver) logo.png
3 / 350
0 / 330
1 / 12
1,562 / 4,562

Alliances

Grand Alliance

Main article: Grand Alliance (Bangladesh)

The Grand Alliance (মহাজোট) also known as 14 Party Alliance is a coalition government in Bangladesh that formed in 2008 and consisted of the Bangladesh Awami League, Jatiya Party, Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal- JASAD, Workers Party and nine other parties.

The Liberal Democratic Party left the Grand Alliance before the election and contested independently. It joined the 18 Party Alliance in 2012.

20 Party Alliance

Main article: 20 Party Alliance

The 20 Party Alliance is an alliance of some Bangladeshi political parties led by Bangladesh Nationalist Party and other right wing parties. It was formed on 2014 in Dhaka, extending its predecessor the 18 Party Alliance.[4] The 20 Party Alliance is formed as an effort to strengthen the anti-government movement demanding restoration of the caretaker government system.

Left Democratic Alliance

The Left Democratic Alliance is an alliance of 8 Leftist Political parties including Communist Party of Bangladesh, Basad, Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh, United Communist League Of Bangladesh, Ganatantrik Biplobi Party, Bam Gonotantrik Andolon and Gonoshonghoti Andolon.[5]

Jatio Oikko Front

The Jatio Oikko Front is a newly formed alliance consisting of four political parties including Bangladesh Nationalist Party.Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD, Gano Forum and Mahmudur Rahman Manna's Nagorik Oikko Bangladesh. This Alliance is trying to build up a National Unity Along with other democratic parties ahead of The 11th Jatiya Sangsad Elections. This is the biggest association of political parties in Bangladesh .

Major parties

Bangladesh Awami League

Main article: Bangladesh Awami League

বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগের পতাকা.svg

The Bangladesh Awami League (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ; translated from English: Bangladesh People's League) is one of the two largest political parties of Bangladesh. It is the country's current governing party, after winning a majority in heavily criticized 2014 parliamentary elections where the majority of seats were uncontested.[6] The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was founded in Dhaka, the capital of the Pakistani province of East Bengal, in 1949 by Bengali nationalists Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani, Yar Mohammad Khan, Shamsul Huq, and later Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. In 1953, the party's council meeting voted to drop the word "Muslim" from its name in order to give it a more secular outlook, owing to the need to include the province's large Hindu population in Pakistani politics. Amongst the leaders of the Awami League, five have become the President of Bangladesh, four have become the Prime Minister of Bangladesh and one became the Prime Minister of Pakistan. His daughter and also the incumbent Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, has headed the party since 1981.

Bangladesh Nationalist Party

Main article: Bangladesh Nationalist Party

The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল, transliterated: Bangladesh Jatiotabadi Dôl), often abbreviated as BNP was founded on 1 September 1978 by Bangladeshi President Ziaur Rahman, politician and physician A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury, human rights activist and lawyer Moudud Ahmed and leftist politician Mashiur Rahman as the key people. BNP has won the second, fifth, sixth and eighth national elections and two presidential elections, in 1978 and 1981 respectively. The party also holds the record of being the largest opposition in the history of parliamentary elections of the country with 116 seats in the seventh national election of 1996.[7] The party does not have any representation in the parliament after its boycott of the national election of 2014 which the party had termed a scandalous farce and was marked by a very low turnout.[8]

Jatiya Party (Ershad)

Main article: Jatiya Party (Ershad)

The Jatiya Party (Ershad) (National Party (Ershad)) was established by President Hussain Mohammad Ershad on 1 January 1986. The Army Chief Lieutenant General Hussain Muhammad Ershad had usurped the state power by a coup d'état on 24 March 1982, and ruled the country as chief martial law administrator till December 1983. Political parties and activity had been prohibited during the state of emergency, when Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was appointed President of Bangladesh.

The Jatiya Party had a rift in leadership and an internal wrangle in 2000. The three factions were headed by General Ershad, Anwar Hossain Manju and Naziur Rahman Manju. In the general elections of 2001, the Ershad group of the Jatiya Party won 14 seats, and the Anwar Hossain group won one seat.

Registered parties

These are all the parties that are currently registered under Election Commission.[9]

Name Founded Ideology Leader Political position
বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগের ব্যাজ.svg AL Bangladesh Awami League
বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ
1949 Sheikh Hasina Centre to centre-left
BNP logo variation.png BNP Bangladesh Nationalist Party
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল
1978 Khaleda Zia Centre-right to right-wing
JP-E logo variation.png JP-E Jatiya Party (Ershad)
জাতীয় পার্টি
1986 GM Quader Centre-right
Workers Party of Bangladesh logo.svg WPB Workers Party of Bangladesh
বাংলাদেশের ওয়ার্কার্স পার্টি
1980 Rashed Khan Menon Far-left
JASAD logo variation.pngJASAD Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal
জাতীয় সমাজতান্ত্রিক দল (জাসদ)
1972 Socialism Hasanul Haque Inu Left-wing
BDB Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh
বিকল্পধারা বাংলাদেশ
2004 A. Q. M. Badruddoza Chowdhury Centre
Gano Forum logo.pngGF Gano Forum
গণফোরাম
1992 Secularism Kamal Hossain Centre
JP-M Jatiya Party (Manju)
জাতীয় পার্টি - জেপি
2014 Secularism Anwar Hossain Manju Centre-right
BTF Bangladesh Tarikat Federation
বাংলাদেশ তরিকত ফেডারেশন
2005 Syed Najibul Bashar Maizbhandari Right-wing
LDP Liberal Democratic Party
লিবারেল ডেমোক্রেটিক পার্টি
2006 Economic Liberalisation Oli Ahmed Centre
BSD - ML.jpgBSD-ML Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal
বাংলাদেশের সাম্যবাদী দল (এম.এল)
Dilip Barua Left to Far-left
KSJL Krishak Sramik Janata League
কৃষক শ্রমিক জনতা লীগ
Bangabir Kader Siddique Centre left
বাংলাদেশ কমিউনিস্ট পার্টির পতাকা.svg CPB Bangadesher Communist Party
বাংলাদেশের কমিউনিস্ট পার্টি
1971 Mujahidul Islam Selim Far-left
GP Ganatantri Party
গণতন্ত্রী পার্টি
Secularism Md Arash Ali
Red flag.svg NAP National Awami Party
ন্যাশনাল আওয়ামী পার্টি
1967 Socialism Amina Ahmed
JSD Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD
জাতীয় সমাজতান্ত্রিক দল-জেএসডি
2002 Socialism A.S.M Abdur Rab Left
ZP Zaker Party
জাকের পার্টি
Khaja Babaism Mustafa Amir Faisal Right wing
Socialist Party of Bangladesh Official Logo.png BASAD Bangladesher Samajtantrik Dal
বাংলাদেশের সমাজতান্ত্রিক দল
Khalekuzzaman Far-left
BJP Bangladesh Jatiya Party
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় পার্টি-বিজেপি
2001 Nationalism Andaleeve Rahman Centre
BKF Khilafat Andolan
বাংলাদেশ খেলাফত আন্দোলন
1981 Islamic democracy Mawlana Ataullah Right
Flag of Muslim League.svg BML Bangladesh Muslim League
বাংলাদেশ মুসলিম লীগ
1906 Muslim nationalism Jubeda Kader Chaudhuri
NPP National People's Party
ন্যাশনাল পিপলস্‌ পার্টি (এনপিপি)
Sheikh Salauddin Salu
JUI Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
জমিয়তে উলামায়ে ইসলাম বাংলাদেশ
Islamic democracy Sheikh Zia Uddin
GF Gano Front
গণফ্রন্ট
1995 Secularism Jakir Hossain Left wing
BDNAP Bangladesh National Awami Party-Bangladesh NAP
বাংলাদেশ ন্যাশনাল আওয়ামী পার্টি-বাংলাদেশ ন্যাপ
1971 Socialism Jobel Rahman Gani
BJP Bangladesh Jatiya Party
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় পার্টি
M.A. Mukit
Flag of Bangladesh Islami Front.png IFB Islamic Front Bangladesh
ইসলামিক ফ্রন্ট বাংলাদেশ
Mujaddedism Bahadur Shah Mujaddedi
BKP Bangladesh Kallyan Party
বাংলাদেশ কল্যাণ পার্টি
Sayad Muhammad Ibrahim
IOJ Islami Oikya Jote
ইসলামী ঐক্যজোট
Islamic democracy Abul Hasnat Amini
BKM Bangladesh Khelafat Majlish
বাংলাদেশ খেলাফত মজলিস
1989 Islamic democracy Habibur Rahman
IAB Islami Andolan Bangladesh
ইসলামী আন্দোলন বাংলাদেশ
Sayad Rezaul Karim
BIF Bangladesh Islami Front
বাংলাদেশ ইসলামী ফ্রন্ট
1990 Mannanism M.A. Mannan
BBWP Bangladesher Biplobi Workers Party
বাংলাদেশের বিপ্লবী ওয়ার্কার্স পার্টি
2004 Saiful Haq
KM Khelafat Majlish
খেলাফত মজলিস
1989 Islamic democracy Mawlana Mohammad Ishaq
BML Bangladesh Muslim League-BML
বাংলাদেশ মুসলিম লীগ-বিএমএল
Muslim nationalism A.H.M. Kamruzzaman
BSM Bangladesh Sanskritik Muktijot
বাংলাদেশ সাংস্কৃতিক মুক্তিজোট (মুক্তিজোট)
Secularism Abdur Razzak Mullah
BNF Bangladesh Nationalist Front
বাংলাদেশ ন্যাশনালিস্ট ফ্রন্ট-বিএনএফ
2012 Secularism M.A. Abul Kalam Azad
JGA Jatiotabadi Ganatantric Andolon
জাতীয়তাবাদী গণতান্ত্রিক আন্দোলন-এনডিএম
2017 Bobi Hazzaz
BC Bangladesh Congress
বাংলাদেশ কংগ্রেস
2013 Secularism Kazi Rezaul Hossen

Regional parties

Unregistered parties[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ কমিশনে রাজনৈতিক দলসমূহের নিবন্ধন আইন, ২০২০ [Commission Political Party Registration Act 2020] (PDF). Election Commission of Bangladesh (in Bengali). 30 June 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  2. ^ "Political Parties in Bangladesh" (PDF). chr michelsen institute.
  3. ^ "Political Parties BD" (PDF). Home Office.
  4. ^ "BNP-led 18-Party Alliance emerges". bdnews24.com. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Leftist parties form new Left Democratic Alliance as general election nears". bdnews24.com. 19 July 2018.
  6. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh's Governing Party Wins Vote Amid Unrest". The New York Times.
  7. ^ "Bangladesh Election Results". Bangladesh Election Commission. 10 April 2008.
  8. ^ "Bangladesh's ruling Awami League wins boycotted poll". BBC News. 6 January 2014.
  9. ^ "Bangladesh Election Commission".