Hong Kong had a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party was allowed to gain power by controlling the Legislative Council. The Chief Executive is selected by the Politburo based on an indirectly elected Election Committee and is de facto pro-Beijing but de jure is said to be nonpartisan as specified in the Chief Executive Election Ordinance. Once selected, the Chief Executive forms an unelected government which superficially has to rely on political parties in the legislature for support, but the legislature has been deliberately designed and redesigned to be a pro-Beijing rubber stamp body.

Hong Kong has no legislation for political parties, and thus has no legal definition for what a political party is. Most political parties and political groups registered either as limited companies or societies.

In Hong Kong there were two main political ideological blocs, which presents to pro-democracy camp (include localists) and pro-Beijing camp. Under the newly introduced electoral system, only government-approved candidates may run, effectively disqualifying any candidates who are not from the pro-Beijing camp or approved by Beijing. Most of the pro-democracy camp Legislative Councillors from the previous LegCo have been jailed by the Hong Kong government and are therefore disqualified from participating in elections without the need for government vetting.

Present parties

The list includes also political groups, trade unions, professional associations and pressure groups in Hong Kong that have been active in elections but are not considered parties.

Parties and groups in the Legislative and District Councils

As of 19 June 2017, there were a total number of 16 political groupings represented in the Legislative and District Councils:[1] There are currently (As of August 2021) 8 political groups are still officially represented, and 4 further political groups represented by members of the first 8 groups (New Territories Association of Societies, New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, Kowloon West New Dynamic, Civil Force), all 12 are pro-Beijing parties.[2]

Party Founded Camp Ideology Position Leader 2021 legislative election 2019 local elections
Legislative Council vote share District Councils vote share
DAB Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong
民主建港協進聯盟
10 July 1992 (1992-07-10) Pro-Beijing Chinese nationalism
Conservatism (HK)
Social conservatism
Centre-right Starry Lee
19 / 90
51.43%
21 / 479
16.78%
FTU Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions
香港工會聯合會
17 April 1948 (1948-04-17) Pro-Beijing Left-wing Ng Chau-pei
8 / 90
14.53%
5 / 479
4.39%
BPA Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong
香港經濟民生聯盟
7 October 2012 (2012-10-07) Pro-Beijing Conservatism (HK)
Economic liberalism
Centre-right Lo Wai-kwok
7 / 90
Only FC
5 / 479
2.27%
NPP New People's Party
新民黨
9 January 2011 (2011-01-09) Pro-Beijing Conservatism (HK) Centre-right Lo Wai-kwok
5 / 90
11.35%
0 / 479
2.73%
LP Liberal Party
自由黨
6 June 1993 (1993-06-06) Pro-Beijing Centre-right Felix Chung
4 / 90
Only FC
5 / 479
0.94%
FEW Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers
香港教育工作者聯會
13 April 1975 (1975-04-13) Pro-Beijing Teachers' interests Wong Kwan-yu
2 / 90
Only FC DNP
FLU Federation of Hong Kong and Kowloon Labour Unions
港九勞工社團聯會
November 1984 (1984-11) Pro-Beijing Labourism
Left-wing nationalism
Left-wing populism
Left-wing Lam Chun-sing
2 / 90
Only FC
0 / 479
2.73%
Roundtable
實政圓桌
7 May 2015 (2015-05-07) Pro-Beijing Conservatism (HK) Centre-right Michael Tien
1 / 90
3.02%
1 / 479
0.89%
PP Professional Power
專業動力
2010 (2010) Pro-Beijing Nonpartisanism Centre Christine Fong
1 / 90
2.89%
3 / 479
KWND Kowloon West New Dynamic
西九新動力
16 March 2008 (2008-03-16) Pro-Beijing Kowloon West regionalism Centre-right Priscilla Leung
1 / 90
2.78%
0 / 479
0.10%
NP New Prospect for Hong Kong
香港新方向
October 2019 (2019-10) Pro-Beijing Mainland Chinese living in Hong Kong interests Gary Zhang
1 / 90
2.19% DNP
NCF New Century Forum
新世紀論壇
23 June 1999 (1999-06-23) Pro-Beijing Conservatism (HK) Centre-right Ma Fung-kwok
1 / 90
Elected by ECC DNP
TS Third Side
新思維
3 January 2016 (2016-01-03) Third Centrism Centre Tik Chi-yuen
1 / 90
0.31% DNP

Other parties and groups

Other parties and groups without any representation that have participated in the elections include:

Pro-democracy camp

Pro-Beijing camp

Localist groups

Umbrella organisations

Others

Regional organisations, communal pressure groups and Kaifong associations

Electoral coalitions

Defunct

Pro-democracy camp

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of Political Affiliations of LegCo Members and DC Members" (PDF). District Councils of Hong Kong.
  2. ^ "Serving Members of the Sixth Legislative Council". Legislative Council of Hong Kong.