This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "List of rulers of Saba and Himyar" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This is a list of rulers of Saba and Himyar.

Mukarrib (Mukrab, Karab), a religious title that means "near to God", was used by rulers of Saba' until Karib'il Watar changed his title to Malik at the time of the kingdom of Saba' and Dhu Raydan that was established between Himyarites and Sabaeans, both descending from ancient South Arabian patriarch Qahtan.[1] The title Tubba, which means "the one who follows the sun like a shadow" was used by Himyarites to refer to their rulers.[2]

Mukaribs of Saba'

Mukarib Reigned Notes
1 Yatha' Amr Bayin I circa 1000–950 BC
2 Yada'il Bayin I
3 Samah'ali Yanuf I
4 Yatha' Amar Watar I
5 Yakrib Malek Dzarah
6 Yakrib Malek Watar I
7 Samah'ali Yanuf II
8 Yada'il Bayin II
9 Yatha' Amar Watar II Contemporary with Sargon II
10 Yada' Ab I
11 Yada'il Bayin III
12 Yakrib Malek Watar II
13 Yatha' Amar Bayin II
14 Karibil Watar I Contemporary with Sennacherib
15 Yada' Ab II
16 Akh Karab
17 Samah'ali Watar
18 Yada'il Dharih I Son of 17
19 Samah'ali Yanuf III Son of 18
20 Yatha' Amar Watar III Son of 18
21 Yada'il Bayin IV Son of 20
22 Yada'il Watar I Son of 20
23 Zamir Ali Zarih I Son of 21
24 Yatha' Amar Watar IV son of Samah'ali Yanuf son of 20
25 Karabil Bayin I Son of 24
26 Samah'ali Yanuf IV Son of 24
27 Zamir Ali Watar Son of 26
28 Samah'ali Yanuf V Son of 27
29 Yatha' Amar Bayin III Son of 28
30 Yakrib Malek Watar III
31 Zamir Ali Yanuf Son of 30

Kings of Saba'

King Reigned Notes
32 Karabil Watar II 620–600 BC Son of 31
33 Samah'ali Zarih 600–580 BC Son of 32
34 Karabil Watar III 580–570 BC Son of 33
35 Ilsharih I 570–560 BC Son of 33
36 Yada'il Bayin V 560–540 BC Son of 34
37 Yakrib Malek Watar IV 540–520 BC Son of 36
38 Yatha' Amar Bayin IV 520–500 BC Son of 37
39 Karabil Watar IV 500–480 BC Son of 38
40 Samah'ali Yanuf VI 480–460 BC Son of 39
41 Yada'il Bayin VI Son of 39
42 Yatha' Amar Watar V Son of 39
43 Ilsharih II 460–445 BC Son of 41
44 Zamir Ali Bayin I 445–430 BC Son of 41
45 Yada'il Watar II 430–410 BC Son of 44
46 Zamir Ali Bayin II 410–390 BC Son of 45
47 Samah'ali Yanuf VII Son of 46
48 Karabil Watar V 390–370 BC Possibly son of 46
Unknown 370–350 BC
49 Karab Yuhan'em 350–330 BC Son of Ham Athat
50 Karabil Watar VI 330–310 BC Son of 49
51 Wahab Shamsam/El Yahiz I 310–290 BC Son of Halik Amar or Saraw
52 Anmar Yuha'man I 290–270 BC Son of 51
53 Zamir Ali Zarih II 270–250 BC Son of 52
54 Nasha Karab Yuha'man 250–230 BC Son of 53
Unknown 230–200 BC
55 Nasir Yuhan'em 200–180 BC
56 Zamir Ali Bayin III
57 Wahab El Yahiz II 180–160 BC
58 Karabil Watar Yuhan'em I 160–145 BC Son of 57
59 Anmar Yuha'man II Son of 57
60 Yarim Aymin 145–115 BC Son of Awsalat Rafshan; usurped the throne with his son
61 Alhan Nahfan Son of 60
62 Far'am Yanhab 130–125 BC He managed to partially regain the legitimate throne

Kings of Saba' & Dhu Raydan

King Reigned Notes
63 Sha'ram Awtar Son of 61
64 Il Sharih Yahdhib Son of 62. He was probably Strabo's "Ilasarus". Contemporary with Sha'ram Awtar, see # 63
65 Yazil Bayin Son of 62. He allied with his brother see # 64 against Sha'ram Awtar see # 63
67 Hayu Athtar Yazi' Son of 63?
68 Karabil Watar Yuhan'em II Son of 56. Probably the Charibael of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, said to have dominion over the major ports of Azania (the Swahili coast) through a vassal in Saba
69 Watar Yuha'min Son of 64.
70 Zamir Ali Zarih III Son of 68
71 Nasha Karab Yuha'min Yuharhib Son of 64
72 Karabil Bayin II Son of 68
73 Yasir Yuhasdiq
74 Sa'd Shams ʽAsri' Son of 64
75 Murthid Yuhahmid Son of 74
76 Zamir Ali Yahbir I Son of 73
77 Tharin Ya'ib Yuhan'im Son of 76
78 Zamir Ali Yahbir II Son of 77
79 Shamdar Yuhan'im
80 Amdan Bayin Yuhaqbiz
81 Hutar Athat Yafish
82 Karab Athat Yuhaqbiz
83 Shahar Aymin
84 Rab Shams Namran
85 El Ez Nawfan Yuhasdiq
86 Sa'd Um Namran
87 Yasir Yuhan'em

Kings of Saba' & Dhu Raydan & Hadhramaut & Yamnat 2nd Himyarite Kingdom

King Reigned Notes
88 Shammar Yahr'ish AD  275–300 Son of 87
89 Yarim Yuharhib Son of 88
90 Yasir Yuhan'im III Son of 88
91 Tharin Ayfi' Son of 90
92 Dhara'amar Ayman I Son of 90
93 Karabil Watar Yuhan'em III
94 Tharin Yakrib Son of 88
95 Dhamar Ali Yuhabirr 321–324 Son of 94
96 Tharan Yuhanim 324–375 Son of 95

King of Saba', Dhu Raydan, Hadramawt, Yamnat and their Arabs, on Tawdum (the high plateau) and Tihamat

This period of time is most famously featured in Arabian legends. This is also the last period of native Yemeni rule.

King Reigned Notes
97 Malkikarib Yuhamin 375–400 Son of (96). He is the first king to officially convert to Judaism and remove previous polytheistic invocations from records and inscriptions. He also replaced the Great Temple of the pagan god Almaqah with a mikrāb for Jewish organization. Later tradition ascribes the conversion to Judaism to his son, Abu Karib.
98 Abu Karib As'ad 390–440 Son of (97). Judaism was made the state religion during his rule. Some Arab traditions relate that he was the first ruler to put a covering over the Kaaba during his attempted invasion of Mecca.
99 Hassan Yuha'min 440–450 Son of (98). He shared kingship with his brother Sharhabil Yafar for a while.[3]
100 Sharhabil Yafar 450–465 Son of (98). Known as 'Amr in the Arabian folklore and traditions.
101 Sharhabil Yakkuf 465–480 The nephew of (100) and the son of (99). He was the first king to start the persecution of Christians in the Arabian realms.
102 Marthad'ilan Ya'nam 480–485[4] There is only one inscription available of this king, and after him is a fifteen-year period of rule with no known ruler yet, throughout Himyarite history.[5]
103 Marthad'ilan Yanuf 500–515 A Christian ruler of Himyar, he is the son of regent Abdul Kulal ibn Muthawwib who was also a Christian. His name is seen in a rock inscription labelled "YM 1200" in the corpus of the many South Arabian inscriptions.[6]
104 Ma'dikarib Ya'fur 515–517 An usurper who was not from the Himyarite royal family. He was killed by Dhu Nuwas.
105 Dhu Nuwas 517–530 The last of the native Himyarite kings, he rose to power in 517 after assassinating (104). His real name was Yusuf As'ar Yathar and his father was an unknown Sharhabil, thought to have been Sharhabil Yakkuf (101). He was known for his persecutions of Christians. He was killed in the year 530 during the Aksumite conquest of Yemen by King Kaleb.

Aksumite rulers of Saba' and Himyar

After the Aksumites successfully invaded and subsequently took control of Yemen, they appointed a native Christian as the vassal ruler of Saba' and Himyar. However, later on actual Abyssinians would rule Saba' and Himyar temporarily until the Sasanian Empire conquered Yemen under request from the native Yemenis.

King Reigned Notes
106 Sumyafa Ashwa 530–535 A native from Himyar who had converted to Christianity, Sumyafa Ashwa was appointed by Kaleb as the ruler of Saba' and Himyar. He was deposed and overthrown in 535 by Abraha, who usurped the throne from him.
107 Abraha 535–570 An usurper to the throne, he deposed (106) by force and imprisoned him. He also turned against Kaleb, but they later reconciled and he was allowed to keep his throne. He is best known for his attempted invasion of Mecca, a famous story in Islamic literature and exegesis.
108 Yaksum ibn Abraha 570–571 Son of (107), he ruled for only a year and died in the second year of his rule.
109 Masruq ibn Abraha 571–572 The son of (107) and the brother of (108). After his brother had died, he took the throne. During this time period, the native Yemenis revolted against him and later on, they were assisted by forces from the Persian Sasanian Empire. Masruq was ultimately killed in the attacks by the incoming Persian army, ending Aksumite rule over Himyar.

Vassal rulers of the Sasanian Empire

King Reigned Notes
110 Ma'adi Yakrib ibn Abi Murrah 572–574 Appointed as a vassal king by the Sasanian Empire. He ruled for two years until he was stabbed to death by Abyssinian assailants whom he had hired as his servants. After his death, his son Ma'dikarib was made a temporary ruler of Yemen.

References

  1. ^ محاسن, بلعيد (2015-01-01). الرقم سبعة (7) أثره في المعتقدات والآداب والفنون وغيرها (من روائع الإعجاز العددي) (in Arabic). Dar Al Kotob Al Ilmiyah دار الكتب العلمية. ISBN 9782745179661.
  2. ^ Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 166. ISBN 0-8264-4956-5.
  3. ^ The History of Al-Tabari: The Sasanids, the Lakhmids, and Yemen. SUNY Press. p. 184-186. ISBN 9780791443569.
  4. ^ "Les religions pratiquées par les membres de la tribu de Kinda (Arabie) à la veille de l'Islam - Christian Julien Robin".
  5. ^ "Les religions pratiquées par les membres de la tribu de Kinda (Arabie) à la veille de l'Islam - Christian Julien Robin".
  6. ^ "DASI: Digital Archive for the Study of pre-islamic arabian Inscriptions: Epigraph details".