In the United States it is rare for third party and independent candidates, other than those of the six parties which have succeeded as major parties (Federalist Party, Democratic-Republican Party, National Republican Party, Democratic Party, Whig Party, Republican Party), to take large shares of the vote in elections.

In the 59 presidential elections since 1788, third party or independent candidates have won at least 5.0% of the vote or garnered electoral votes 12 times (21%); this does not count George Washington, who was elected as an independent in 1788–1789 and 1792, but who largely supported Federalist policies and was supported by Federalists. Occasionally, a third party becomes one of the two major parties through a presidential election (the last time it happened was in 1856, when the Republicans supplanted the Whigs, who had withered and endorsed the ticket of the American Party): such an election is called a realigning election, as it causes a realignment in the party system; according to scholars, there have been six party systems so far.

Only once has one of the two major parties finished third in a presidential election, when not the result of a realignment: in 1912, the Progressive Party, with former president Theodore Roosevelt as their presidential candidate obtained 88 electoral votes and surpassed the Republicans.[1] In fact, Roosevelt ran one of the most successful third-party candidacies in history but was defeated by the Democrat (Woodrow Wilson) and the Progressive party quickly disappeared while the Republicans re-gained their major party status. The last third-party candidate to win one or more states was George Wallace of the American Independent Party in 1968, while the most recent third-party candidate to win more than 5.0% of the vote was Ross Perot, who ran as an independent and as the standard-bearer of the Reform Party in 1992 and 1996, respectively.

In the 369 gubernatorial elections since 1990, third party or independent candidates have won at least 5.0% of the vote 53 times (14%), while six candidates have won election (2%). The most recent third party or independent governor to win was Alaska's Bill Walker, a Republican turned independent, in 2014.

In the 441 Senate elections since 1990, third party or independent candidates have won at least 5.0% of the vote 39 times (9%); two of those candidates (0.5%) have won, both in 2012 (Bernie Sanders and Angus King, who both decided to caucus with the Democrats; Sanders received Democratic support during his 2006, 2012, and 2018 electoral campaigns). In 13 of the 41 races, one or the other of the major parties failed to nominate any candidate, allowing third-party candidates to perform better than usual.

Statistics

Note: Prior to the passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913, most states did not hold direct elections to the Senate.

Legend:   1st 2nd 3rd
Elections with notable third party electoral performances (1900–present)[2]
State Gubernatorial elections Senate elections Total elections
Thres­hold reached Thres­hold candi­dates Third party victory Thres­hold reached Thres­hold candi­dates Third party victory Thres­hold reached Thres­hold candi­dates Third party victory
Alabama 5 6 0 4 4 0 9 10 0
Alaska 9 10 2 6 6 1 15 16 3
Arizona 5 5 0 7 11 0 12 16 0
Arkansas 10 11 0 6 6 1 16 17 1
California 8 10 1 9 11 0 17 21 1
Colorado 4 6 0 4 5 0 8 11 0
Connecticut 7 9 1 4 4 1 11 13 2
Delaware 2 2 0 1 1 0 3 3 0
Florida 3 3 1 3 3 0 6 6 1
Georgia 4 4 0 2 2 0 6 6 0
Hawaii 3 3 0 2 2 0 5 5 0
Idaho 13 16 0 4 5 0 17 21 0
Illinois 4 5 0 2 2 0 6 7 0
Indiana 2 4 0 4 4 0 6 8 0
Iowa 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 0
Kansas 7 8 0 5 6 0 12 14 0
Kentucky 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
Louisiana 3 3 0 2 2 0 5 5 0
Maine 13 18 3 5 5 2 18 23 5
Maryland 1 1 0 3 3 0 4 4 0
Massachusetts 10 10 0 4 4 0 14 14 0
Michigan 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0
Minnesota 21 25 5 19 22 5 40 47 10
Mississippi 2 2 0 4 4 0 6 6 0
Missouri 1 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 0
Nebraska 10 10 1 4 5 1 14 15 2
Nevada 6 7 2 7 8 0 13 15 2
New Hampshire 4 4 0 1 1 0 5 5 0
New Jersey 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0
New Mexico 2 2 0 1 1 0 3 3 0
New York 11 12 0 8 8 1 19 20 1
North Carolina 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
North Dakota 7 8 1 9 11 1 16 19 2
Ohio 3 4 0 3 4 0 6 8 0
Oklahoma 7 7 0 3 3 0 10 10 0
Oregon 6 7 1 9 14 0 15 20 1
Pennsylvania 3 3 0 4 5 0 7 8 0
Rhode Island 7 9 0 1 1 0 8 10 0
South Carolina 0 0 0 2 2 1 2 2 1
South Dakota 7 9 0 5 7 0 12 16 0
Tennessee 7 8 0 4 4 0 11 12 0
Texas 9 12 0 1 1 0 10 13 0
Utah 6 7 0 3 3 0 9 10 0
Vermont 11 11 0 4 4 3 15 15 3
Virginia 4 4 0 14 18 2 18 22 2
Washington 7 8 0 5 6 0 12 14 0
West Virginia 3 3 0 0 0 0 3 3 0
Wisconsin 18 21 3 12 15 2 30 36 5
Wyoming 2 2 0 1 1 0 3 3 0
Total 284 327 21 203 236 21 487 563 42

Presidential elections

Main article: List of third party performances in United States presidential elections

Gubernatorial elections

Main article: List of third party performances in United States gubernatorial elections

Senate elections

Listed below are Senate elections since 1905 in which a third party or independent candidate won or were reasonably close to receiving 5.0% of the vote. Winners are shown in bold.

Senate elections (By Legislature)

Prior to the passage of the 17th Amendment, most states did not hold direct elections to the Senate, with senators instead being elected by the state legislatures. The results listed below are cases in which a third-party candidate won or was reasonably close to receiving 5.0% of the legislative vote. Winners are shown in bold.

State legislature elections

Listed below are State Legislature elections in which a third party or independent candidate won at least 5.0% of the vote in their state legislature districts. Winners are shown in bold. Candidates are only included if they ran under one party.

Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (1901–1920)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
1906 Florida Manatee County[15] Socialist Andrew Jackson Pettigrew 240
31.3 / 100
2nd
1906 395
52.1 / 100
Elected
1908 New York 20th Senate District[16] John J. Coyle 1,749
8.16 / 100
3rd
Independence League Isidore P. Thomas 1,314
6.13 / 100
4th
1910 California 17th Assembly District[17] Prohibition Grove L. Johnson 509[18]
15.5 / 100
2nd
Socialist E. L. Macy 223[19]
6.8 / 100
3rd
30th Assembly District[17][20] Socialist Robert Larkins 120
10.5 / 100
3rd
Colorado 16th Senate District[21] Socialist Robert S. Clark 990
9.41 / 100
3rd
New York 16th Senate District[22] Socialist Ernest Ramm 2,173
10.18 / 100
3rd
1914 16th Senate District[23] Socialist George I. Steinhardt 2,079
10.89 / 100
3rd
20th Senate District[24] Socialist Fred Gaa 1,924
12.26 / 100
3rd
1916 Colorado 16th Senate District[25] Socialist Robert B. Fyre 1,047
14.02 / 100
3rd
New York 20th Senate District[26] Socialist Edward F. Cassidy 3,654
21.22 / 100
3rd
1920 Illinois 6th House District[27] Socialist Lewis W. Hardy 10,829
21.22 / 100
4th
15th House District[28] Socialist John Joseph Jelinek 2,391
8.93 / 100
4th
Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (1921–1940)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
1930 New York 10th Senate District[29] Socialist Sam L. Mailman 1,509
5.60 / 100
3rd
1932 9th Senate District[30] Socialist Samuel Block 5,406
8.11 / 100
3rd
20th Senate District[31] Socialist Max Delson 4,400
5.02 / 100
3rd
1934 8th Senate District[32] Socialist Roger Cornell 10,002
8.71 / 100
3rd
1936 California 21st Senate District[33] Socialist Edward V. Peterson 4,123
12.04 / 100
2nd
1938 30th Senate District[34] Independent Percy C. Church 2,930
5.39 / 100
3rd
36th Senate District[35] Communist George C. Sandy 2,618
5.12 / 100
2nd
40th Senate District[36] Communist Bessie A. Keckler 6,523
7.06 / 100
2nd
Colorado 18th Senate District[37] Independent William Hartsook 1,675
18.06 / 100
3rd
Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (1961–1980)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
1970 California 36th Senate District[38] American Independent Nial D. Meadows 28,353
17.66 / 100
2nd
1972 1st Senate District[39] Peace and Freedom Toni Novak-Sutley 19,044
9.51 / 100
3rd
1974 Delaware 4th Senate District[40] American Independent Erle V. Peterson 401
6.25 / 100
2nd
5th Senate District[41] Robert G. LoPresti 339
7.23 / 100
2nd
1978 California 33rd Assembly District[42] Independent Grant W. Jensen 6,281
8.56 / 100
3rd
1980 1st Senate District[43] Libertarian Steve Sparling 16,259
5.84 / 100
3rd
11th Senate District[44] Libertarian John R. Redding 13,393
6.10 / 100
3rd
Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (1981–2000)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
1982 Delaware 19th Senate District[45] American Independent Donald L. Donovan 258
5.03 / 100
2nd
New York 96th Assembly District[46] Conservative (NY) Patricia DeFreest 2,035
6.74 / 100
3rd
1983 Alabama 38th House District[47] Independent Bill Fuller 3,010
47.37 / 100
Elected
Dorothy W. Morris 1,391
21.89 / 100
3rd
1986 New York 14th Assembly District[48] Right to Life Jean Ryan 1,926
5.64 / 100
3rd
1988 California 17th Senate District Peace and Freedom Shoshana Towers 5,826
5.15 / 100
3rd
1990 New York 35th Assembly District[49] Conservative (NY) Nicholas Narducci 551
7.29 / 100
2nd
34th Senate District[50] Right to Life Thomas Byrne 2,522
8.70 / 100
2nd
1992 California 14th Assembly District[51] Peace and Freedom Marsha Feinland 27,468
17.86 / 100
2nd
1st Senate District[52] Green Kent Smith 32,717
9.47 / 100
3rd
13th Senate District[53] Libertarian John H. Webster 19,258
8.31 / 100
3rd
1994 Georgia 3rd House District[54] Independent Charles C. Proctor, Sr. 3,626
41.90 / 100
2nd
Kansas 46th House District[55] Libertarian Ena J. Wheeler 609
9.79 / 100
3rd
1996 California 14th Assembly District[56] Green Hank Chapot 12,851
9.41 / 100
3rd
Delaware 1st House District[57] Libertarian J. Burke Morrison 522
9.67 / 100
2nd
1998 Kansas 30th House District[58] Libertarian Michael Kerner 808
15.16 / 100
2nd
2000 Florida 13th House District[59] Independent Susan Eldridge 8,420
20.87 / 100
2nd
Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (2001–2020)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
2002 California 6th Senate District[60] Libertarian Jason Sewell 44,972
26.91 / 100
2nd
22nd Assembly District[61] T.J. Campbell 6,478
5.83 / 100
3rd
36th Assembly District[62] Herbert G. Peters 10,840
5.65 / 100
3rd
10th Senate District[63] American Independent Ivan Chou 11,871
5.66 / 100
3rd
Florida 5th House District[64] Libertarian Ricardo Meijas 5,988
14.58 / 100
2nd
17th House District[65] Ty Price 8,573
20.92 / 100
2nd
64th House District[66] Michael Krech 8,878
25.10 / 100
2nd
77th House District[67] Scott Hudmon 6,644
19.57 / 100
2nd
81st House District[68] John Roszman 12,306
24.35 / 100
2nd
119th House District[69] Mark Eckert 7,190
27.77 / 100
2nd
Illinois 8th House District[70] Green Julie Samuels 3,355
9.66 / 100
3rd
2004 Georgia 76th House District[71] Libertarian Ken Parmalee 1,487
9.48 / 100
2nd
2006 California 12th Senate District[72] Constitution C. Bert Linthicum 34,895
28.90 / 100
2nd
30th Senate District[73] Libertarian Karl N. Dickey 15,683
12.21 / 100
2nd
Florida 81st House District[74] Green Kristina Wright 4,699
5.17 / 100
3rd
1st Senate District[75] Constitution Louis Jack Tart 30,207
18.79 / 100
2nd
Kansas 46th House District[76] Libertarian Marcus Kirby 876
13.71 / 100
2nd
2008 Florida 81st House District[77] Green Kristina Wright 4,699
5.17 / 100
3rd
1st Senate District[78] Constitution Louis Jack Tart 30,207
18.79 / 100
2nd
Illinois 12th House District[79] Green Tim Quirk 7,100
15.57 / 100
2nd
21st House District[80] Rita Maniotis 3,464
8.73 / 100
3rd
2010 Alabama 29th House District[81][82] Independent Harri Anne Smith 23,800
55.21 / 100
Reelected as Independent.
California 22nd Assembly District[83] Libertarian T.J. Campbell 6,478
5.83 / 100
3rd
36th Assembly District[84] Herbert G. Peters 10,840
5.65 / 100
3rd
10th Senate District[85] American Independent Ivan Chou 11,871
5.66 / 100
3rd
2011 Mississippi 13th Senate District[86] Independent Clayton Barksdale 2,358
21.20 / 100
2nd
2012 Delaware 14th House District[87] Libertarian Margaret V. Melson 925
10.08 / 100
2nd
Texas 48th House District[88] Joe Edgar 4,134
5.3 / 100
3rd
51st House District[89] Arthur DiBianca 4,411
11.8 / 100
2nd
2014 Alabama 29th House District[90] Independent Harri Anne Smith 17,830
52.38 / 100
Reelected
Florida 5th House District[91] Libertarian Karen Schoen 11,813
23.6 / 100
2nd
12th House District[92] Green Karen Lea Morian 20,496
31.7 / 100
2nd
Texas 4th House District[93] Libertarian Rick Stralow 3,253
10.9 / 100
2nd
8th House District[94] John Wilford 3,581
12.1 / 100
2nd
48th House District[88] Ben Easton 11,126
21.9 / 100
2nd
51st House District[89] Arthur DiBianca 3,105
12.6 / 100
2nd
2015 Mississippi 51st Senate District[95] Boyd T. Kendall 1,746
16.95 / 100
2nd
2016 Alaska District F[96] Independent Tim Hale 4,750
27.89 / 100
2nd
District L[97] Tom Johnson 1,088
7.40 / 100
3rd
California 1st Assembly District[98] Libertarian Donn Coenen 52,871
26.24 / 100
2nd
2nd Assembly District[99] Ken Anton 51,245
27.08 / 100
2nd
37th Assembly District[100] Independent Edward Fuller 71,944
35.92 / 100
2nd
51st Assembly District[101] Libertarian Mike Everling 17,724
13.87 / 100
2nd
62nd Assembly District[102] Baron Bruno 8,958
5.59 / 100
3rd
Connecticut 39th House District[103] Green Ronna Stuller 440
8.23 / 100
2nd
71st House District[104] Independent Danielle Albert 1,588
20.13 / 100
2nd
84th House District[105] Green Matt Went 678
14.09 / 100
2nd
122nd House District[106] Angela Capinera 1,440
13.80 / 100
2nd
125th House District[107] Hector Lopez 1,288
12.21 / 100
2nd
15th Senate District[108] Independent James K. Russell 4,407
17.83 / 100
2nd
Florida 1st House District[109] Bill Fetke 17,192
23.56 / 100
2nd
5th House District[110] Jamey Westbrook 24,443
32.05 / 100
2nd
31st House District[111] Robert Rightmyer 20,380
26.79 / 100
2nd
90th House District[112] Libertarian Artie Lurie 13,088
20.46 / 100
2nd
Hawaii 13th House District[113] Green Nick Nikhilananda 2,773
12.21 / 100
2nd
Kansas 19th House District[114] Libertarian John Taube 806
5.85 / 100
3rd
Nevada 3rd Senate District[115] Jonathan Friedrich 2,889
8.22 / 100
3rd
7th Senate District[116] Kimberly Schjang 12,454
30.46 / 100
2nd
New York 45th Assembly District[117] Conservative (NY) Boris Gintchanski 4,692
20.77 / 100
2nd
47th Assembly District[118] Malka Shahar 2,416
11.35 / 100
2nd
81st Assembly District[119] Alah H. Reed 3,010
8.26 / 100
2nd
88th Assembly District[120] Anthony Decintio Jr. 7,643
15.23 / 100
2nd
101st Assembly District[121] Maria E. Kelso 5,322
10.56 / 100
3rd
103rd Assembly District[122] Jack Hayes 12,105
22.37 / 100
2nd
114th Assembly District[123] Green Robin M. Barkenhagen 7,562
15.02 / 100
2nd
127th Assembly District[124] Conservative (NY) Michael J. Becallo 4,064
6.23 / 100
3rd
45th Senate District[125] Green Stephen Matthew Ruzbacki 12,553
11.92 / 100
2nd
South Dakota 5th House District[126] Independent Chuck Haan 1,882
11.65 / 100
4th
15th House District[127] Mike Myers 1,784
20.89 / 100
3rd
Eric Leggett 1,719
20.13 / 100
4th
Texas 51st House District[89] Green Kat Gruene 6,162
5.77 / 100
2nd
127th House District[128] Libertarian Scott Ford 7,486
12.33 / 100
2nd
Green Joseph McElligott 3,501
5.77 / 100
3rd
Utah 16th House District[129] Libertarian Brent Zimmerman 1,214
8.45 / 100
3rd
46th House District[130] Lee Anne Walker 3,932
23.86 / 100
2nd
68th House District[131] Constitution Kirk Pearson 1,597
10.56 / 100
3rd
2018 Alabama 1st House District[132] Independent Bobby James Dolan III 4,336
30.45 / 100
2nd
California 4th Assembly District[133] Libertarian Brandon Z. Nelson 40,398
24.78 / 100
2nd
6th Senate District[134] Independent Eric Frame 93,217
30.45 / 100
2nd
Delaware 15th House District[135] Libertarian Amy Merlino 1,011
12.12 / 100
2nd
Florida 87th House District[136][137] Green Samson LeBeau Kpadenou 4,622
15.41 / 100
2nd
Georgia 29th House District[138][139] Independent Nancy Stead 4,595
32.08 / 100
2nd
Ohio 14th House District[140] Libertarian Ryan McClain 9,143
28.03 / 100
2nd
Texas 127th House District[128] Ryan Woods 10,981
19.8 / 100
2nd
Wyoming 55th House district Bethany Baldes 1,592[141]
49.01 / 100
2nd of 2
2020 California 7th Assembly District[142] James O. Just 52,543
26.06 / 100
2nd
58th Assembly District[143] Green Margaret Villa 41,100
9.09 / 100
2nd
Maine 22nd House District[144] Michael Barden III 937
16.6 / 100
3rd
42nd House District[145] Carolyn Silvius 567
11 / 100
3rd
62nd House District[146] Independent John Michael 1,519
48.6 / 100
2nd
68th House District[147] Patrick Scully 2,726
47.1 / 100
2nd
Texas 4th House District[93] Libertarian K. Nicole Sprabary 17,437
20.9 / 100
2nd
8th House District[94] R. Edwin Adams 8,271
14.1 / 100
2nd
127th House District[128] Neko Antoniou 25,653
29.7 / 100
2nd
Wyoming 38th House district Shawn Johnson 1,068[148]
24.47 / 100
2nd
39th House district Marshall Burt 1,696[148]
53.60 / 100
1st
47th House district Lela Konecny 886[148]
21.10 / 100
2nd
55th House district Bethany Baldes 2,026[148]
49.44 / 100
2nd
58th House district Joseph Porambo 646[148]
19.04 / 100
2nd
30th Senate district Wendy Degroot 1,762[149]
22.43 / 100
2nd
Notable third party performances in state legislature elections (2021–present)
Year State District Party Nominee # Votes % Votes Place
2021 Pennsylvania 22nd Senate district Green Marlene Sebastianelli 5,373[150]
9.09 / 100
3rd of 4

House elections

Main article: List of third party performances in United States House elections

Mayoral elections

Main article: List of third party performances in United States mayoral elections

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Remembering the 1912 Presidential Election". History. A+E Television Networks. November 2, 2012.
  2. ^ The threshold is >5% of the vote.
  3. ^ Listed on ballot as "Popular Government Candidate"
  4. ^ Listed on ballot as "Pro-League Independent Party"
  5. ^ Listed on ballot as "La Follette Progressive Republican National Platform"
  6. ^ Listed on ballot as "Agricultural Relief Republican"
  7. ^ Listed on ballot as "Republican for Beer and Wine"
  8. ^ Listed on ballot as "Good Government and Clean Elections"
  9. ^ Listed as "Nonpartisan, Progressive, Old Age Pension"
  10. ^ Listed as "Progressive Republican for Clean Government"
  11. ^ Affiliated with the Workers World Party
  12. ^ Affiliated with the Libertarian Party
  13. ^ Also listed as the de facto Democratic nominee.
  14. ^ Technically designation is Unknown
  15. ^ Griffin, R. (2006). Workers of the Sunshine State Unite!: The Florida Socialist Party during the Progressive Era, 1900-1920 (PDF) (Thesis). pp. ix, 104–105.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 20 Race - Nov 03, 1908". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ a b "November 8, 1910: General Election". JoinCalifornia. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  18. ^ "Grove L. Johnson". JoinCalifornia.
  19. ^ "E. L. Macy". JoinCalifornia. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  20. ^ "Robert Larkins". JoinCalifornia. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  21. ^ "CO Senate 16 Race - Nov 08, 1910". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 16 Race - Nov 08, 1910". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 12, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 16 Race - Nov 03, 1914". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 20 Race - Nov 03, 1914". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 12, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  25. ^ "CO Senate 16 Race - Nov 06, 1906". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved January 4, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 20 Race - Nov 07, 1916". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 12, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - IL State House 006 Race - Nov 02, 1920". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 26, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ "IL State House 015 Race - Nov 02, 1920". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 27, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  29. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 10 Race - Nov 04, 1930". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 09 Race - Nov 08, 1932". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  31. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 20 Race - Nov 08, 1932". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY State Senate 08 Race - Nov 06, 1934". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  33. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 21 Race - Nov 03, 1936". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 12, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 30 Race - Nov 08, 1938". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 36 Race - Nov 08, 1938". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 40 Race - Nov 08, 1938". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved July 11, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ "CO Senate 18 Race - Nov 08, 1938". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved January 4, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  38. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 36 Race - Nov 03, 1970". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  39. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 01 Race - Nov 07, 1972". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  40. ^ "Our Campaigns - DE State Senate 04 Race - Nov 05, 1974". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-26.
  41. ^ "Our Campaigns - DE State Senate 05 Race - Nov 05, 1974". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-26.
  42. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Assembly 33 Race - Nov 07, 1978". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  43. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 01 Race - Nov 04, 1980". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  44. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 11 Race - Nov 04, 1980". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  45. ^ "Our Campaigns - DE State Senate 19 Race - Nov 02, 1982". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  46. ^ "NY Assembly 96 Race - Nov 02, 1982". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  47. ^ "AL House 038 Race - Nov 08, 1983". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved January 6, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  48. ^ "NY Assembly 14 Race - Nov 04, 1986". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  49. ^ "NY Assembly 35 Race - Nov 06, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  50. ^ "NY State Senate 34 Race - Nov 06, 1990". ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
  51. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Assembly 14 Race - Nov 03, 1992". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-12.
  52. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 01 Race - Nov 03, 1992". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  53. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Senate 13 Race - Nov 03, 1992". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-11.
  54. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA State House 003 Race - Nov 08, 1994". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  55. ^ "Our Campaigns - KS State House 046 Race - Nov 08, 1994". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-27.
  56. ^ "Our Campaigns - CA State Assembly 14 Race - Nov 05, 1996". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-07-12.
  57. ^ "Our Campaigns - DE State House 01 Race - Nov 05, 1996". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved 2021-09-26.
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