Manta rays include the largest rays in the world, and have been targeted by fisheries to the point where they have become vulnerable or endangered.[1] In 2013 they were listed as CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]
Manta rays include the largest rays in the world, and have been targeted by fisheries to the point where they have become vulnerable or endangered.[1] In 2013 they were listed as CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]

The market for shark and ray products is first and foremost a luxury one: The gill plates, in the case of manta rays, are used in China for a tonic soup that has become fashionable because of perceived medicinal properties, even though it is not in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia. This is a recent trend and has caused a population loss of up to 86% in the last six to eight years.

WWF 2013 [3]

Threatened rays are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ranks threatened species in three categories:[4]

VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable species
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered species
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[4] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[5]

Together rays and sharks make up the class of modern cartilaginous fishes. Modern fish are either cartilaginous or bony. Cartilaginous fishes have skeletons made of cartilage while bony fishes have skeletons made of bone. Because rays and sharks are closely related, they are often studied together. In 2010 a global IUCN study of vertebrates found that of 1,044 cartilaginous (ray and shark) species examined, 345 or 33% were threatened with extinction.[6][7]

There are four orders of rays: stingrays, skates, electric rays and sawfishes. Like sharks, rays are relatively long living and thrive in stable populations. They are K-strategists which grow slowly, mature late sexually and produce few offspring. They cannot recover as rapidly as many faster growing fish can if their populations are depleted.[8] As with sharks, rays are increasingly becoming vulnerable because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-ray fisheries on the seabed and ray prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[9] Most particularly, the continuing decline of threatened rays and sharks is the consequence of unregulated fishing.[10]

Sawfish are a family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered[11]
Sawfish are a family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered[11]

Manta rays are largest rays in the world, with wingspans reaching 7 metres.[12] They have one of the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all fish.[13] Manta populations suffer when they are caught as bycatch by fishermen fishing for other species, but fisheries which target manta rays are even more harmful. Manta rays use their gills to filter plankton from the sea. Demand for their dried gill rakers, cartilaginous structures protecting the gills, has been growing in traditional Chinese medicine practices.[14] The market is "bogus" since dried manta gills have never been used historically in Chinese medicine, and there is no evidence that the gills have any medicinal value.[12][15][16] The flesh is edible and is consumed in some countries, but is tough and unattractive compared to other fish. To fill the growing demand in Asia for gill rakers, targeted fisheries have developed in other parts of the world, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, West Africa and Central and South America.[17] Each year, thousands of manta rays, primarily the giant manta ray, are being caught and killed purely for their gill rakers. A fisheries study in Sri Lanka estimated that over a thousand of these were being sold in the country's fish markets each year.[18]

In 2011, manta rays became strictly protected in international waters thanks to their recent inclusion in the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The CMS is an international treaty organization concerned with conserving migratory species and habitats on a global scale. Although individual nations were already protecting manta rays, the fish often migrate through unregulated waters, putting them at increased risk from overfishing.[19] In 2013, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listed both species of manta rays as CITES Appendix II species. This means that the international trade of manta rays will now be monitored and regulated.[2][20]

Sawfish are a less well known family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. Some species can reach 7 metres or 23 feet in length.[21][22][23] All species of sawfish are either endangered or critically endangered as a result of habitat destruction and overfishing.[11] Their young stay close to shore, and are particularly affected by coastal developments.[24] Because their rostrum is easily entangled, sawfishes can easily become bycatch in fishing nets. They are also exploited for the novelty value of their rostrum, their fins are eaten as a delicacy in China, and their liver oil used as a food supplement. While arguing for a global ban on international commerce in 2007, a representative from the National Museums of Kenya stated, "Only the meat is consumed locally; and artisanal fishermen can retire after catching one sawfish due to the high value of a single rostrum, up to $1,450."[11] In 2013 CITES uplisted the largetooth sawfish to Appendix I. This is CITES highest protection level, and means that all international trade of the species is banned.[25][26]

According to a 2021 study published in the journal Nature, relative fishing pressure in the oceans has increased by a factor of 18 since 1970.[27] This overfishing has resulted in the number of oceanic sharks and rays declining globally by 71%, and has increased the global extinction risk to the point where three-quarters of these species are now threatened with extinction. Precautionary science-based catch limits and strict prohibitions are now needed urgently if population collapse is to be avoided,[28][29] if the disruption of ecological functions is to be averted,[30] and if a start is to be made on rebuilding global fisheries.[31][27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO Comment
Stingray
M.E. Blochii ... Systema ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum (Plate 73) (7038524053).jpg
Aetobatus flagellum Longheaded eagle ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[32]
[33]
Stingray
Aetomylaeus maculatus 01.jpg
Aetomylaeus maculatus Mottled eagle ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[32]
[34]
Stingray Aetomylaeus nichofii Banded eagle ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[35]
[36]
Stingray
Ornate eagle ray (Aetomylaeus vespertilio) Baa Atoll, Maldives (2018).jpg
Aetomylaeus vespertilio Ornate eagle ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[37]
[38]
Skate
Amblyraja radiata Gervais.jpg
Amblyraja radiata Thorny skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[39]
[40]
Sawfish
AnoxypristisCuspidataCSIRO.jpg
Anoxypristis cuspidata Knifetooth sawfish decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[41]
[42]
Stingray
Aptychotrema timorensis csiro.jpg
Aptychotrema timorensis Spotted shovelnose ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[43]
[44]
Skate
Atlantoraja castelnaui(MIRANDA RIBEIRO,1907).jpg
Atlantoraja castelnaui Spotback skate decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[45]
[46]
Skate
Atlantoraja cyclophora.jpg
Atlantoraja cyclophora Eyespot skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[47]
[48]
Skate
Atlantoraja platana.jpg
Atlantoraja platana La Plata skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[49]
[50]
Skate Bathyraja griseocauda Graytail skate decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[51]
[52]
Electric ray Benthobatis kreffti Brazilian blind electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[53]
[54]
Stingray Dasyatis colarensis Colares stingray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[55]
[56]
Stingray
Brendos stingray.jpg
Dasyatis fluviorum Estuary stingaree decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[57]
[58]
Stingray Dasyatis garouaensis Smooth freshwater stingray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[59]
[60] freshwater
Stingray
Dasyatis laosensis.jpg
Dasyatis laosensis Mekong freshwater stingray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[61]
[62] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis margarita Daisy stingray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[63]
[64]
Stingray Dasyatis ukpam Daisy stingray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[65]
[66] freshwater
Electric ray Diplobatis colombiensis Colombian electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[67]
[68]
Electric ray Diplobatis guamachensis Brownband numbfish unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[69]
[70]
Electric ray
Bullseye Stingray - Day 267.jpg
Diplobatis ommata Ocellated electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[71]
[72]
Electric ray Diplobatis pictus Variegated electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[73]
[74]
Skate Dipturus australis Sydney skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[75]
[76]
Skate
Vangst van een vleet.jpg
Dipturus batis Blue skate decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[77]
[78]
Skate Dipturus crosnieri Madagascar skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[79]
[80]
Skate
Dipturus laevis 2.jpg
Dipturus laevis Barndoor skate stable
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[81]
[82]
Skate Dipturus mennii South Brazilian skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[83]
[84]
Skate Dipturus trachydermus Roughskin skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[85]
[86]
Skate
Glaucostegus granulatus TSCK.jpg
Glaucostegus granulatus Sharpnose guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[87]
[88]
Skate
Rhinobates thouini Day 190.jpg
Glaucostegus thouin Clubnose guitarfish unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[89]
[90]
Skate
The Lazy Afternoon.jpg
Glaucostegus typus Common shovelnose ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[91]
[92]
Skate Gurgesiella dorsalifera Onefin skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[93]
Stingray
Gymnura altavela.jpg
Gymnura altavela Spiny butterfly ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[94]
[95]
Stingray Gymnura zonura Zonetail butterfly ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[96]
[97]
Electric ray Heteronarce garmani Natal electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[98]
[99]
Stingray
Whipray mandalay bay2.jpg
Himantura gerrardi Whitespotted whipray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[100]
[101] freshwater
Stingray Himantura hortlei Hortle's whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[102]
[103] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura kittipongi.jpg
Himantura kittipongi Roughback whipray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[104]
[105] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura leoparda farglory.jpg
Himantura leoparda Leopard whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[106]
[107] freshwater
Stingray Himantura lobistoma Tubemouth whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[108]
[109] freshwater
Stingray
Stingray shedd.jpg
Himantura oxyrhyncha Longnose marbled whipray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[110]
[111] freshwater
Stingray Himantura pastinacoides Round whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[112]
[113] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura polylepis.jpg
Urogymnus polylepis Giant freshwater stingray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[114]
[115] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura signifer.jpg
Himantura signifer White-edge freshwater whipray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[116]
[117] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura uarnacoides.jpg
Himantura uarnacoides Bleeker's whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[118]
[119] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura Uarnak 2004 Australia.jpg
Himantura uarnak Reticulate whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[120]
[121]
Stingray
Himantura undulata lisbon.jpg
Himantura undulata Bleeker's variegated whipray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[122]
[123]
Skate
Leucoraja circularis.jpg
Leucoraja circularis Sandy ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[124]
[125]
Skate Leucoraja melitensis Maltese skate decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[126]
[127]
Skate
Winter skate.jpg
Leucoraja ocellata Winter skate decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[128]
[129]
Stingray Myliobatis hamlyni Purple eagle ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[130]
[131]
Skate
Smooth skate 2.jpg
Malacoraja senta Smooth skate decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[132]
[133]
Stingray
Manta alfredi at a ‘cleaning station’ - journal.pone.0046170.g002B.png
Manta alfredi Reef manta ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[134]
Stingray
Manta alfredi fushivaru thila.jpg
Manta birostris Giant manta ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[1]
[135]
Stingray
Atlantic mobula lisbon.jpg
Mobula mobular Giant devil ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[136]
[137]
Stingray
Mobula rochebrunei.jpg
Mobula rochebrunei Lesser Guinean devil ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[138]
[139]
Electric ray
Fish4345 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg
Narcine bancroftii Caribbean electric ray unknown
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically Endangered[140]
[141]
Electric ray Narcine brevilabiata Shortlip electric ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[142]
[143]
Electric ray
Narke japonica.jpg
Narke japonica Japanese sleeper ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[144]
[145]
Skate Okamejei pita Pita skate unknown
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[146]
[147]
Stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Roughnose stingray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[148]
[149]
Stingray
Platyrhina sinensis.jpg
Platyrhina sinensis Fanray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[150]
[151]
Sawfish
Pristis clavata 2.jpg
Pristis clavata Queensland sawfish decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[152]
[153]
Sawfish
Pristis pectinata SI.jpg
Pristis pectinata Smalltooth sawfish decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[154]
[155]
Sawfish
Pristis pristis - Georgia Aquarium Jan 2006.jpg
Pristis pristis Common sawfish decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[156]
[157]
Sawfish
Sawfish genova.jpg
Pristis zijsron Narrowsnout sawfish decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[158]
[159]
Skate
Raja pulchra.jpg
Raja pulchra Mottled skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[160]
[161]
Skate
Raja undulata 2.jpg
Raja undulata Undulate ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[162]
[163]
Sawfish
Rhina anyclostoma australia.jpg
Rhina ancylostoma Bowmouth guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[164]
[165]
Sawfish Rhinobatos albomaculatus White-spotted guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[166]
[167]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos cemiculus.raie-guitare01.jpg
Rhinobatos cemiculus Blackchin guitarfish decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[168]
[169]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos schlegelii 1838.jpg
Rhinobatos formosensis Taiwan guitarfish unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[170]
[171]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos horkelii 2.jpg
Rhinobatos horkelii Brazilian guitarfish decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[172]
[173]
Sawfish Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[174]
[175]
Sawfish Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran shovelnose ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[176]
[177]
Sawfish
Glaucostegus obtusus.jpg
Rhinobatos obtusus Widenose guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[178]
[179]
Sawfish Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian shovelnose ray decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[180]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos Rhinobatos.jpg
Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common guitarfish decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[181]
Stingray Rhinoptera brasiliensis Brazilian cownose ray decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[182]
[183]
Stingray
Rhinoptera javanica.jpg
Rhinoptera javanica Javanese cownose ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[184]
[185]
Skate Rhinoraja albomaculata Whitedotted skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[186]
[187]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus syndey aquarium.jpg
Rhynchobatus australiae White-spotted guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[188]
[189]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus djiddensis durban.jpg
Rhynchobatus djiddensis Giant guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[190]
[191]
Sawfish
M.E. Blochii Systema ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum (1801) (14766102852).jpg
Rhynchobatus laevis Smoothnose wedgefish unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[192]
[193]
Sawfish
African wedgefish Bijagos archipelago.png
Rhynchobatus luebberti Lubbert's guitarfish decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[194]
[195]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus sp. nov. A Roughnose wedgefish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[196]
[197]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus springeri Broadnose wedgefish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[198]
[199]
Skate
Rioraja agassizii.jpg
Rioraja agassizii Rio skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[200]
[201]
Skate
Rostroraja alba.jpg
Rostroraja alba Bottlenose skate decreasing
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[202]
[203]
Skate Spiniraja whitleyi Melbourne skate unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[204]
Skate
Sympterygia acuta.jpg
Sympterygia acuta Bignose fanskate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[205]
[206]
Stingray
Taeniura meyeni makunudhoo.jpg
Taeniura meyeni Round ribbontail ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[207]
[208]
Electric ray
Temera hardwickii by gray.jpg
Temera hardwickii Finless sleeper ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[209]
[210]
Sawfish
Trygonorrhina sp.jpg
Trygonorrhina melaleuca Magpie fiddler ray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[211]
[212]
Stingray
Urogymnus asperrimus.jpg
Urogymnus asperrimus Porcupine ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[213]
[214]
Stingray Urogymnus ukpam Pincushion ray unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[215]
[216]
Stingray
Urolophus bucculentus.jpg
Urolophus bucculentus Sandyback stingaree decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[217]
[218]
Stingray Urolophus javanicus Java stingaree decreasing
CR IUCN 3 1.svg
Critically endangered[219]
[220]
Stingray Urolophus orarius Coastal stingaree unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[221]
[222]
Stingray Urolophus sufflavus Yellowback stingaree decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[223]
[224]
Stingray
Trygonoptera testacea sydney.jpg
Urolophus viridis Greenback stingaree decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[225]
[226]
Stingray Urotrygon reticulata Reticulate round stingray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[227]
[228]
Stingray Urotrygon simulatrix Fake round ray unknown
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[229]
[230]
Sawfish
Zapteryx brevirostris.jpg
Zapteryx brevirostris Shortnose guitarfish decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[231]
[232]
Skate Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate decreasing
VU IUCN 3 1.svg
Vulnerable[233]
[234]
Skate Zearaja maugeana Maugean skate unknown
EN IUCN 3 1.svg
Endangered[235]
[236]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Marshall, A.; Bennett, M.B.; Kodja, G.; Hinojosa-Alvarez, S.; Galvan-Magana, F.; Harding, M.; Stevens, G.; Kashiwagi, T. (2018) [amended version of 2011 assessment]. "Mobula birostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T198921A126669349. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T198921A126669349.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b Proposal 46: Genus Manta CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  3. ^ The fight to save threatened sharks and rays WWF, 6 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (PDF). IUCN. August 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  5. ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ Third of Shark and Ray Species Are Threatened, Study Suggests Science News, 27 October 2010.
  7. ^ Hoffmann M, C Hilton-Taylor and 173 others (2010) "The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates" Science, 330: 1503–1509. doi:10.1126/science.1194442
  8. ^ Conservation of Sharks CITES AC18 Inf. 1, 2002.
  9. ^ "The Greatest Threats to Sharks". Oceana. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  10. ^ The Future of Sharks: A Review of Action and Inaction Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine CITES AC25 Inf. 6, 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Black, Richard (11 June 2007). "Sawfish protection acquires teeth". BBC News.
  12. ^ a b Glider of the sea threatened by 'traditional' medicine New Scientist, 25 March 2013.
  13. ^ Ari, C. (2011). "Encephalization and brain organization of mobulid rays (Myliobatiformes, Elasmobranchii) with ecological perspectives". Open Anatomy Journal. 3: 1–13. doi:10.2174/1877609401103010001.
  14. ^ Wassener, Bettina (12 March 2013). "No species is safe from burgeoning wildlife trade". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  15. ^ Manta Rays Endangered by Sudden Demand from Chinese Medicine ScientificAmerican, 17 January 2012.
  16. ^ "The global threat to manta and mobula rays" WildAid and Shark Savers. 2011 report.
  17. ^ "Manta Fisheries". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  18. ^ "Sri Lanka Manta Project". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  19. ^ "COP10 Outcome: Migratory Manta Ray under CMS Protection". Convention on Migratory Species. UNEP; CMS. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  20. ^ CITES conference takes decisive action to halt decline of tropical timber, sharks, manta rays and a wide range of other plants and animals
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis microdon" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis perotteti" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  23. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  24. ^ Sawfish Is First Sea Fish on U.S. Endangered List National Geographic News, 4 June 2003.
  25. ^ Proposal 45: Pristis microdon CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
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  181. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Bradai, M.N.; Morey, G.; Marshall, A.D.; Compagno, L.J.V.; Mouni, A.; Hicham, M.; Bucal, D.; Dulvy, N.; Heenan, A.; Rui Coelho. (2007). "Rhinobatos rhinobatos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63131A12620901. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63131A12620901.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
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Further reading