This list provides references to notable unsolved problems in geoscience.

The early Earth and the solar system

Topography and environment

Structure of crust, mantle, and core

References

  1. ^ McKinnon, W. B. (12 April 2012). "The Strangest Terrestrial Planet". Science. 336 (6078): 162–163. Bibcode:2012Sci...336..162M. doi:10.1126/science.1220825. PMID 22499928. S2CID 206540773.
  2. ^ Canup, R. M. (17 October 2012). "Forming a Moon with an Earth-like Composition via a Giant Impact". Science. 338 (6110): 1052–1055. Bibcode:2012Sci...338.1052C. doi:10.1126/science.1226073. PMC 6476314. PMID 23076098.
  3. ^ George, Williams (1991). "Upper Proterozoic Tidal Rhythmites, South Australia: Sedimentary Features, Deposition, and Implications for the Earth's Paleorotation". Clastic Tidal Sedimentology: 161–177. Retrieved 3 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ Wired: Was the Earth a migratory planet?
  5. ^ Marty, B.; Zimmermann, L.; Pujol, M.; Burgess, R.; Philippot, P. (19 September 2013). "Nitrogen Isotopic Composition and Density of the Archean Atmosphere". Science. 342 (6154): 101–104. arXiv:1405.6337. Bibcode:2013Sci...342..101M. doi:10.1126/science.1240971. PMID 24051244. S2CID 206550098.
  6. ^ Martin, Paula; Hunen, Jeroen van; Parman, Stephen; Davidson, Jon (1 March 2008). "Why does plate tectonics occur only on Earth?" (PDF). Physics Education. 43 (2): 144–150. Bibcode:2008PhyEd..43..144M. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/43/2/002. Retrieved 3 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ Moore, William B.; Webb, A. Alexander G. (25 September 2013). "Heat-pipe Earth". Nature. 501 (7468): 501–505. Bibcode:2013Natur.501..501M. doi:10.1038/nature12473. PMID 24067709. S2CID 4391599.
  8. ^ Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Sandiford, Mike (26 June 2013). "Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers". Nature. 498 (7455): 475–478. Bibcode:2013Natur.498..475E. doi:10.1038/nature12218. PMID 23803847. S2CID 4304803.
  9. ^ Willenbring, Jane K.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; McElroy, Brandon (2013). "Earth is (mostly) flat: Apportionment of the flux of continental sediment over millennial time scales". Geology. 41 (3): 343–346. Bibcode:2013Geo....41..343W. doi:10.1130/G33918.1.
  10. ^ Sklar, Leonard S.; Dietrich, William E. (2001). "Sediment and rock strength controls on river incision into bedrock" (PDF). Geology. 29 (12): 1087. Bibcode:2001Geo....29.1087S. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<1087:SARSCO>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 3 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) (effect description and tools)
  11. ^ Cowie, Patience A.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Attal, Mikaël; Roberts, Gerald; Tucker, Greg E.; Ganas, Athanassios (2008). "New constraints on sediment-flux–dependent river incision: Implications for extracting tectonic signals from river profiles" (PDF). Geology. 36 (7): 535. Bibcode:2008Geo....36..535C. doi:10.1130/G24681A.1. Retrieved 3 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)(field example)
  12. ^ Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Villaseñor, A. (14 December 2011). "Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar arc". Nature. 480 (7377): 359–363. Bibcode:2011Natur.480..359G. doi:10.1038/nature10651. PMID 22170684. S2CID 205227033. Retrieved 3 March 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Author Publications Link
  13. ^ Hsü, Kenneth J. (1987). The Mediterranean was a desert : a voyage of the Glomar Challenger (First Princeton paperback printing ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691024066.
  14. ^ Clauzon, Georges; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Gautier, François; Berger, André; Loutre, Marie-France (1996). "Alternate interpretation of the Messinian salinity crisis: Controversy resolved?". Geology. 24 (4): 363. Bibcode:1996Geo....24..363C. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1996)024<0363:AIOTMS>2.3.CO;2.
  15. ^ Krijgsman, W.; Hilgen, F. J.; Raffi, I.; Sierro, F. J.; Wilson, D. S. (12 August 1999). "Chronology, causes and progression of the Messinian salinity crisis" (PDF). Nature. 400 (6745): 652–655. Bibcode:1999Natur.400..652K. doi:10.1038/23231. hdl:1874/1500. S2CID 4430026.
  16. ^ Bony, Sandrine; Stevens, Bjorn; Frierson, Dargan MW; Jakob, Christian; Kageyama, Masa; Pincus, Robert; et al. (2015). "Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity" (PDF). Nature Geoscience. 8 (4): 261–268. Bibcode:2015NatGe...8..261B. doi:10.1038/ngeo2398.
  17. ^ Björkgren, Maria (2017). The Formation of Granite Magma Chambers in the Mourne Mountains, Northern Ireland.
  18. ^ Kaus, B. J. P.; Reuber, G. S.; Popov, A.; Baumann, T. (2018). "Understanding the Yellowstone magmatic system using 3D geodynamic inverse models" (PDF). In: Geophysical Research Abstracts. 20.
  19. ^ Lowrie, William (2007). Fundamentals of geophysics (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 9781139465953.
  20. ^ Hirose, Kei; Karato, Shun‐ichiro; Cormier, Vernon F.; Brodholt, John P.; Yuen, David A. (2006). "Unsolved problems in the lowermost mantle" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 33 (12): L12S01. Bibcode:2006GeoRL..3312S01H. doi:10.1029/2006GL025691.
  21. ^ Zhang, Y.; Sekine, T.; He, H.; Yu, Y.; Liu, F.; Zhang, M. (2016). "Experimental constraints on light elements in the Earth's outer core". Scientific Reports. 6: 22473. Bibcode:2016NatSR...622473Z. doi:10.1038/srep22473. PMC 4773879. PMID 26932596.
  22. ^ a b Olson, P. (December 2016). "A Mission to Earth's Center". American Geophysical Union, Fall General Assembly 2016, Abstract Id. DI23C-08. 2016: DI23C–08. Bibcode:2016AGUFMDI23C..08O.