• Top left: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was the first and longest-serving vice president of India.
  • Top right: V. V. Giri was the first vice president to serve as acting president upon demise of the president.
  • Bottom left: Mohammad Hamid Ansari was the longest-serving vice president and only vice president to serve under three presidents.
  • Bottom right: Jagdeep Dhankhar is the current vice president.

The vice president of India is the second highest constitutional office in the government of India after the president. In accordance with Article 63 of the Constitution of India, the vice president discharges the functions of the president when a contingency arises due to the resignation, removal, death, impeachment or the inability of the president to discharge their functions. They are also the ex officio chairperson of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.[1][2]

The vice president is elected by an electoral college consisting of all members of both houses of the Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote via a secret ballot conducted by the Election Commission of India. Once elected the vice president continues in office for a five-year term, but can continue in office irrespective of the expiry of the term, until a successor assumes office.[3] They can be removed by a resolution passed by an effective majority in the Rajya Sabha.[4] They are responsible for the protection of the rights and privileges of the members of the Council of States. They also decide whether a bill introduced in the Rajya Sabha is a financial bill.[1] There have been 14 vice presidents since the inception of the post in 1950. The first vice president of India, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, took oath at Rashtrapati Bhavan on 13 May 1952.[5] He later served as the president.[6] Following the death of Zakir Husain in 1969, Varahagiri Venkata Giri resigned from the post of vice president to contest the presidential election and got elected.[7] Out of 14 vice presidents, six of them later went on to become the president.[7] Krishan Kant has been the only one to die during his tenure.[8] M. Venkaiah Naidu[9] is the first vice president to be born after Independent India is formed.

On 11 August 2022, Jagdeep Dhankhar took office as the 14th vice president.[10]

List

This list is numbered based on vice presidents elected after winning an Indian vice presidential election. The vice president of India does not represent any political party. The colors used in the table indicate the following:

# Portrait Name
(Lifespan)
Home state Term of office
Duration in years and days
Mandate Prior positions held Party President
(Tenure)
1 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1888–1975)
Tamil Nadu 13 May
1952
13 May
1957
1952
(Unopposed)
Independent Rajendra Prasad
(26 Jan. 1950 –
13 May. 1962)
13 May
1957
13 May
1962
1957
(Unopposed)
10 years, 0 days
Educationist and former diplomat. Elected as the first vice president of India on 13 May 1952 following the creation of the position and also became the first ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Re-elected for a second term in 1957 and continued to serve in office until being elected as the President in 1962.
2 Zakir Husain
(1897–1969)
Uttar Pradesh 13 May
1962
13 May
1967
1962
(95.3%)
Independent Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(13 May. 1962 –
13 May. 1967)
5 years, 0 days
Educationist and former governor of Bihar. Elected as the second vice president in the 1962 election defeating N. C. Samantsinhar. First Muslim to be elected as vice president. Received the Bharat Ratna during vice presidency in 1963 and briefly served as Acting President in 1965 during the period of President Radhakrishnan's visit to United Kingdom to perform cataract surgery and during that period, imposed President's rule in Kerala. Relinquished office after being elected president in 1967.
3 Varahagiri Venkata Giri
वाराहगिरी वेंकट गिरी
(1894–1980)
Odisha 13 May
1967
3 May
1969[RES]
1967
(71.45%)
Independent Zakir Husain
(13 May. 1967 –
3 May. 1969)
1 year, 355 days
Labour leader, former union minister and former governor. Elected as the third vice president in the 1967 election defeating Mohammad Habib. Became Acting President following the demise of President Zakir Husain on 3 May 1969 and thereupon resigned from the vice presidency. First vice president to not complete full term in office.
Position vacant (3 May 1969 – 31 August 1969)
4 Gopal Swarup Pathak
गोपाल स्वरूप पाठक
(1896–1982)
Uttar Pradesh 31 August
1969
31 August
1974
1969
(52.7%)
Independent Varahagiri Venkata Giri
(24 Aug. 1969 –
24 Aug. 1974)
5 years, 0 days
Former union minister and governor. Elected as the fourth vice president in 1969 to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of his predecessor Varahagiri Venkata Giri by defeating six other candidates. Retired upon completion of tenure in 1974. First vice president to not get elected as president. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
(24 Aug. 1974 –
11 Feb. 1977)
5 Basappa Danappa Jatti
बसप्पा दानप्पा जट्टी
(1912–2002)
Karnataka 31 August
1974
31 August
1979
1974
(78.7%)
Indian National Congress
5 years, 0 days Self
(acting)
(11 Feb. 1977  –
25 Jul. 1977)
Former chief minister of Mysore and former governor. Elected as the fifth vice president in 1974 defeating his nearest rival Niral Enem Horo. Became Acting President on 11 February 1977 following the demise of president Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed and served in the acting capacity till the election of Neelam Sanjiva Reddy in July 1977. Retired as vice president upon completion of tenure in 1979. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
(25 Jul. 1977 –
25 Jul. 1982)
6 Mohammad Hidayatullah
मोहम्मद हिदायतुल्लाह
(1905–1992)
Uttar Pradesh 31 August
1979
31 August
1984
1979
(Unopposed)
Independent
5 years, 0 days
Former chief justice of the Supreme Court and former acting president. Elected unopposed as the sixth vice president in 1979 and became the only individual to have served on the top three constitutional positions in the nation, i.e. the President, Vice President and Chief Justice. Briefly acted as Acting President in 1982 during the period of medical absence of President Zail Singh. Retired as vice president upon completion of tenure in 1984. Giani Zail Singh
(25 Jul. 1982 –
25 Jul. 1987)
7 Ramaswamy Venkataraman
रामस्वामी वेंकटरामन
(1910–2009)
Tamil Nadu 31 August
1984
24 July
1987[RES]
1984
(71.05%)
Indian National Congress
2 years, 327 days
Former union minister. Elected as the seventh vice president in 1984 after defeating B. C. Kamble in the vice presidential election. As vice president, he played important role in being deputed for president on making diplomatic visits and acting as a mediator for then prime minister Rajiv Gandhi and president Zail Singh. Resigned from the vice presidency on the eve of assuming office as the President on 25 July 1987.
Position vacant (25 July 1987 – 3 September 1987)
8 Shankar Dayal Sharma
शंकर दयाल शर्मा
(1918–1999)
Madhya Pradesh 3 September
1987
24 July
1992[RES]
1987
(Unopposed)
Indian National Congress Ramaswamy Venkataraman
(25 Jul. 1987 –
25 Jul. 1992)
4 years, 325 days
Former union minister. Elected unopposed as the eighth vice president in 1987 to fill the vacancy caused by the election of then vice president Ramasamy Venkataraman as the President. Offered to resign in 1988 after his decision, as ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha, to admit a discussion in the house of the purported extravagance of the then governor of Andhra Pradesh was vociferously objected to by members of the government and several ministers of the council of ministers led the protests against his ruling. In 1991, he was offered the presidency of Congress Party and later the premiership after the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, both offers were declined by him. He resigned as the vice president in 1992 after being elected as the President.
Position vacant (25 July 1992 – 21 August 1992)
9 Kocheril Raman Narayanan
(1920–2005)
Kerala 21 August
1992
24 July
1997[RES]
1992
(99.86%)
Indian National Congress Shankar Dayal Sharma
(25 Jul. 1992 –
25 Jul. 1997)
4 years, 337 days
Former diplomat and former union minister. Elected as the ninth vice president in 1992 defeating his rival candidate Kaka Joginder Singh. First Dalit vice president of India. Resigned from the vice presidency in 1997 after being elected as the President.
Position vacant (25 July 1997 – 21 August 1997)
10 Krishan Kant
(1927–2002)
Punjab 21 August
1997
27 July
2002[†]
1997
(61.76%)
Janata Dal Kochirel Raman Narayanan
(25 Jul. 1997 –
25 Jul. 2002)
4 years, 340 days
Former parliamentarian and former governor. Elected as the tenth vice president in 1997 defeating his rival candidate Surjit Singh Barnala of the Shiromani Akali Dal. While serving as vice-president during the 2001 Parliament attack, terrorists used fake labels to gain access to the premises and they crashed into his car. Died in office on 27 July 2002, becoming the first and only vice president to die in office.
Position vacant (27 July 2002 – 19 August 2002)
11 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
(1925–2010)
Rajasthan 19 August
2002
21 July
2007[RES]
2002
(59.82%)
Bharatiya Janata Party A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
(25 Jul. 2002 –
25 Jul. 2007)
4 years, 334 days
Former chief minister of Rajasthan. Elected as the eleventh vice president in 2002 defeating his rival candidate Sushilkumar Shinde of the Indian National Congress. First-ever BJP to be elected as vice president. Nominated as the opposition candidate against Pratibha Patil in the 2007 presidential election in which he was defeated. Resigned from the vice presidency on 21 July 2007 after being defeated in the presidential election.
Position vacant (21 July 2007 – 11 August 2007)
12 Mohammad Hamid Ansari
(born 1937)
West Bengal 11 August
2007
11 August
2012
2007
(60.50%)
Indian National Congress Pratibha Patil
(25 Jul. 2007 –
25 Jul. 2012)
Pranab Mukherjee
(25 Jul. 2012 –
25 Jul. 2017)
11 August
2012
11 August
2017
2012
(67.31%)
Ram Nath Kovind
(25 Jul. 2017 –
25 Jul. 2022)
10 years, 0 days
Former diplomat. Elected as the twelfth vice president in 2007 defeating his rival candidates Najma Heptulla of the Bharatiya Janata Party and Rasheed Masood of the Samajwadi Party. Re-elected to office for a second term in 2012 by defeating his rival candidate Jaswant Singh of the Bharatiya Janata Party. First and only vice president since Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan to be re-elected to office and the longest-serving vice president. Retired from office upon completion of tenure on 11 August 2017, becoming the first vice president to serve under three presidents.
13 Muppavarapu Venkaiah Naidu
(born 1948)
Andhra Pradesh 11 August
2017
11 August
2022
2017
(67.89%)
Bharatiya Janata Party
5 years, 0 days
Former union minister and parliamentarian. Elected as the thirteenth vice president in 2017 defeating his rival candidate Gopalkrishna Gandhi of the Indian National Congress. First vice president to be born after independence. Made several state visits during tenure as vice president and received the Commander of the Order of the Green Crescent of the Comoros during his visit to the Comoros in 2019. Tenure also marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. Retired from office upon completion of tenure in 2022. Droupadi Murmu
(25 Jul. 2022 –
present)
14 Jagdeep Dhankhar
(born 1951)
Rajasthan 11 August
2022
Incumbent 2022
(74.37%)
Bharatiya Janata Party
1 year, 276 days
Former union minister, parliamentarian and governor. Elected as the fourteenth vice president in 2022 defeating his rival candidate Margaret Alva of the Indian National Congress. First vice president to be born after India's becoming a republic in 1950. Currently serving in office.

Statistics

Representation of vice presidents by party of candidacy

  Independent (35.713%)
  Indian National Congress (35.713%)
  Janata Dal (7.143%)
  Bharatiya Janata Party (21.431%)
Timeline
Jagdeep DhankharVenkaiah NaiduMohammad Hamid AnsariBhairon Singh ShekhawatKrishan KantK. R. NarayananShanker Dayal SharmaR. VenkataramanM. HidayatullahB. D. JattiGopal Swarup PathakV. V. GiriZakir Husain (politician)Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "Powers and responsibilities of Vice President of India". News Nation. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  2. ^ Jha, Jitesh (8 August 2017). "Fact Box: Vice President of India". Dainik Jagran. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  3. ^ Relhan, Vibhor (5 August 2017). "Following the elections of the Vice President of India". PRS Legislative Research. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  4. ^ "The Upper House of Indian Parliament". Rajya Sabha. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  5. ^ "From Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan to Venkaiah Naidu: All the Vice Presidents of India". The Times of India. 5 August 2017. Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  6. ^ Greenhouse, Linda (17 April 1975). "Radhakrishnan of India, Philosopher, Dead at 86". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Venkaiah Naidu vs Gopalkrishna Gandhi: 6 vice-presidents who went on to become presidents". India Today. 18 July 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  8. ^ Jafri, Syed Amin (27 July 2002). "Krishan Kant is first vice-president to die in office". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Venkaiah Naidu sworn in as Vice-President". The Hindu. 11 August 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  10. ^ ANI (11 August 2022). "Jagdeep Dhankhar sworn in as 14th Vice President of India". ThePrint. Retrieved 23 August 2022.