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The Lebanese Civil War was a multi-sided military conflict that pitted a variety of local irregular militias, both Muslim and Christian, against each other between 1975 and 1990. A wide variety of weapons were used by the different armies and factions operating in the Lebanese Civil War. Combatants included:

Weapons and equipment

The list below comprises all the weapons and equipment employed by the LNM, Lebanese Front, LAA, AFL, LF, IUM, Hezbollah, Al-Mourabitoun, NLA, Druze PLA, SLA, LAF, ISF, and lesser Lebanese groups (note: the Syrian Army, PLO, Palestinian PLA and IDF are not included on this list).

Pistols and revolvers

Colt M1911A1 pistol
Colt Cobra .38 Special snub-nose revolver
Tokarev TT-33 pistol
CZ 75 pistol
Makarov PM/PMM pistol

Submachine guns

MP 40 Submachine gun
MAT-49 Submachine gun
Škorpion vz. 61 Submachine gun
Steyr-MP-69 Submachine gun
Crvena Zastava Automat M56 Submachine gun

Bolt-action rifles

Semi-automatic rifles

M1 Garand rifle (Beretta Model 1952)
SKS semi-automatic rifle
M14 semi-automatic rifle

Carbines

SIG SG 543 carbine

Assault rifles

FN FAL assault rifle
vz. 58 assault rifle
M16A1 assault rifle
AR-18 assault rifle

Sniper rifles

Dragunov SVD-63 sniper rifle
PSL sniper rifle
M40 sniper rifle
Remington Model 700 sniper rifle

Shotguns

Light machine guns

Israeli Heavy Barrel MAKLEON FAL.
HK 21 light machine gun
M1918A2 BAR

General-purpose machine guns

MG 34 machine gun
MG 42 machine gun

Medium machine gun and Heavy machine guns

M2HB heavy machine gun

Grenade systems

Land mine systems

Anti-tank rocket and grenade launchers

RL-83 Blindicide
M72 LAW
M203 grenade launcher
M79 grenade launcher

Recoilless rifles

B-10 82 mm recoilless rifle in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.
B-11 107 mm recoilless rifle in Batey ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Mortars

Soltam M-65 120 mm heavy mortar in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.
Soltam M-66 160 mm heavy mortar in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Rocket and missile systems

DKB Grad-P 122 mm single-tube rocket launcher system in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Ex-Lebanese Forces APR-40/RO-40 128 mm 6-tube multiple rocket launcher mounted on a DAC chassis in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Anti-tank guns

ZiS-2 57 mm anti-tank gun in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2005.
D-44 85 mm anti-tank gun in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Anti-aircraft guns and Autocannons

AZP S-60 57 mm anti-aircraft gun in Hatzerim Israel Airforce Museum, Beersheba, Israel.

Howitzers

Mle 1950 BF-50 155 mm howitzer in Beyt ha-Totchan Museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.
M-30 122 mm howitzer in Beyt ha-Totchan museum, Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel.

Armoured vehicles

AML-90 of the Lebanese Army in Beirut, 1982.
Ex-PLO built UR-416 clone in Batey Ha-Osef Museum, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2005.
BTR-152 converted into an ARV by the South Lebanese Army in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
Ex-Lebanese Army AMX-VCI in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
BTR-50PK converted into a Medevac vehicle by the South Lebanese Army in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
Ex-Lebanese Army M41A3 light tank in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
Ex-Lebanese Army AMX-13 light tank in Yad La-Shiryon Museum, Latrun, Israel, 2005.
Amal fighters manning a T-55A tank provided by Syria, Beirut 1980s.

Technicals, Gun trucks, transport and recovery vehicles

Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices

Helicopters

A pair of Lebanese Air Force Aérospatiale SA 330C Pumas flying over Beirut, 1983.

Aircraft

Naval craft

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), pp. 44-45, Plate G3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "The Weapons: Semi-auto Pistols". lebaneseforces.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2015.[better source needed]
  3. ^ Walter, Walther Pistols – PP, PPK and P 38 (2022), p. 71.
  4. ^ a b Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 47, Plate H3.
  5. ^ a b c Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate D3.
  6. ^ a b Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate H1.
  7. ^ a b Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B2.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Lebanese Forces : The Weapons: Sub Machine Guns (SMG)". 2016-03-03. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2022-11-23.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  9. ^ McNab, Soviet Submachine Guns of World War II: PPD-40, PPSh-41 and PPS (2014), p. 68.
  10. ^ Popenker, Maxim (27 October 2010). "Sa. 23". Modern Firearms.
  11. ^ Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 45.
  12. ^ a b c Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 30.
  13. ^ a b Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B1.
  14. ^ Republic of Serbia: Ministry of Economy and of Regional Development. "Annual Report on the Transfers of Controlled Goods in 2008". p. 37. Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2014 – via Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Scarlata, Paul (July 2009). "Military rifle cartridges of Lebanon Part 2: from independence to Hezbollah". Shotgun News.
  16. ^ a b c "Post-WWII use of the MAS-36 rifle: Part II (export users)". wwiiafterwwii.wordpress.com. 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2017-06-15.
  17. ^ "MAS-1949 and 49/56". 28 October 2010.
  18. ^ Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 31.
  19. ^ Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 39.
  20. ^ Huon, Un Siècle d'Armement Mondial: Armes à feu d'infanterie de petit calibre, tome 4 (1981), page unknown.
  21. ^ "Foreign Military Assistance".
  22. ^ Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5
  23. ^ Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 16.
  24. ^ Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), p. 48; Plate B3.
  25. ^ Rottman, The AK-47 Kalashnikov-series assault rifles (2011), p. 78.
  26. ^ a b c Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), p. 19.
  27. ^ Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate G5.
  28. ^ Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B4.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-8.
  30. ^ Jenzen-Jones & Spleeters, Identifying & Tracing the FN Herstal FAL Rifle: Documenting signs of diversion in Syria and beyond (2015), pp. 20-21.
  31. ^ a b c d Cooper & Santana, Lebanese Civil War Volume 1: Palestinian diaspora, Syrian and Israeli interventions, 1970-1978 (2019), pp. 44-45.
  32. ^ a b c d e f Laffin, The War of Desperation: Lebanon 1982-85 (1985), p. 40.
  33. ^ Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), pp. 40-41, Plate D2.
  34. ^ Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate H2.
  35. ^ McNab, 20th Century Military Uniforms (2002), p. 174.
  36. ^ Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 44, Plate G2.
  37. ^ a b Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 46, Plate G3.
  38. ^ a b Hokayem, L'armée libanaise pendant la guerre: un instrument du pouvoir du président de la République (1975-1985) (2012), p. 106.
  39. ^ Thompson, The G3 Battle Rifle (2019), pp. 29; 64.
  40. ^ Jenzen-Jones, N.R. (January 2017). Global Development and Production of Self-loading Service Rifles: 1896 to the Present (PDF). Working Paper 25. Small Arms Survey. ISBN 978-2-940548-34-7. JSTOR resrep10728. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2017.
  41. ^ Katz, Russel, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon (1985), p. 40, Plate D1.
  42. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 7; Appendix A, table A-8.
  43. ^ a b Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-3; A-8.
  44. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 355.
  45. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-3.
  46. ^ Russell, Katz, and Volstad, Armies in Lebanon 1982–84 (1985), p. 43.
  47. ^ Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 35.
  48. ^ a b c Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate C3.
  49. ^ McNab, The SVD Dragunov Rifle (2023), p. 50.
  50. ^ a b c d e f "Lebanese Forces : The Weapons: Standard Sniper Rifles". 2016-03-03. Archived from the original on 2016-03-17. Retrieved 2022-12-07.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  51. ^ El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 103.
  52. ^ a b Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 199.
  53. ^ Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate A2.
  54. ^ Laffin, The War of Desperation: Lebanon 1982-85 (1985), pp. 179–183.
  55. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 22.
  56. ^ a b c d e Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 47, Plate H4.
  57. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 43.
  58. ^ a b Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 29.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 15.
  60. ^ a b El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 117.
  61. ^ Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 15.
  62. ^ a b Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 209.
  63. ^ a b c Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 9.
  64. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 22-23.
  65. ^ "Stickgrenade, Type67". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2020-04-11.
  66. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Introduction, p. 1.
  67. ^ a b c Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 41.
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Willey, Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Lebanon (2016), p. 7.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Willey, Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War in Lebanon (2016), p. 9.
  70. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 26.
  71. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 16.
  72. ^ a b c Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 4.
  73. ^ a b c d e Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-11.
  74. ^ a b Rottman, The Rocket-propelled Grenade (2010), p. 63.
  75. ^ Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 10.
  76. ^ a b Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (2003), p. 63.
  77. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 35.
  78. ^ Henson, Jason W."MGM-32 Entac ATGM." Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine "Harpoon Head Quarters". Retrieved: 24 December 2009.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Cooper & Santana, Lebanese Civil War Volume 1: Palestinian diaspora, Syrian and Israeli interventions, 1970-1978 (2019), p. 34.
  80. ^ Katz, Battleground Lebanon (1990), Plate B3.
  81. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 36.
  82. ^ a b c Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), pp. 66-67.
  83. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 15; 35.
  84. ^ Rottman, US Grenade Launchers – M79, M203, and M320 (2017), p. 37.
  85. ^ Rottman, US Grenade Launchers – M79, M203, and M320 (2017), p. 22.
  86. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 194.
  87. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-9; Appendix D, D-6.
  88. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 230.
  89. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 58.
  90. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 31.
  91. ^ A Toyota Land Cruiser BJ40/42 of the AMAL militia in 1984 armed with a Chinese made Type 56 75 mm recoilless rifle.
  92. ^ a b c d e f Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-9.
  93. ^ Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (2003), p. 25.
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  95. ^ Gander, Terry J. (22 November 2000). "National inventories, Lebanon". Jane's Infantry Weapons 2001-2002. p. 3087.
  96. ^ a b c d Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 21.
  97. ^ a b c d Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 26.
  98. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 41-43.
  99. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 82.
  100. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 98.
  101. ^ a b c d Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-6.
  102. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army Through the Eyes of a Lens, 1975–1991 (2019), p. 95.
  103. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 22.
  104. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 76-77; 80.
  105. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 65.
  106. ^ a b Mahé, La Guerre Civile Libanaise, un chaos indescriptible! (1975-1990), p. 81.
  107. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 78-79.
  108. ^ a b Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), pp. 210-211.
  109. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 56.
  110. ^ a b Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 75.
  111. ^ a b c Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (2003), p. 66.
  112. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), p. 81.
  113. ^ a b Guest, Lebanon (1994), p. 106.
  114. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 37.
  115. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 196.
  116. ^ Micheletti and Debay, Liban – dix jours aux cœur des combats, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 9.
  117. ^ Cooper & Sandler, Lebanese Civil War Volume 2: Quiet before the Storm, 1978-1981 (2021), p. 16; Plate i.
  118. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 211.
  119. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 61.
  120. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army through the eyes of a lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 77; 81.
  121. ^ a b Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 26.
  122. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 77.
  123. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 54.
  124. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 25.
  125. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 160.
  126. ^ a b Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), pp. 16-21, 32-36, 52; Appendix A, A-10, table 3; Appendix D, D-5.
  127. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 59.
  128. ^ a b El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 95.
  129. ^ a b c d Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 61.
  130. ^ http://www.warwheels.net/Model_M35A2wBoforsASSAD.html - 1/35 scale model photos of a Lebanese Special Forces AA QF Bofors 40 mm gun mounted on a M35A2 Gun Truck.
  131. ^ http://osw.zone/paint-weathering-diorama/vallejo-colors/135-btr-152-apc-armed-with-bofors-40-mm-gunnlp-tigers-militialebanon1976-by/ - 1/35 scale model photos of a Lebanese Tigers Militia AA QF Bofors 40 mm gun mounted on a BTR-152 APC, c.1976.
  132. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10; Appendix D, D-2.
  133. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 27.
  134. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 15; 53.
  135. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 233.
  136. ^ a b Cooper & Santana, Lebanese Civil War Volume 1: Palestinian diaspora, Syrian and Israeli interventions, 1970-1978 (2019), p. 50.
  137. ^ a b c d e Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10.
  138. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 46.
  139. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 60-61.
  140. ^ a b Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), p. 5.
  141. ^ a b Neville, Technicals: Non-Standard Tactical Vehicles from the Great Toyota War to modern Special Forces (2018), pp. 22-23, Plate C2.
  142. ^ Guardians of the Cedars M34 gun-truck armed with a ZU-23-2 AA autocannon, c.1976.
  143. ^ 1/72 scale model of a Guardians of the Cedars M34 gun-truck armed with a ZU-23-2 Anti-Aircraft autocannon.
  144. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 28.
  145. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 22.
  146. ^ a b Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), p. 52.
  147. ^ Micheletti, Bataille d'Artillerie, RAIDS magazine (1989), p. 14.
  148. ^ Cooper & Santana, Lebanese Civil War Volume 1: Palestinian diaspora, Syrian and Israeli interventions, 1970-1978 (2019), p. 61.
  149. ^ Guest, Lebanon (1994), p. 105.
  150. ^ a b Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 232.
  151. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army Through the Eyes of a Lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 77; 82; 84-85.
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  153. ^ a b Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 10.
  154. ^ Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 1re partie: 1975-1978, p. 11.
  155. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 15; 21-22; 49.
  156. ^ Robinson, Lau and Gibeau, Images of War: The AMX 13 Light Tank, A Complete History – rare photographs from wartime archives (2018), p. 185.
  157. ^ a b c d Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), p. 33.
  158. ^ Mesko, Greer and Manley, M41 Walker Bulldog in action (1991), p. 39.
  159. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 28–29.
  160. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 9; 50.
  161. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), pp. 26; 80; 122.
  162. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), Appendix A, table A-10; Appendix D, D-3.
  163. ^ Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), pp. 33; 39-40, Plate H1.
  164. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 53.
  165. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 53; 62; 80-83.
  166. ^ a b Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 81.
  167. ^ Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 2e partie: Les combats israélo-Syriens au Liban, 1982, p. 8.
  168. ^ Zaloga, Kinnear and Sarson, T-34-85 Medium Tank 1944-94 (1996), pp. 39; 47.
  169. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 67.
  170. ^ Kassis, Invasion of Lebanon 1982 (2019), p. 234.
  171. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), pp. 192; 195.
  172. ^ a b Dunord, Liban: Les milices rendent leurs armes, RAIDS magazine (1991), p. 31.
  173. ^ Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (2003), pp. 64-65.
  174. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 60-61; 65.
  175. ^ El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 97.
  176. ^ Kinnear, Sewell & Aksenov, Soviet T-54 Main Battle Tank (2018), Appendix eight: known customers and users of the T‑54 medium tank, p. 182.
  177. ^ Kinnear, Sewell & Aksenov, Soviet T-55 Main Battle Tank (2019), Appendix six: known client users of the T‑55 medium tank, p. 160.
  178. ^ Abi-Chahine, The People's Liberation Army Through the Eyes of a Lens, 1975–1991 (2019), pp. 54-63.
  179. ^ Menargues, Les Secrets de la guerre du Liban (2004), p. 85.
  180. ^ Kassis, Les TIRAN 4 et 5, de Tsahal aux Milices Chrétiennes, Trucks & Tanks Magazine (2015), p. 59.
  181. ^ Tucker-Jones, Images of War: T–54/55, The Soviet Army's Cold War main battle tank – rare photographs from wartime archives (2017), p. 107.
  182. ^ Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (2003), pp. 63-64.
  183. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 16-18.
  184. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 20.
  185. ^ Naud, La Guerre Civile Libanaise - 1re partie: 1975-1978, p. 10.
  186. ^ Zaloga, Armour of the Middle East Wars 1948-78 (1981), pp. 33; 40, Plate H3.
  187. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), p. 8.
  188. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 38-39; 50.
  189. ^ Jureidini, McLaurin, and Price, Military operations in selected Lebanese built-up areas (1979), p. 21; Appendix D, D-4.
  190. ^ Mesko, Greer and Manley, M41 Walker Bulldog in action (1991), p. 27.
  191. ^ Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2003), pp. 25; 28.
  192. ^ El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks (2008), p. 91.
  193. ^ Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon (2012), pp. 51; 53.
  194. ^ Sex & Abi-Chahine, Modern Conflicts 2 – The Lebanese Civil War, From 1975 to 1991 and Beyond (2021), p. 215.
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