This is a list of exceptional white dwarf stars.

Firsts

These were the first white dwarfs discovered fitting these conditions

Title Star Date Data Comments Notes Refs
First discovered Sirius B 1852 Sirius system Sirius B is also the nearest white dwarf (as of 2005) [1][2]
First found in a binary star system
First double white dwarf system LDS 275 1944 L 462-56 system [3]
First solitary white dwarf Van Maanen 2 1917 Van Maanen's star is also the nearest solitary white dwarf [4]
First white dwarf in a planetary system
First white dwarf with a planet WD B1620−26 2003 PSR B1620-26 b (planet) This planet is a circumbinary planet, which circles both stars in the PSR B1620-26 system [5][6]
First singular white dwarf with a planet WD 1145+017 2015 WD 1145+017 b Planet is extremely small and is disintegrating.
First white dwarf that is a pulsar AR Scorpii A 2016 The star is in a binary system with a red dwarf [7]

Extremes

These are the white dwarfs which are currently known to fit these conditions

Title Star Date Data Comments Notes Refs
Nearest Sirius 1852 8.6 ly (2.6 pc) Sirius B is also the first white dwarf discovered. [1][2]
Farthest SN UDS10Wil progenitor 2013 10,000,000,000Ly z=1.914 SN Wilson is a type-Ia supernova whose progenitor was a white dwarf [8][9][10]
Oldest WD 0343+247
SDSS J110217.48+411315.4
2012 12 Gy (tied)
Youngest SDSS J0003+0718 2011 < 13 My provisional estimate
Highest surface temperature RX J0439.8−6809 2015 250,000 K (250,000 °C; 450,000 °F) This star is located in the Milky Way's galactic halo, in the field of the Large Magellanic Cloud [11][12]
Lowest surface temperature LSPM J1403+4533 2010 2,670 K (2,400 °C; 4,350 °F) Quite a large margin of error (1500 K) [13]
Most luminous
Least luminous PSR J2222-0137 B 2014 too dim to observe
Brightest apparent Sirius 1852 8.44 (V)
Dimmest apparent PSR J2222-0137 B 2014 too dim to observe
Most massive (contender) RE J0317-853 1998 1.35 M
Most massive (contender) ZTF J1901+1458 2020 1.35 M
Least massive SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 2007 0.17 M
Largest Z Andromedae B 0.265±0.095 R
Smallest RE J0317-853 2010 0.0035±0.000575 R

Nearest

10 nearest white dwarfs
Star Distance Comments Notes Refs
Sirius B 8.58 ly (2.63 pc) Sirius B is also the first white dwarf discovered. It is part of the Sirius system. [1][2][14][15]
Procyon B 11.43 ly (3.50 pc) Part of Procyon system [14][15]
van Maanen's Star 14.04 ly (4.30 pc) [14][15]
GJ 440 15.09 ly (4.63 pc) [14]
40 Eridani B 16.25 ly (4.98 pc) Part of 40 Eridani system [14][15]
Stein 2051 B 18.06 ly (5.54 pc) Part of Stein 2051 system [14][15]
LP 44-113 20.0 ly (6.1 pc) [15]
G 99-44 20.9 ly (6.4 pc) [15]
L 97-12 25.8 ly (7.9 pc) [15]
Wolf 489 26.7 ly (8.2 pc) [15]

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c Atlas of the Universe, "The Universe within 12.5 Light Years: The Nearest Stars", Richard Powell, 30 July 2006 (accessed 2010-11-01)
  2. ^ a b c BBC News, "Hubble finds mass of white dwarf", Christine McGourty, 14 December 2005 (accessed 2010-11-01)
  3. ^ W. J. Luyten (September 1944). "Note on the Double White Dwarf L 462-56 = LDS 275". Astrophysical Journal. 100: 202. Bibcode:1944ApJ...100..202L. doi:10.1086/144658.
  4. ^ Schatzman, Évry (1958), White Dwarfs, North Holland Publishing Company, p. 2.
  5. ^ Steinn Sigurdsson; Harvey B. Richer; Brad M. Hansen; Ingrid H. Stairs; Stephen E. Thorsett (July 2003). "A Young White Dwarf Companion to Pulsar B1620-26: Evidence for Early Planet Formation". Science. 301 (5630): 193–196. arXiv:astro-ph/0307339. Bibcode:2003Sci...301..193S. doi:10.1126/science.1086326. PMID 12855802.
  6. ^ "Looking for planets around white dwarfs". Professor Astronomy. 20 August 2010.
  7. ^ Hambsch, Franz-Josef. "Amateurs Help Discover Pulsing White Dwarf". Sky and Telescope.
  8. ^ Jason Major (5 April 2013). "Hubble Spots the Most Distant Supernova Ever". Discovery Channel.
  9. ^ "CANDELS Finds the Most Distant Type Ia Supernova Yet Observed". Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). 23 April 2013.
  10. ^ David O. Jones; Steven A. Rodney; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Tomas Dahlen; Curtis McCully; Teddy F. Frederiksen; Stefano Casertano; Jens Hjorth; Charles R. Keeton; Anton Koekemoer; Louis-Gregory Strolger; Tommy G. Wiklind; Peter Challis; Or Graur; Brian Hayden; Brandon Patel; Benjamin J. Weiner; Alexei V. Filippenko; Peter Garnavich; Saurabh W. Jha; Robert P. Kirshner; Henry C. Ferguson; Norman A. Grogin; Dale Kocevski (2 April 2013). "The Discovery of the Most Distant Known Type Ia Supernova at Redshift 1.914". The Astrophysical Journal (published May 2013). 768 (2): 166. arXiv:1304.0768. Bibcode:2013ApJ...768..166J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/768/2/166. 166.
  11. ^ Universitaet Tübingen (24 November 2015). "The hottest white dwarf in the Galaxy". Science Daily.
  12. ^ K. Werner; T. Rauch (29 September 2015). "Analysis of HST/COS spectra of the bare C–O stellar core H1504+65 and a high-velocity twin in the Galactic halo". Astronomy and Astrophysics (published December 2015). 584: A19. arXiv:1509.08942. Bibcode:2015A&A...584A..19W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527261. A19.
  13. ^ Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, S. K.; Tremblay, P. -E.; von Hippel, Ted; Bergeron, P.; Harris, Hugh C.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Gates, Evalyn; Farihi, J. (2010-09-01). "A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Cool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 190: 77–99. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/190/1/77. ISSN 0067-0049.
  14. ^ a b c d e f David Taylor (2012). "White Dwarf Stars Near The Earth" (PDF). The Life and Death of Stars. Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences - Northwestern University.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "White dwarfs within 10 parsecs". Sol Station. 2011.

See also