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Dialects spoken in Venezuela.
Dialects spoken in Venezuela.
Spanish dialects of Colombia.
Spanish dialects of Colombia.

The Llanero Spanish is the set of linguistic modalities of the Spanish language spoken in the Venezuelan-Colombian Llanos region. It is characterized by the mixing of elements from Old Spanish with indigenous elements.

Features

Phonetics

The yeísmo dialect feature is characteristic of Llanero Spanish, and the articulation of the "r" to its weakening (vorqueta by volqueta, a phenomenon seen in Arauca, Colombia) or its disappearance in the infinitive (ventiá, aserrá, ordeñá, cogé, etc.).

Llanero Spanish is also characterized by the articulation of the "s" (implosive), the aspiration (maíh= maíz) or loss (cataplama = cataplasma) of the "s" as well. The feature of the aspiration of the "s" prevocalic (ji jeñol, eso je li olvida = sí señor, eso se le olvida) also appears.

Intervocalic fricatives (b-d-g) weaken or disappear in the llanero speech (auacero = aguacero).

It preserves the sound of the old "h". It is a feature more seen in Venezuela, Arauca and Casanare (joyo, jumo, mojo, jallan, sajuma, ajoga, ajita by hoyo, humo, moho, hallan, sahúma, ahoga, ahíta).

Grammar

Llanero Spanish suppresses or weakens the redundant "-s" of the plural, e.g., ''los antioqueño, loj perro, cuatronarice (cuatronarices is a local snake species), loj padrino.

Llanero Spanish also has a similar nominal composition to costeño dialects, e.g., pativoltiao (pata + volteado ie noun + adjective).

Formation of past composite of subjunctive with the verb “ser”, e.g.: “Si no fuera (hubiera) sido por Guadalupe Salcedo…”.

Lexicon

Some lexical forms of costeño origin registered in the region are: “cautivar” (cultivate), “concha” (shell or peel), “pollino” (young donkey), and “yerna” (daughter).

It also has contributions from Western Colombian as “hamero” (wrapper of cob), “choclo” (tender maize), or “rabipelao” (opossum).

Substrates and contributors

Indigenous Inheritance

Perhaps the most distinguishing quality of Llanero Spanish is its Indigenous inheritance.

Many indigenous terms are often incorporated into Llanero speech, including:

Maps and geography texts provide an abundance of onomastics of indigenous origin: water names and place names like Guatiquía, Guayuriba, Guarca, Guaicaramo. Perhaps less known is the indigenous contribution to the anthroponymy seen in the many last names of members of the Spanish-speaking communities, Catimay, Cuburuco, Chaquea, Humejé, Tabaco, Tupanteve, Tumay, Achagua, Cuyaré, Chamarrabí, Chipiaje, Errenumá, Guacabare, Gaspaday, Guatumé, Itanare, Pirache, Renumá, Tarache, Yaguiduá, Yavimay, Yaya, Guanay, etc.

Internal development

Example of how the operation of the language in the peculiar conditions of Los Llanos will produce more or less specific facts is the reorganization of certain lexical microsystems. Throughout the region of Casanare “mirar” has advanced on the semantic field of “ver” almost disappeared from ordinary speech to this verbEntonces miró el presidente Rojas Pinilla que el Llano era una gran belleza”, “¿Él no está por aquí? – No, no lo he mirao; “Yo ya no miro pa’ trabajar esta cosa”; and the same phenomenon is starting to affect the couple “oír – escuchar” in which the latter tends to absorb at first.

Is also typical of Los Llanos the classification of the grocery grown musaceas in three groups: plantains, bananas and topochos; the great importance in the life of the Llanero has this last variety makes form to it a special class.

The indigenous influence also appears in an indirect and mediated way, not in aboriginal languages, but rather because of characteristics specialties of coexistence of native and indigenous communities, characteristics that come to be very indicative of relationships among these communities, that is, between the silent struggle that continues to develop between them, phenomenas characterized by the concepts that the Creole has respect to indigenous: “tunebo” is "ranger", “guajibo” to shy or reclusive '"(Arauca); and in Puerto López a saying that could well explain alone the struggles between the Llaneros and the Indians who caused commotion in the Colombian community was heard: "'Neither donkey is beast' 'or Indian is people' , or cassava serves for provision”.

And voices of traditional Hispanic roots only common in Los Llanos or used it with a peculiar sense are, among others: “el cerro” (the mountain range, the Andes), “cachilapero” (the stealing cattle and disfigures its brands), "cámara', “camarita” (compañero, camarada), “camazo” (calabazo), “caramera” (cornamenta), 'guate' "(rural person), “guafa” (guadua), “magalla” (bag for the hammock), “pompo” (rough, clumsy), “saquero” (cattle buyer), "soropo" "ensoropao" (palm leaf wall) etc., etc.

See also