Lloyd Axworthy
Lloyd Axworthy (1999).JPEG
Lloyd Axworthy, Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs, in 1999
President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Winnipeg
In office
June 6, 2004 – June 27, 2014
ChancellorSanford Riley
Bob Silver
Preceded byPatrick Deane (acting)
Succeeded byAnnette Trimbee
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
January 25, 1996 – October 16, 2000
Prime MinisterJean Chrétien
Preceded byAndré Ouellet
Succeeded byJohn Manley
Minister of Employment and Immigration
In office
November 4, 1993 – January 24, 1996
Prime MinisterJean Chrétien
Preceded byBernard Valcourt
Succeeded byDoug Young
In office
March 3, 1980 – August 11, 1983
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
Preceded byRon Atkey
Succeeded byJohn Roberts
Minister of Labour
In office
November 4, 1993 – February 21, 1995
Prime MinisterJean Chrétien
Preceded byBernard Valcourt
Succeeded byLucienne Robillard
Minister of Transport
In office
August 12, 1983 – September 16, 1984
Prime MinisterPierre Trudeau
John Turner
Preceded byJean-Luc Pépin
Succeeded byDon Mazankowski
Member of Parliament
for Winnipeg South Centre
(Winnipeg—Fort Garry; 1979–1988)
In office
May 22, 1979 – November 27, 2000
Preceded bySidney Spivak
Succeeded byAnita Neville
Member of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba for Fort Rouge
In office
June 28, 1973 – April 6, 1979
Preceded byInez Trueman
Succeeded byJune Westbury
Personal details
Lloyd Norman Axworthy

(1939-12-21) December 21, 1939 (age 83)
North Battleford, Saskatchewan, Canada
Political partyLiberal
Other political
New Democratic
Alma materUniversity of Winnipeg (BA)
Princeton University (Ph.D.)
OccupationAcademic, author

Lloyd Norman Axworthy PC CC OM (born December 21, 1939) is a Canadian politician, elder statesman and academic. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien. Following his retirement from parliament, he served as president and vice-chancellor of the University of Winnipeg from 2004 to 2014 and as chancellor of St. Paul's University College (a constituent institution of the University of Waterloo). He is currently the Chair of the World Refugee & Migration Council.


Axworthy was born in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, to parents Norman and Gwen Axworthy and into a family with strong United Church roots, and received his BA from United College, a Winnipeg-based Bible school, in 1961. He is the older brother of Tom Axworthy, Robert Axworthy (former Manitoba Liberal Party leadership candidate). He received his Ph.D. in politics from Princeton University in 1972 after completing a doctoral dissertation titled "The task force on housing and urban development: a study of democratic decision making in Canada."[1] He returned to Canada to teach at the University of Manitoba and the University of Winnipeg. At the latter, he also became the director of the Institute of Urban Affairs.[2]

Early political career

Axworthy became involved in politics during the 1950s, becoming a member of the Liberal Party after attending a speech by Lester B. Pearson. He briefly aligned himself with the New Democratic Party (NDP) in the 1960s when Pearson, as federal opposition leader, called for American Bomarc nuclear warheads to be allowed on Canadian soil. He soon returned to the Liberal fold, however, and worked as an executive assistant for John Turner;[citation needed] he supported Turner's bid to become party leader at the 1968 leadership convention.

Axworthy ran for the party in Winnipeg North Centre in the 1968 election, finishing second against veteran NDP Member of Parliament (MP) Stanley Knowles. He first ran for the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba in the 1966 election, placing second to Progressive Conservative Douglas Stanes in St. James. In the 1973 election, he was elected as a Manitoba Liberal in Fort Rouge, He was re-elected in the 1977 election, and was the only Liberal in the legislature from 1977 to 1979.

Federal government

He resigned from the Manitoba legislature on April 6, 1979, to run for the federal House of Commons, and in the 1979 election narrowly defeated former provincial PC leader Sidney Spivak in Winnipeg—Fort Garry. He was re-elected in the 1980 election, becoming the only Liberal MP west of Ontario. He was promoted to cabinet under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, serving as Minister of Employment and Immigration, and then as Minister of Transport.

In the Liberal defeat in the 1984 election, Axworthy was one of only two Liberals west of Ontario to be elected (the other being then Liberal leader John Turner). Axworthy played a role in opposition, supporting tough on crime policies, but also supporting fiscal conservatism by critiquing the fiscal taxation policy of Brian Mulroney. He was an especially vocal critic of the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement.

When the Liberals returned to power in 1993 under Jean Chrétien, Axworthy became a Cabinet minister. After the election, he was given responsibility for the Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), and launched changes in employment insurance. Although his main interest was urban renewal, in a 1996 cabinet shuffle, he became Minister of Foreign Affairs.

In February 1999 and April 2000, Axworthy was President of the United Nations Security Council with Canada's Ambassador to the UN Robert Fowler. In April 2000, Axworthy supported the highly controversial effort to reduce the sanction against Iraq, under the regime of Saddam Hussein, citing a humanitarian explanation "to avoid making ordinary citizens pay for the actions of their leaders". Axworthy clashed with the US government on this issue, particularly over the lack of alternative options to deter the regime from additional aggression.[3] In 2000, he initiated the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty that led to the UN policy of Responsibility to Protect.[4]

He retired from politics in 2000.[5]

Honours and awards

In 1997, Axworthy was nominated by United States Senator Patrick Leahy to receive the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on banning land mines.[6] He did not win, but was thanked by the recipients, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, as having been instrumental in their effort.[7] Critics, however, viewed Axworthy's land mine campaign and the involvement of political NGOs as counter-productive, since many key nations, including the US, Russia and China did not join.[8]

In 1998, he was one of the two winners of the North–South Prize.[9] In 2003, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada[10] and elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[11]

On October 15, 2012, Elder, Dr. Tobasonakwut Kinew and, Dr. Phil Fontaine, honoured Axworthy – Waapshki Pinaysee Inini, Free Range Frog Man, at a sacred Pipe Ceremony. Axworthy was recognized for his commitment to creating an inclusive learning experience that reflects Indigenous cultures and traditions at UWinnipeg. The ceremony was led by Anishinaabe Elder Fred Kelly and musician and broadcaster Wab Kinew.[12]

Axworthy was presented with an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Environment of the University of Waterloo in October 2014.[13]

On December 30, 2015, Axworthy was promoted to Companion of the Order of Canada, the highest grade of the honour.[14]

After politics

In September 2000, Axworthy returned to academia, joining the Liu Institute for Global Issues at the University of British Columbia. He has published Navigating A New World, a book on the uses of "soft power".

In May 2004, he was appointed as president and vice-chancellor of the University of Winnipeg. He retired in June 2014.

Axworthy is Chair of the Advisory Committee for the Americas Division of Human Rights Watch, a highly controversial position resulting from this organisation's record of political bias, fundraising in Saudi Arabia, and lack of credibility.[15] He also serves on the advisory council of USC Center on Public Diplomacy and of Fair Vote Canada, and is an endorser of the Genocide Intervention Network and International Student Exchange, Ontario.

In 2006, Axworthy was elected to the Board of Directors of Hudbay Minerals, Inc.[16]

He currently serves as the President of the World Federalist Movement-Institute for Global Policy.[17]

Axworthy was installed as Chancellor of St. Paul's University College, a constituent institution of the University of Waterloo, in October 2014.[13] He retired from that position in 2017.

Axworthy is the first Chair of the World Refugee & Migration Council, formed in 2017 by the Centre for International Governance Innovation.[18]


Electoral history

2000 Canadian federal election: Winnipeg South Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Anita Neville 15,231 40.46 −15.42
Progressive Conservative David Newman 10,675 28.36 +14.36
New Democratic James Allum 7,501 19.93 +3.96
Alliance Betty Granger 3,210 8.53 −3.92
Marijuana Chris Buors 640 1.70
Canadian Action Magnus Thompson 202 0.54
Communist David Allison 181 0.48
Total valid votes 37,640 99.52
Total rejected ballots 181 0.48 -0.35
Turnout 37,821 62.54 -2.38
Eligible voters 60,471
Liberal hold Swing -14.89

Note: Canadian Alliance vote is compared to the Reform vote in 1997 election.

1997 Canadian federal election: Winnipeg South Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Lloyd Axworthy 20,006 55.89 −5.55
New Democratic Sara Malabar 5,717 15.97 +7.63
Progressive Conservative Andrea Rolstone 5,011 14.00 +4.73
Reform Gary Hollingshead 4,457 12.45 −0.10
Natural Law Ron Decter 224 0.63 +0.09
Independent Jim Blomquist 202 0.56
Marxist–Leninist Karen Naylor 180 0.50 +0.32
Total valid votes 35,797 99.17
Total rejected ballots 299 0.83
Turnout 36,096 64.92
Eligible voters 55,600
Liberal hold Swing -6.59
1993 Canadian federal election: Winnipeg South Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Lloyd Axworthy 25,881 61.44 +3.01
Reform Vern A. Hannah 5,288 12.55 +10.82
Progressive Conservative Mike Radcliffe 3,903 9.26 −19.64
New Democratic Lloyd Penner 3,512 8.34 −2.01
National Bill Loewen 3,099 7.36
Natural Law Elizabeth Innes 225 0.53
Libertarian Clancy Smith 89 0.21 −0.13
Independent Karen Naylor 76 0.18
Canada Party Ben J. Fulawka 54 0.13
Total valid votes 42,127 100.0
Liberal hold Swing -3.90
1988 Canadian federal election: Winnipeg South Centre
Party Candidate Votes %
Liberal Lloyd Axworthy 26,191 58.42
Progressive Conservative Garth Dawley 12,960 28.91
New Democratic Les Campbell 4,637 10.34
Reform Ross Malabar 777 1.73
Libertarian Clancy Smith 154 0.34
Independent Ken Kalturnyk 111 0.25
Total valid votes 44,830 100.0


  1. ^ Axworthy, Lloyd (1972). The task force on housing and urban development : a study of democratic decision making in Canada.
  2. ^ "The University of Winnipeg Foundation; The University of Winnipeg". www.uwinnipeg.ca.
  3. ^ "MPs urge lifting sanctions to halt Iraq 'tragedy': Toronto Star". www.dgp.toronto.edu. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  4. ^ "The Responsibility to Protect". www.idrc.ca. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  5. ^ Geddes, John (23 February 2016). "Maclean's Lifetime Achievement Award - Lloyd Axworthy: A politician who thinks globally, and acts locally". Maclean's. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  6. ^ "Global Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines: efforts deserve Nobel Peace Prize". Disability International. Archived from the original on 21 March 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2005..
  7. ^ "The Norwegian Nobel Institute". Archived from the original on 8 September 2005.
  8. ^ Davenport, David (1 December 2002). "The New Diplomacy". Policy Review.
  9. ^ "The North South Prize of Lisbon". North-South Centre. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  10. ^ "Order of Canada Lloyd Axworthy". Office of the Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  12. ^ "Axworthy Honoured At Sacred Pipe Ceremony". University of Winnipeg. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Lloyd Axworthy to be installed as first chancellor of St. Paul's today". St. Paul's University College. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
  14. ^ "Order of Canada Appointments". The Governor General of Canada His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston. Governor General of Canada. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  15. ^ Bernstein, Robert L. (20 October 2009). "Opinion: Rights Watchdog, Lost in the Mideast". New York Times.
  16. ^ "Hudbay Minerals Inc. - News/Media". hudbayminerals.com.
  17. ^ "President | WFM-IGP". www.wfm-igp.org. Archived from the original on 29 June 2014.
  18. ^ "About the World Refugee & Migration Council". World Refugee & Migration Council. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
26th Ministry – Cabinet of Jean Chrétien Cabinet posts (4) Predecessor Office Successor André Ouellet Minister of Foreign Affairs1996–2000 John Manley Larry Schneider Minister of Western Economic Diversification1993–1996 John Manley Bernard Valcourt Minister of Employment and Immigration1993–1996styled asMinister of Human Resources Development Doug Young Bernard Valcourt Minister of Labour1993–1995styled asMinister of Human Resources Development Lucienne Robillard 23rd Ministry – Cabinet of John Turner Cabinet post (1) Predecessor Office Successor cont'd from 22nd Min. Minister of Transport1984 Don Mazankowski 22nd Ministry – Second cabinet of Pierre Trudeau Cabinet posts (2) Predecessor Office Successor Jean-Luc Pépin Minister of Transport1983–1984 cont'd into 23rd Min. Ron Atkey Minister of Employment and Immigration1980–1983 John Roberts Special Cabinet Responsibilities Predecessor Title Successor David MacDonald Minister responsible for the Status of Women1980–1981 Judy Erola Legislative Assembly of Manitoba Preceded byInez Trueman Member of the Legislative Assembly for Fort Rouge 1973–1979 Succeeded byJune Westbury Parliament of Canada Preceded bySidney Spivak Member of Parliament for Winnipeg—Fort Garry 1979–1988 Succeeded byThis electoral district was abolished in 1987 Preceded byThis electoral district was created in 1987 Member of Parliament for Winnipeg South Centre 1988–2000 Succeeded byAnita Neville
Academic offices Preceded byPatrick Deane (acting) President of the University of Winnipeg June 6, 2004 – June 27, 2014 Succeeded byAnnette Trimbee New office Chancellor of St. Paul's University College October 24, 2014 Incumbent