This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Italian. (February 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Italian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 2,271 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Italian Wikipedia article at [[:it:Maiuscola_longobarda]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|it|Maiuscola_longobarda)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Lombardic capitals in a manuscript (the Ambraser Heldenbuch, fol. 75v, c. 1516)
Lombardic capitals in a manuscript (the Ambraser Heldenbuch, fol. 75v, c. 1516)

Lombardic capitals is the name given to a type of decorative upper-case letters used in inscriptions and, typically, at the start of a section of text in medieval manuscripts.[1] They are characterized by their rounded forms with thick, curved stems. Paul Shaw describes the style as a "relative" of uncial writing.[2]

Unlike Gothic capitals, Lombardic capitals were also used to write words or entire phrases. They were used both in illuminated manuscripts and monumental inscriptions, like the bell tower of Santa Chiara, Naples. In Italian, the style is known as "Longobarda" after an earlier spelling of the Lombardy region.[3]

Lombardic capitals in an early printed book (Cicero's De viris illustribus, Nicolas Jenson c.1470)
Lombardic capitals in an early printed book (Cicero's De viris illustribus, Nicolas Jenson c.1470)
Inscription in Lombardic Capitals on the campanile of Santa Chiara, Naples
Inscription in Lombardic Capitals on the campanile of Santa Chiara, Naples
Frederic Goudy's Lombardic Capitals, metal type
Frederic Goudy's Lombardic Capitals, metal type

History

The term Lombardic comes from the study of incunabula.[4] A characteristic form of text decoration in manuscripts and early printed books with hand colouring was to use alternating red and blue Lombardic capitals for the start of each successive paragraph.[4][5] Unlike historiated or inhabited initials, Lombardic capitals are devoid of further decoration.[6]

In modern times, fonts of Lombardic capitals have been designed by many typographers, such as Frederic Goudy, who included a set as an alternative uppercase for his Goudy Text font.[7]

First, Lombardic, or the national hand of Italy, which was a development of the uncial and was first used in northern Italy. The Lombardic character is a most useful and interesting form and presents less of the fixed quality of the Roman. There are many and wide variations of it as developed by the scribes in different countries. It was the favorite form selected for initials and versals in manuscripts, which were usually painted in, in colors and gold, the solidity of the bodystrokes making it especially adaptable for this purpose. At its best this Lombardic letter preserves much of the feeling of the uncials of the sixth and seventh centuries.

— Frederic Goudy[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Harris, David (1995). The Art of Calligraphy: a practical guide to the skills and techniques (1st American ed.). London [u.a.]: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 62–4. ISBN 9780751301496.
  2. ^ Shaw, Paul (1982). Black Letter Primer: an introduction to Gothic alphabets (Rev. ed.). New York: Taplinger Pub. Co. p. 52. ISBN 9780800808105.
  3. ^ "calligrafie - ASDPS ARMIS ET LEO". www.armisetleo.it.
  4. ^ a b Schneider, Karin (2014). Paläographie und Handschriftenkunde für Germanisten. Eine Einführung (3rd ed.). Berlin, Boston. p. 155. ISBN 978-3-11-033704-4.
  5. ^ Hellinga, Lotte (2018). Incunabula in Transit: People and Trade. Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 183–184. ISBN 978-90-04-34036-7. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  6. ^ Schneider, Ulrich Johannes, ed. (2016). Textkünste. Buchrevolution um 1500 (2nd ed.). Darmstadt: Wissenschafliche Buchgesellschaft. p. 219. ISBN 978-3-8053-5100-3.
  7. ^ "Goudy Text Lombardic Capitals". Monotype. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  8. ^ Goudy, Frederic W. (1922). The Alphabet. New York: Mitchell Kennerly. p. 21.