Longlin
隆林县 · Lungzlinz Yen
隆林各族自治县 · Lungzlinz Gakcuz Swciyen
Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County
Longlin County government
Longlin County government
Longlin is located in Guangxi
Longlin
Longlin
Location of the seat in Guangxi
Coordinates (Longlin County government): 24°46′14″N 105°20′38″E / 24.7706°N 105.3438°E / 24.7706; 105.3438Coordinates: 24°46′14″N 105°20′38″E / 24.7706°N 105.3438°E / 24.7706; 105.3438
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Autonomous regionGuangxi
Prefecture-level cityBaise
Area
 • Total3,452 km2 (1,333 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total437,907
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Websitehttp://www.gxll.gov.cn/

Longlin Various Nationalities (Gezu) Autonomous County (Chinese: 隆林各族自治县; pinyin: Lónglín Gèzú Zìzhìxiàn) is an autonomous county, under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baise, in the west of Guangxi, China, bordering Guizhou Province to the north.[1] As of 2019, the county's population was 437,907 people.[1]

The county is inhabited by several ethnic minorities, including the Miao, Yi, Gelao and Zhuang, who constitute approximately 80% of the county's population.[2]

History

Present-day Longlin was incorporated first incorporated into the Song Dynasty in 1253, when it fell under the jurisdiction of Anlongdong as part of the Sicheng Prefecture [zh].[1] In 1402, the area was reorganized as Anlong Prefecture, until 1666, when it was again reorganized as Xilong Prefecture [zh].[1] Xilong Prefecture underwent administrative changes in 1729, but otherwise went unchanged until 1912, when the Republic of China was established and the area was reorganized as Xilong County.[1]

The area became part of the People's Republic of China in March 1950, and a communist-led local government was set up on March 18, 1950.[1] On January 1, 1953 the area was renamed from Xilong County to Longlin County.[1]

Geography

Longlin is bordered by Tianlin County to the east, Xilin County to the south, and by Anlong County and Ceheng County in Guizhou Province to the north.[1] The county is home to the Tianshengqiao I and Tianshengqiao II dams, which sit along the Nanpan River.[1]

Climate

Climate data for Longlin (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.2
(91.8)
34.5
(94.1)
38.0
(100.4)
39.8
(103.6)
40.5
(104.9)
39.2
(102.6)
37.7
(99.9)
37.3
(99.1)
37.4
(99.3)
33.3
(91.9)
32.5
(90.5)
28.7
(83.7)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
18.3
(64.9)
22.8
(73.0)
27.8
(82.0)
29.7
(85.5)
30.3
(86.5)
31.0
(87.8)
31.1
(88.0)
29.2
(84.6)
25.1
(77.2)
21.4
(70.5)
17.1
(62.8)
24.9
(76.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
12.8
(55.0)
16.6
(61.9)
21.2
(70.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.1
(77.2)
25.7
(78.3)
25.3
(77.5)
23.3
(73.9)
19.9
(67.8)
15.9
(60.6)
11.7
(53.1)
19.3
(66.8)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
9.2
(48.6)
12.4
(54.3)
16.5
(61.7)
19.4
(66.9)
21.5
(70.7)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
19.7
(67.5)
16.8
(62.2)
12.5
(54.5)
8.4
(47.1)
15.7
(60.2)
Record low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
0.6
(33.1)
2.2
(36.0)
6.8
(44.2)
10.4
(50.7)
15.0
(59.0)
16.4
(61.5)
16.2
(61.2)
10.3
(50.5)
7.2
(45.0)
2.5
(36.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.9
(0.86)
24.3
(0.96)
34.8
(1.37)
57.5
(2.26)
155.4
(6.12)
225.2
(8.87)
227.1
(8.94)
172.4
(6.79)
102.3
(4.03)
71.5
(2.81)
39.8
(1.57)
17.1
(0.67)
1,149.3
(45.25)
Average relative humidity (%) 81 78 73 72 76 83 84 84 82 84 83 81 80
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Administrative divisions

Longlin County is divided into 6 towns and 10 townships.[3][4] The county government is seated in the town of Xinzhou [zh].[3]

The county's 6 towns are Xinzhou, Yacha, Tianshengqiao [zh], Pingban [zh], De'e, and Longhuo [zh].[3][4]

The county's 10 townships are Shali Township [zh], Zhebao Township [zh], Zhelang Township [zh], Gebu Township [zh], Jinzhongshan Township [zh], Zhuchang Township [zh], Shechang Township [zh], Kechang Township [zh], Yancha Township [zh], and Jieting Township [zh].[3][4]

Demographics

Vital Statistics

As of 2010, the county had a crude birth rate of 20.04 per 1,000, and a crude death rate of 5.37 per 1,000, giving the county a rate of natural increase of 14.67 per 1,000.[2]

Ethnic groups

Longlin Ethnic Composition
Ethnic Group 1995 Population[5] 2019 Population[2]
Zhuang 182,654 (53.74%) 217,140 (49.59%)
Miao 80,855 (23.79%) 126,044 (28.78%)
Han 70,720 (20.81%) 85,435 (19.50%)
Yi 3,152 (0.93%) 5,281 (1.20%)
Gelao 2,380 (0.7%) 3,796 (0.87%)

Zhuang People

The Zhuang People of Longlin have various cultural similarities to the Yue people who historically inhabited the area, including the use of bronze drums [zh], as well as various autonyms.[2] The towns of Xinzhou [zh], Tianshengqiao [zh], and Pingban [zh], as well as Zhebao Township [zh] and Gebu Township [zh] all have significant Zhuang populations.[2]

Miao People

The county is home to six different groups of Miao people:[2][5]

Despite these different groups within the Miao populations of Longlin, all groups share similar ethnic origins.[2] The Miao People of Longlin County are believed to be native to Hubei and Hunan who migrated southwest towards Guizhou and Yunnan, and later arrived in the region during the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty.[2] The probably reason for this migration appears connected to the Qing suppression of Miao uprisings in Guizhou and Xiangxi.[2] The Miao People of Longlin County have many cultural similarities to Miao populations found in Guizhou, including shared folklore, linguistic dialects, naming conventions, toponymy, rituals, and celebrations.[2]

The towns of Xinzhou [zh] and De'e, as well as the townships of Zhuchang Township [zh], Shechang Township [zh], and Kechang Township [zh] all have significant Miao populations.[2] The former townships of Kechang, Changfa, and Changme also have considerable Miao populations.[6]

Yi People

Longlin is home to a considerable amount of Yi (autonym: ŋo˧ pʰu˨˩[7]), who historically lived in western Yunnan.[2] Historical documents from the Nanzhao State suggest that certain Yi populations left Yunnan to avoid inter-tribal violence.[2] Considerable Yi populations live in Xinzhou [zh])|WD=)), De'e, and Zhuchang Township [zh])|WD=)).[2] Within De'e, Yi people are concentrated in Agao (阿稿), Nadi (那地), Nongbao (弄保), Tangshi (塘石), and 10 other villages.[6] Yi are also found scattered across various villages in Yancha Township [zh], Zhelang Township [zh], and the former townships of Changfa and Kechang.[citation needed]

Gelao People

The county's Gelao People moved to the area from Guizhou during the early Qing Dynasty, with local legends suggesting that the reason for this migration could have been conflict or famine.[2]

In May 1990, a group of people known as the Lai (), who moved to the area from Guizhou during the early Ming Dynasty, were determined to be part of the Gelao people by the county government after a five day hearing on the matter.[2] When the change was made in 1990, 978 people who were formerly classified as Lai in ethnicity were re-designated Gelao in ethnicity.[2]

The county's Gelao people are largely found in De'e, Kechang Township [zh], Zhelang Township [zh], Yancha Township [zh], and Shechang Township [zh].[2] The villages of Sanchong (三冲) and Moji (么基) have particularly large Gelao populations.[6]

Han Chinese

The first migration of Han Chinese to the area took place shortly after the Song Dynasty, and a document from 1673 suggests more than 10 Han families lived in area at the time.[2] Areas with large Han populations are Xinzhou [zh], Yacha, Longhuo [zh], Tianshengqiao [zh], Yancha Township [zh], Jieting Township [zh], Shechang Township [zh], Kechang Township [zh], Zhebao Township [zh], and Jinzhongshan Township [zh].[2]

Unrecognized groups

The autonomous county is home to some Bolyu people, an unrecognized ethnic minority.[8] The Bolyu mostly live in the northern portion of the autonomous county,[9] alongside local Miao populations.[10]

Economy

As of 2019, the county's primary sector accounts for 26.1% of the economy, the secondary sector accounts for 19.5%, and the tertiary sector accounts for 54.4%.[11]

As of 2019, the disposable income of the county's urban residents averages 32,508 Yuan, and the disposable income of the county's rural residents averages 9,972 Yuan.[11]

Culture

Each year, at the beginning of the lunar new year, a festival in the village of De'e is held, featuring the music and dance of the various ethnic groups who live in the area.[12] Each ethnic group also has its own traditions to celebrate the lunar new year, some of which are shared across multiple different groups.[2]

The county's different peoples also have festivals unique to their own ethnicity, as well as festivals shared across multiple different ethnicities, such as the Dragon Boat Festival and the Double Third Festival.[2]

Transportation

National Highway 324 runs through the county.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 隆林概况 [Longlin Overview]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-30. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v 人文景观 [Cultural Landscape]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-30. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
  3. ^ a b c d 行政区划 [Administrative Divisions]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2019-12-03. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
  4. ^ a b c 2019年统计用区划代码. stats.gov.cn (in Chinese). 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-25.
  5. ^ a b 隆林各族自治县志 (2002)。
  6. ^ a b c Guangxi Minority Languages Orthography Committee, ed. (2008). 广西民族语言方音词汇 [Vocabularies of Guangxi ethnic languages]. Beijing: Publishing House of Minority Nationalities.
  7. ^ Li Shengfu [李生福]. 2011. "A sketch of Epo Yi" [彝语峨颇话概况]. Minzu Yuwen.
  8. ^ Edmondson, Jerold (1995). "English-Bolyu Glossary" (PDF). Mon–Khmer Studies. 24: 133–159.
  9. ^ "Bolyu". Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved 2022-03-31.
  10. ^ Edmondson, Jerold; Gregerson, Kenneth (1995). "Bolyu tone in Vietic perspective" (PDF). Mon-Khmer Studies. 26: 117–133.
  11. ^ a b 隆林经济 [Economy of Longlin]. Guangxi Baise Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County People's Government Web Portal (in Chinese). 2020-06-19. Archived from the original on 2020-06-26. Retrieved 2020-06-26.
  12. ^ "Minorities Celebrate Festival Together". People's Daily Online. 2000-02-16. Archived from the original on 2019-03-06. Retrieved 2020-06-26.