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Kloster Lorsch
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Kloster Lorsch 06.jpg
The 9th-century Torhalle (gatehouse) is a unique survival of the Carolingian era. It curiously combines some elements of the Roman triumphal arch (arch-shaped passageways, half-columns) with the vernacular Teutonic heritage (baseless triangles of the blind arcade, polychromatic masonry).
LocationLorsch, Bergstraße, Hesse, Germany
Part ofAbbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch
CriteriaCultural:  (iii), (iv)
Reference515bis-001
Inscription1991 (15th Session)
Area3.11 ha (7.7 acres)
Buffer zone14.825 ha (36.63 acres)
Websitewww.kloster-lorsch.de/en
Coordinates49°39′13″N 8°34′11″E / 49.65361°N 8.56972°E / 49.65361; 8.56972Coordinates: 49°39′13″N 8°34′11″E / 49.65361°N 8.56972°E / 49.65361; 8.56972
Lorsch Abbey
Lorsch Abbey is located in Hesse
Lorsch Abbey
Location of Lorsch Abbey in Hesse
Lorsch Abbey is located in Germany
Lorsch Abbey
Lorsch Abbey (Germany)
Imperial Abbey of Lorsch
Reichsabtei Lorsch
852–1232
Coat of arms of Lorsch Abbey
Coat of arms
StatusImperial Abbey
CapitalLorsch Abbey
GovernmentTheocracy
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Founded by Count Cancor
764
• Codex Aureus produced
778–820 852
• Immediacy confirmed
852
10th century
• Lorsch codex produced
1175–95
• Granted to Mainz by
    Pope Gregory IX and
    Emp. Frederick II
1232
• Razed by French troops
    during Nine Years' War

1679–97
Preceded by
Succeeded by
East Francia
Archbishopric of Mainz
Today part ofGermany

Lorsch Abbey, otherwise the Imperial Abbey of Lorsch (German: Reichsabtei Lorsch; Latin: Laureshamense Monasterium or Laurissa), is a former Imperial abbey in Lorsch, Germany, about 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Worms. It was one of the most renowned monasteries of the Carolingian Empire. Even in its ruined state, its remains are among the most important pre-RomanesqueCarolingian style buildings in Germany.[1] Its chronicle, entered in the Lorscher Codex compiled in the 1170s (now in the state archive at Würzburg), is a fundamental document for early medieval German history. Another famous document from the monastic library is the Codex Aureus of Lorsch. In 1991 the ruined abbey was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site because of its architectural and historical importance.[1]

Historic names

The following historical names have been recorded:

History

Church ruins
Church ruins

Founding

The abbey was founded in 764 by the Frankish Count Cancor and his widowed mother, Williswinda, as a proprietary church (Eigenkirche) and monastery on their estate, Laurissa. It was dedicated to Saint Peter and Saint Paul. The founders entrusted its government to Cancor's cousin, Chrodegang (Archbishop of Metz), who became its first abbot.[3]

The pious founders enriched the new abbey by further donations. To make the abbey popular as a shrine and a place of pilgrimage, Chrodegang obtained from Pope Paul I the body of Saint Nazarius, martyred at Rome with three companions under Diocletian. [3]

On 11 July 765, the sacred relics arrived and with great solemnity were deposited in the basilica of the monastery. In 766 Chrodegang resigned the office of abbot, in favour of his other duties as Archbishop of Metz. He then sent his brother Gundeland to Lorsch as his successor, with fourteen Benedictine monks.[citation needed]

That same year, there was a dispute about property rights between Gundeland and Cancor's son, and the abbey was moved to an Ice Age dune, a few hundred metres from its original location on a small island in the Weschnitz.[citation needed]

In 772, Gundeland applied to the highest authority, Charlemagne, who found in his favour. Gundeland gave the abbey with all his properties to the king, turning it into a Royal abbey.[3]

The abbey and basilica were then renamed in honour of Saint Nazarius: the main church of Saints Peter, Paul, and Nazarius was consecrated by the Archbishop of Mainz in September 774, in the presence of Charlemagne.[4]

Influence

Many miracles were said to be wrought through the intercession of Saint Nazarius at Lorsch, and from all parts of Europe pilgrims in large numbers came to visit the shrine. In the course of the 9th century the library and scriptorium of Lorsch made it one of the cultural centres of Germany; its four surviving 9th-century catalogues show that it was rich in both Classical and Christian texts.[5]

Few Carolingian manuscripts are better known than the Lorsch gospels, the Codex Aureus of Lorsch, now divided between the Vatican Library and the Batthyaneum Library in Alba Iulia, Romania; the carved ivory consular diptychs of Anastasius (consul 517) that were reused for its bindings are urbane classicising works of art in themselves, and embodiments of the classical tradition of Byzantium as it was transmitted to Lorsch in the time of Charlemagne.[6]

In 876, shortly after the death of Ludwig der Deutsche (Louis the German), the abbey became the burial place for the first "German" king. His son, Ludwig der Jüngere (Louis the Younger, died 882), and his grandson Hugo (died 879) were also buried at Lorsch.[3] The burial chapel (ecclesia varia) later continued to serve as a Royal burial ground, e.g. for Kunigunde (died after 915), wife of the first non-Carolingian king, Konrad I (Conrad I).[3]

From 895–956, the abbey was not allowed to elect its own abbots: they were appointed by the king. Emperor Otto I restored this right to Lorsch. A confrontation between ruler and abbot about the construction of the castle of Starkenburg within view of the abbey resulted in abbot Udalrich confronting the king at Trebur with 1,200 armed riders.[3]

Throughout the 11th century, the abbey flourished. Popes and emperors repeatedly favoured the abbey with privileges and estates ranging from the Alps to the North Sea, so that in a short time it became not only immensely rich, but also a seat of political influence. It was declared a reichsabtei (a sovereign principality in its own right, subject directly and solely to the emperor). In 1052, Pope Leo IX came to consecrate an altar in the burial chapel of the eastern Carolingians.[3] By the end of the 11th century, Lorsch had been visited by kings/emperors around 2 times. In 1090, a fire ravaged the abbey, and an extensive rebuilding was conducted in the early 12th century.[1]

The abbey, enjoying sovereign territorial rights, became implicated in several local feuds and in a number of wars. After 46 Benedictine abbots had governed the abbey, Conrad, the last of them, was deposed by Pope Gregory IX in 1226, and through the influence of Friedrich II (Frederick II), Lorsch came into the possession of Siegfried III, Archbishop of Mainz, in 1232, ending the period of Lorsch's cultural and political independence. From 1232–48, Lorsch was used by the Cistercians.[3]

Later history

In 1248, Premonstratensian canons from Allerheiligen Abbey were given charge of the monastery with the sanction of Pope Celestine IV. In 1461, the abbey was mortgaged to the Electoral Palatinate. In 1556, Elector Palatine Otto Heinrich implemented the Protestant Reformation in his territories and dissolved the monasteries.

He removed the contents of the library to Heidelberg, forming the famous Bibliotheca Palatina, just prior to Lorsch's dissolution in 1557/1563. The remaining members of the abbey's religious community were pensioned off and sent away. In 1623, after the capture of Heidelberg, the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria presented the renowned library, 196 cases of manuscripts, to Pope Gregory XV.[7] Leo Allatius was sent to superintend its removal to Rome, where it was incorporated into the Vatican library as the "Biblioteca Palatina".

As of 2015, the Vatican holds over a third of the surviving Lorsch manuscripts, while the rest are spread out over seventy two institutions in twelve countries. In 2014, the University of Heidelberg created a website reuniting the surviving Lorsch documents in a digital environment.[8]

Destruction of the abbey

During the Thirty Years' War Lorsch and its neighbourhood suffered greatly. In 1621, Spanish troops pillaged the abbey and most of the buildings at Lorsch were pulled down. After the Archbishopric of Mainz regained possession of it in 1623, the region was returned to the Catholic faith. However, the abbey remained a ruin and served as a source of building materials for the whole region.[3]

The most depressed period for Lorsch was during the wars of Louis XIV of France in the late 17th century. Whole villages in the region were laid in ruins, the homes of the peasantry were burned, and the French soldiers torched the old abbey buildings. One portion, which was left intact, served as a tobacco warehouse in the years before World War I. The ancient entrance hall, the Königshalle or aula regia ("king's hall"; illustration above), built in the 9th century by King Louis II,[9] is the oldest largely intact monument of Carolingian architecture.[citation needed]

List of abbots

In 468 years, the monastery had 47 abbots..[10]

Name start end
Chrodegang 764 765
Gundeland 765 778
Helmerich 778 784
Richbod 784 804
Adalung 804 837
Samuel 837/838 857
Eigilbert 857 864/865
Thiothroch 864/865 876
Babo 876 881
Walther 881 882
Gerhard 883 893
Adalbero 895 897
Liuther 897 900
Adalbero 900 901
Hatto I 901 913
Liuther 914 931
Evergis 931 948?
Brun 948? 951
Gerbod 951 972
Salmann 972 999
Werner I 999 1001
Werner II 1001 1002
Gerold I 1002 1005
Poppo 1006 1018
Reginbald 1018 1032
Humbert 1032 1037
Bruning 1037 1043
Hugo I 1043 1052
Arnold 1052 1055
Udalrich 1056 1075
Adalbert 1075 1077
Winther 1077 1088
Anselm 1088 1101
Gerold II 1101 1105
Hugo II 1105
Gebhard 1105 1107
Erminold 1107 1111?
Benno 1111? 1119
Heidolf 1119
Hermann 1124 1125
Diemo 1125 1139
Baldemar 1140 1141
Folknand 1141 1148
Hildebert 1148
Marquard 1148 1149
Heinrich 1151 1167
Sigehard 1167 1199/1200
Leopold 1199/1200 1214
Konrad 1214 1229

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 18 Jun 2021.
  2. ^ Baron Sloet, L. A. J. W. (1872). Oorkondenboek der Graafschappen Gelre en Zutfen tot op den Slag van Woeringen, 5 Juni 1288. s'Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 10 (no. 9).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schefers, Hermann. "History & Relevance of Lorsch Abbey". Kloster Lorsch. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  4. ^ ICOMOS Advisory Report: Lorsch, former Benedictine Abbey (Report). ICOMOS. 28 Dec 1988. Retrieved 18 Jun 2022.
  5. ^ James W. Thompson, The Medieval Library (New York) 1957, pp. 80–82; Chauncey E. Finch, "Catalogues and Other Manuscripts from Lorsch" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 99 (1968) pp. 165–79.
  6. ^ Margaret H. Longhurst and Charles Rufus Morey, "The Covers of the Lorsch Gospels", Speculum 3.1 (January 1928:64–74); Charles Rufus Morey, " The Covers of the Lorsch Gospels", Speculum 4.4 (October 1929): 411–29).
  7. ^ Thompson 1957; Finch 1968:165.
  8. ^ Buttner, Alexandra; Michael, Kautz (2015). "From a dispersed medieval collection to one international library: the virtual reconstruction of the monastic library of Lorsch". Art Libraries Journal. 40 (3): 11–20. doi:10.1017/S0307472200000304.
  9. ^ Schefers, Hermann. "Gate Hall or Königshalle (King's Hall)". Kloster Lorsch. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  10. ^ Germania Benedictina, Vol. 7: Die benediktinischen Mönchs- und Nonnenklöster in Hessen. (St. Ottilien, 2004), pp. 768–853.

References